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Encyclopedia > Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War

Relief of Leiden (1574), Inundated meadows allow the Dutch fleet access to the Spanish infantry positions.
Date 1568 - 1648
Location The Low Countries
(worldwide colonial warfare)
Result Treaty of Westphalia;
Independence of the northern provinces
Combatants
Dutch rebels Spanish Empire
Eighty Years' War
OosterweelRheindalenHeiligerleeJemmingenJodoigneBrielleHaarlemFlushingBorseleZuiderzeeAlkmaarLeidenReimerswaalMookerheydeGemblouxMaastricht1st BredaPunta Delgada – Antwerp – BoksumZutphen – 1st Bergen op Zoom – Gravelines2nd BredaTurnhoutNieuwpoortOstendSluysGibraltar – 2nd Bergen op Zoom –3rd BredaBay of Matanzas – 's-Hertogenbosch – Maastricht4th BredaKalloThe DownsHulstPuerto de Cavite

The Eighty Years' War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. The Relief of Leiden (1574). ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... The Portuguese Colonial War (1961-1974) was the result of Portuguese military reaction to the nationalist movements and armed rebelions that emerged in Portugals African colonies. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation. ... Image File history File links Prinsenvlag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... Military flag of the Spanish Empire from the 16th century up to 1843. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spain Commanders Jan de Marnix van Aldegonde † de Beauvoir Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 700–800 dead Unknown The Battle of Oosterweel took place on March 13, 1567, and is traditionally seen as the beginning of the Eighty Years War. ... The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt from 1568 to 1648 was the secession war in which the proto-Netherlands first became an independent country and in which the region now known as Belgium became established. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Friesland Commanders Louis of Nassau Adolf of Nassau † Johan de Ligne Strength 3,900 infantry 200 cavalry 3,200 infantry 20 cavalry Casualties 50 dead or wounded 1,500 – 2,000 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Heiligerlee in Groningen on 23 May 1568 was... Combatants Dutch rebels Spain Commanders Louis of Nassau Duke of Alva Strength 10,000 infantry 2,000 cavalry 16 guns 12,000 infantry 3,000 cavalry Casualties 7,000 dead or wounded 300 dead or wounded After the Battle of Heiligerlee Louis of Nassau failed to capture the city Groningen. ... The Battle of Jodoigne was fought in 1568 between Spanish and Dutch forces. ... The Capture of Brielle by the Gueux de mer on 1 April 1572 marked a turning point in the uprising of the Low Countries against Spain in the Eighty Years War. ... In the Eighty Years War the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands was put under a bloody siege by a Spanish army that wanted to reclaim the revolted city for Philip II, the Spanish king. ... The Battle of Flushing was a naval battle of the Eighty Years War, fought on April 17, 1573 near the city of Flushing, Netherlands. ... The Battle of Borsele (April 22th 1573) was a naval battle during the Eighty Years War between a Spanish fleet commanded by Sancho dAvila (Which sailed from the port of Antwerp) and a Gueux fleet under Admiral Worst. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spain Commanders Cornelis Jansz Dircksz Maximilian de Henin Count of Bossu Strength 24 ships, 700 sailors 30 ships, 1300 sailors Casualties Unknown 6 ships captured by the Dutch – 300 sailors taken prisoner The Battle on the Zuiderzee (October 11th 1573) was a naval battle during the Eighty... The Siege of Alkmaar was a turning point in the Eighty Years War. ... The siege of Leiden occured during the Eighty Years War in 1573 and 1574. ... The Battle of Reimerswaal (January 29th 1574) was a naval battle during the Eighty Years War between a Dutch and a Spanish fleet. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spain Commanders Louis of Nassau † Henry of Nassau † Sancho dAvilla Strength 5,500 infantry 2,600 cavalry 5,000 infantry 800 cavalry Casualties 3,000 dead or wounded 150 dead or wounded {{{notes}}} The Battle of Mookerheyde was a battle of the Eighty Years War fought... Combatants Dutch rebels Spain Commanders Unknown Alexander of Parma Casualties 10,000 dead, wounded, or captured 100 dead or wounded The Battle of Gembloux marked a terrible defeat for the Protestant rebels fighting against Spain in the Eighty Years War. