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Encyclopedia > Ein Karem

Ain Karim (Arabic: عين كارم Hebrew עין כרם) (literally, "Spring of the Vineyard") is an artisan village within the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem, Israel. According to Christian tradition, this is the site where John the Baptist was born and so the village became a site of pilgrimage. Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds), Greek Ιεροσόλυμα, the capital city of Israel, is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus Christ. ... The Baptism of Christ, by Piero della Francesca, 1449 John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or Yahya the Baptizer) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... Pilgrim at Mecca For other uses of the word pilgrimage, see Pilgrimage (disambiguation). ...

Contents


History

Early history

A spring that provides water to the village of Ain Karim stimulated settlement there from an early time. Pottery has been found near Ain Karim dating to the Middle Bronze Age (G. Ernest Wright, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 71 [Oct. 1938], pp. 28f.) It may be the same town as the Karem listed in Joshua 15:59 LXX among the cities of the Tribe of Judah. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Septuagint (LXX) is the name commonly given to the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) made in the first centuries BC. The Septuagint bible includes additional books beyond those used in todays Jewish Tanakh. ... The Tribe of Judah (Hebrew: יְהוּדָה, Praise; Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is one of the Hebrew tribes, founded by Judah, son of Jacob. ...


Traditional Connection to John the Baptist

According to the Bible, Mary went "into the hill country, to a city of Judah" (Luke 1:39) when she visited he home of Zechariah and Elizabeth. Theodosius (530) says that the distance from Jerusalem to the place where Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist, lived is five miles. The Jerusalem Calendar (dated before 638) mentions the village by name as the place of a festival in memory of Elizabeth celebrated on the twenty-eighth of August: "In the village of Enquarium, in the church of just Elizabet, her memory." The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word Scripture, Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible of Judaism or the combination of the Old Testament and New Testament of Christianity. ... Mary is a popular female name worldwide. ... For the priest Zechariah of Luke 1:5 see the article Zacharias. ... Elizabeth or Elisabeth is the name of: Several empresses: Elizabeth of Russia Elisabeth of Bavaria, wife of Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I, also known as Empress Elisabeth or Sissi. ... Events September 22 - Pope Boniface II is elected to succeed Pope Felix IV December 15 - Justinian selects a second commission to excerpt and codify the writings of the jurists on Roman Law. ... The Baptism of Christ, by Piero della Francesca, 1449 John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or Yahya the Baptizer) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... Events Islamic calendar introduced The Muslims capture Antioch, Caesarea Palaestina and Akko Births Deaths October 12 - Pope Honorius I Categories: 638 ...


There were other traditions: among the Christian sanctuaries of the Arab period (7th-10th centuries), there are two churches of St. John the Baptist of Jerusalem, one on the summit of the Mount of Olives, the other at the foot of the Mount. The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: Har HaZeitim הר הזיתים, sometimes Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit, or Jebel ez-Zeitun, Mount of Olives) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ...


Modern history

In the 14th century, an Arab village was founded near the village fresh-water spring. The villagers preserved the multiple churches, monastaries and sanctuaries of the different Christian denominations. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body, organization under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ...


This village was captured by the Israel Defense Forces during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and was annexed into the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem. Vacated Arab houses were housed by new Jewish immigrants. Over the years, the village population changed to artisans and craftsmen. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל (help· info), [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces, comprising the Israeli army, Israeli air force and Israeli navy. ... The 1948 Arab-Israeli War is referred to as the War of Independence (Hebrew: מלחמת העצמאות) or as the War of Liberation (Hebrew: מלחמת השחרור) by Israelis. ...


In 1961, Hadassah founded its medical center on a nearby hilltop, including the Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital, Hebrew University of Jerusalem medical school, dentistry school, nursing school and pharmacology school. 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hadassah, the Womens Zionist Organization of America, is a volunteer womens organization of 300,000, founded in 1912 by Henrietta Szold, American Jewish scholar and activist. ... Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital of Hadassah Ein Karem hospital (Hebrew: בית החולים הדסה עין כרם) is a University hospital in Ein Kerem, a suburb of Jerusalem, Israel. ... האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels oldest, largest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ...


With the growth of the city of Jerusalem, Ain Karim is now only minutes away from the city center, and offers turists and Jerusalemites alike a picturesque rural haven, with multiple restaurants and accommodation.