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spain Commanders Burghers of Maastricht Alexander Farnese Strength 2,000 soldiers and some militia. ... In 1581 Spanish troops under the command of Claude de Berlaimont, lord of Haultepenne, took Breda by surprise thanks to a sentry who had been bribed by a follower of the king, Charles de Gavre, who was kept a prisoner at the castle. ... The naval Battle of Punta Delgada, also called the Battle of Terceira, took place on July 26, 1582 during the Eighty Years War that resulted in the defeat of a combined Dutch, English, Portuguese, and French Huguenot fleet by a Spanish fleet under Santa Cruz. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Battle of Boksum (January 17th 1586) was a battle during the Eighty Years War between a Spanish and a Dutch rebel army (largely comprised of Frisians) commanded by Willem Lodewijk of Nassau, a nephew of William of Orange. ... Combatants Dutch rebels, English soldiers Spain Commanders  ?  ? Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? The battle of Zutphen was a confrontation of the Eighty Years War on September 22, 1586, in Zutphen, the Netherlands. ... The first Siege of Bergen op Zoom were a series of 3 surpirse attacks by the Duke of Parma lasting from September 23th till November 13th 1588. ... For the navy of Spain, see Spanish Navy. ... The peat ship. ... Battle of Turnhout, 1597. ... Combatants United Provinces Spain Commanders Maurits of Nassau Archduke Albrecht of Austria Strength 9,500 infantry 1,400 cavalry 14 guns 6,000 infantry 1,200 cavalry 9 guns Casualties 1,700 dead or wounded 3,000 dead or wounded 600 captured {{{notes}}} The Battle of Nieuwpoort, between a Dutch... Combatants United Provinces Spain Commanders Francis Vere Archduke Albrecht Ambrosio Spinola Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties 30,000 dead or wounded 15,000 captured 55,000 dead or wounded The Siege of Ostend was a three year siege which resulted in a Spanish victory. ... The Battle of Sluis was a naval battle during the Eighty Years War in which a Dutch fleet defeated a Spanish squadron led by the Portuguese captain Federico Spinola. ... The Siege of Bergen-op-Zoom (1622) was a battle during the Eighty Years War. ... Combatants United Provinces Spain Commanders Maurice of Nassau Ernst von Mansfeld Ambrosio Spinola Strength 14,000 Unknown Casualties 10,000 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown {{{notes}}} The Siege of Breda was a battle of the Eighty Years War and Thirty Years War. ... The Battle in the Bay of Matanzas was a naval battle during the Eighty Years War in which a Dutch squadron was able to defeat and capture a Spanish treasure fleet. ... The Siege of s-Hertogenbosch was a battle of the Eighty Years War in which a Dutch Republican army captured the city of s Hertogenbosch which had been loyal to the King of Spain. ... The Capture of Maastricht describes the siege of the city by the Dutch commanded by Frederick Henry and the revolts in and around Maastricht itself during the Eighty Years War. ... Combatants United Provinces Spain Commanders Maurice of Nassau Ernst von Mansfeld Ambrosio Spinola Strength 14,000 Unknown Casualties 10,000 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown {{{notes}}} The Siege of Breda was a battle of the Eighty Years War and Thirty Years War. ... The Battle of Kallo (June 20th 1638) was a battle of the Eighty Years War it took place when a Dutch army tried to surround the city of Antwerp. ... Combatants Spain United Provinces Commanders Antonio DOquendo Maarten Tromp Strength 77 ships 117 ships Casualties 15,200 dead 60 ships destroyed or captured 100 dead 1 ship burned The naval Battle of the Downs took place on 31 October 1639 (New style) during the Eighty Years War and was... The Siege of Hulst (1645) was the last major siege of the Eighty Years War, in which the heavily fortified town of Hulst was conquered by Dutch troops commanded by Frederick Henry after 28 days. ... Battle of Puerto de Cavite was a fought as an extension of the Eighty Years War between Spanish and the Dutch in the orient. ... The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of Germany. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


Spain was initially successful in suppressing the rebellion. In 1572, however, the rebels captured Brielle and the rebellion resurged. The northern provinces became independent first de facto, and in 1648 officially. During the revolt, The United Provinces of the Netherlands or Dutch Republic rapidly grew to become a world power through its merchant shipping and experienced a period of economic, scientific, and cultural growth. Brielle, also called Den Briel, (population: 15,948 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...