Sites

Church of St. John the Baptist

There are actually two churches by this name in Ain-Karim. The Catholic church is the best known. It was built in the second half of the 19th century on the remnants of earlier Byzantine and Crusader churches. It includes an ancient mosaic floor and a cave were John the Baptist was traditionally born. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: ) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ...


In the Book of the Demonstration, attributed to Eutychius of Alexandria (940), it is written: "The church of Bayt Zakariya in the district of Aelia bears witness to the visit of Mary to her kinswoman Elizabeth" (312). Daniel (1106) writes of the place: "on entering it [the church] there is, to the left, beneath the low altar, a small cavern, in which John the Forerunner was born." Events Births Brian Boru, high king of Ireland Abul-Wafa, iranian mathematician Deaths ar-Radi (Caliph of Baghdad) Athelstan, who was succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund Categories: 940 ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ... Events September 28 - Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, at the Battle of Tinchebrai, and imprisons him in Cardiff Castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner. ...


Jack Finegan describes the archaeology of the site: "The church has been in the hand of the Franciscans since 1674. In 1941-1942 they conducted excavations in the area immediately west of the church and the adjoining monastery. In the area were uncovered several rock-cut chambers and graves as well as wine presses with mosaic floors and small chapels with mosaic pavements. The southern rock-cut chamber contained pottery of a type which has been found elsewhere around Jerusalem in association with coins of the Herodian dynasty and belongs therefore to the period from the first century B.C., and it is evidence for a community not only during Roman but also Byzantine and early Arab times. As for St. John's church itself, the present structure may be mainly from the eleventh century (Abel, Geographie II, pp. 295f.) but lower portions of the walls probably still remain from the Byzantine period (fourth-seventh centuries). At the front end of the left aisle is a grotto which must correspond with the small cavern mentioned by Daniel." (The Archaeology of the New Testament [Princeton University Press: Princeton, 1992], page 4). The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Herod was the name of several members of the Herodian dynasty of Roman Judea: Herod the Great (c. ...


The second church by this name is Eastern Orthodox, and was built in 1894, also on the remnants of an ancient church. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Sanctuary of the Visitation

Another ancient church at Ain Karim is located across the village to the southwest from St. John's. The ancient sanctuary there was built against a rock declivity. It is venerated as the pietra del nascondimento, the "stone in which John was concealed," in reference to the Protevangelium of James. The site is also attributed to John the Baptist's parental summer house, where Mary visited them.


The modern church was built in 1955, also on top of ancient church remnants. It was designed by Antonio Barluzzi, an Italian architect, who designed many other chrches in the Holy Land during the 20th century. 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Marble Statue of Aphrodite from Ain Karim

During the excavations at Ain Karim, a marble statue of Aphrodite (or Venus) was found in two broken pieces. Presumably, it stood at Ain Karim during the Roman period, but it was overthrown during the Byzantine period. Aphrodite, Greek goddess of love and beauty,and the patroness of physical love. ... Adjective Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ...


Les Soeurs de Notre-Dame de Sion Monastary

This monastary was founded by the Jewish convert brothers Theodore and Alfonse Retisbon of France, as an orphanage. Alfonse himself lived in the monastary and is buried in its garden. 13 nuns from the order of Les Soeurs de Notre-Dame de Sion (Sisters of Our Lady of Zion) now occupy the site. An orphanage is an institution dedicated to caring for orphans (children who have lost their parents). ...


"Moscovia" Monastary

Built by the Russian Orthodox Church at the end of the 19th century, this church (originally "Gorny Monastary") was nicknamed "Moskovia" (Arabic for Moscow) by the local Arab villagers, because of its tented roof similarity to other Russian churches. The monastary has two churches enclosed within a compound wall. The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: (help· info)) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... The rocket-like church at Ostrov near Moscow is considered typical for Boris Godunovs reign. ...


St. Vincent

St. Vincent-Ein Kerem is a home for physically or mentally handicapped children. Founded in 1954, St. Vincent-Ein Kerem is a non-profit enterprise under leadership of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul. Saint Vincent-Ein Kerem is a home for physically or mentally handicapped children. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Vincent de Paul (April 24, 1580 – September 27, 1660) was born at Pouy, Landes, Gascony, France to a peasant family. ...


Mary's Spring

The village fresh-water spring is the traditional location where Mary and Elizabeth met. The spring waters are considered holy by the Christian pilgrims who visit the site and fill bottles with its waters.


Hadassah Medical Center

(see Modern history section above)


External links

  • Jerusalem Photo Archive - Ain Karim
  • EinKarem.org

 
 

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