The Southern Netherlands (situated in modern-day Belgium, Luxembourg and Northern France) remained under Spanish rule. The continuous repression by the Spanish in the south caused many of its financial, intellectual, and cultural elite to flee north, contributing in no small measure to the success of the Dutch Republic. Additionally, by the end of the war in 1648 large areas of the Southern Netherlands had been lost to France. The Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and France (1794-1815). ...

Contents

Background

European territories under the rule of the Spanish king around 1580 (The Netherlands are in light green) on a map showing modern-day state borders.
European territories under the rule of the Spanish king around 1580 (The Netherlands are in light green) on a map showing modern-day state borders.
Dutch History
The Dutch Republic
1584-1795
Eighty Years' War
United Provinces
The Golden Age
The Batavian revolution
[Edit]

In a series of marriages and conquests, a succession of dukes of Burgundy expanded their original duchy to form the Burgundian Empire, which included the Seventeen Provinces[2]. Although Burgundy itself had been lost to France in 1477, the Burgundian empire was still at the height of its power when Charles V was born in Ghent. He was raised in the Netherlands and spoke fluent Dutch, French and Spanish, and some German[3]. In 1506 he became lord of the Burgundian states, among which the Netherlands. Subsequently he inherited several titles, among which the combined kingdoms of Aragon, and Castile and Leon which had become a worldwide empire with the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In 1519 he became ruler of the Habsburg empire, and he gained the title Holy Roman Emperor in 1530. Image File history File links Spanish_Empire_around_1580. ... Image File history File links Spanish_Empire_around_1580. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Prinsenvlag. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Dutch Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... The term Batavian revolution refers to the political, social and cultural turmoil that marked the end of the Dutch Republic at the end of the 18th century. ... The Duchy of Burgundy, today Bourgogne, has its origin in the small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Balds kingdom of West Franks. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of Germany. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. ... Ghent municipality and district in the province East Flanders Ghent (IPA: ; Gent in Dutch; Gand in French, formerly Gaunt in English) is a city and a municipality located in Flanders, Belgium. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Capital Valladolid Area  – Total  – % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 6th  2,480,369  5. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón) in 1492. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ...

17 Netherlands prior to the Dutch rebellion
17 Netherlands prior to the Dutch rebellion

Download high resolution version (591x657, 174 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (591x657, 174 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Taxation

Flanders had long been a very wealthy region, and had been coveted by the French kings for a long time. The other Netherlands had also grown into wealthy and entrepreneurial regions within the Habsburg empire[4]. Under Charles V the Habsburg empire became a worldwide empire with large American and European territories. The latter were, however, distributed throughout Europe. Control and defence of which were hampered by the disparation of the territories and huge length of its borders. This large realm was almost continuously at war with its neighbours in its European heartlands: most notably against France in the Italian Wars and against the Turks in the Mediterranean Sea. Further wars were fought against Protestant princes in Germany[citation needed]. The Netherlands paid heavy taxes to fund these wars, but perceived them as unnecessary and sometimes downright harmful, because they were directed against their most important trading partners[citation needed]. Part of the shifting balance of power in the late middle ages, many of the Dutch nobles by now were not traditional aristocrats, but instead stemmed from families that had risen in status over the last centuries through trade and finance[citation needed]. As their new-found power was still heavily based on this entrepreneurial background, they became critics of the Spanish kings because of their wars and taxes, which put their fortunes at risk. Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... For the computer game previously called Entrepreneur, see The Corporate Machine. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. ... The Italian Wars, often referred to as the great Italian Wars or the great wars of Italy in historical works, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, all the major states of western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, Scotland, the... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ...


Protestantism

During the 16th century, Protestantism rapidly gained ground in northern Europe. The Netherlands were not predominantly Protestant in the 1560s, but Protestants constituted a significant minority and were tolerated by local authorities. In a society dependent on trade, freedom and tolerance were considered essential. Nevertheless, Charles V, and later Philip II, felt it was their duty to fight Protestantism, which they considered heresy. The harsh measures led to increasing grievances in the Netherlands, where the local governments had embarked on a course of peaceful coexistence. In the second half of the century, the situation escalated. Philip sent troops and the relentless Spanish repression turned the initial revolt into a fight for complete independence. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Philip II of Spain Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King of England (as King-consort of Mary I) from... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ...


The Dutch compared their humble Calvinist values favorably against the luxurious habits of Spain’s Catholic nobility. The Calvinist movement emphasized Christian virtues of modesty, cleanliness, frugality, and hard work. Symbolic stories from the New Testament, featuring fishermen, shipbuilders, and other simple occupations, resonated among the Dutch. The Calvinist elements of the rebellion represented a moral challenge to the Spanish Empire. In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cleanliness is the absence of dirt, including dust, stains and bad smells. ... Frugality (also known as thrift or thriftiness), often confused with cheapness or miserliness, is a traditional value, life style, or belief system, in which individuals practice both restraint in the acquiring of and resourceful use of economic goods and services in order to achieve lasting and more fulfilling goals. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... Military flag of the Spanish Empire from the 16th century up to 1843. ...


Centralization

The Seventeen Netherlands, the theatre of the war. Drawn as Leo Belgicus

In the late middle ages, merchant class in the cities had been on the rise. Many of the cities became increasingly independent of their original local noble liège lords, and were becoming quasi city states. Against this the collection of the scattered aristocratic realms in personal unions under, for example, the Burgundy dukes, allocated more than ever to the high nobility and their governors. By the fifteenth century, Brussels had thus become the de facto capital of the Seventeen Provinces. Image File history File links Leo_belgicus. ... Image File history File links Leo_belgicus. ... Claes Jansz. ...


However, dating back to the middle ages the districts of the Netherlands, represented by its nobility and the wealthy merchant cities still had a large measure of autonomy. Charles V and Philip II set out to improve the management of the empire by increasing the authority of the central government in matters like law and taxes. The nobility and merchants alike were very suspicious of this. An example of this is the takeover of power in the city of Utrecht in 1528 when Charles V supplanted the council of guild masters governing the city by a regent, and commanded the construction of the heavily armed castle of Vredenburg to control the citizens[5]. Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... For the guitar manufacturer, see Guild Guitar Company. ... Castle Vredenburg or VredenBorch was built in the early 16th century by Charles V in Utrecht (Netherlands). ...


Initial stages (1555-1572)

Prelude to the rebellion (1555-1568)

Philip II, King of Spain
Philip II, King of Spain

In 1556 Charles passed on his throne to his son Philip II of Spain[6]. Charles, despite his harsh actions, had been seen as a ruler empathetic to the needs of the Netherlands. Philip, on the other hand, was raised in Spain and spoke neither Dutch nor French. During Philip's reign, tensions flared in the Netherlands over heavy taxation, suppression of Protestantism, and centralisation efforts. The growing conflict would reach a boiling point and would lead ultimately to the war of independence. Philip II by Titian from [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Philip II by Titian from [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Philip II of Spain Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King of England (as King-consort of Mary I) from...


Nobility in opposition

In an effort to build a stable and trustworthy government of the Netherlands Philip appointed several members of the high nobility of the Netherlands to the States General; the governing body of the seventeen Netherlands. He put his confidante Granvelle as head of the States General. Furthermore, he appointed Margaret of Parma as governor of the Netherlands [6]. However already in 1558 the states started to contradict Philip’s wishes, by objecting to his tax proposals and demanding the withdrawal of Spanish troops. Subsequent reforms met with much opposition, which was mainly directed at Granvelle. Petitions to king Philip by the high nobility went unanswered. Some of the most influential nobles, including William of Orange, the count of Egmont and the count of Horne, withdrew from the States General until Philip recalled Granvelle[6]. In late 1564, the nobles had noticed the growing power of the reformation and urged Philip to come up with realistic measures to prevent violence. Philip answered that sterner oppression could be the only answer. Subsequently Egmont, Horne, Orange withdrew once more from the States General and Bergen and Meghem resigned their Stadholdership[6]. In the mean while, the religious protests were increasing in spite of increased oppression. In 1566, a league of about 400 members of the high nobility presented a petition to the governor Margaret of Parma, to suspend persecution until the rest had returned. Count Berlaymont called the presentation of this petition an act of beggars (geuzen) a name taken up in honour by the petitioners. The petition was sent on to Philip for a final verdict[6]. The word States-General, or Estates-General, refers in English to : the Etats-G raux of France before the French Revolution the Staten-Generaal of the Netherlands. ... Granvelle, portrait by Antonio Moro (1549) Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle (August 20, 1517 - September 21, 1586) was one of the most influential of the church leaders during the time which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe. ... Margaret of Parma (28 December 1522 - 18 January 1586), duchess of Parma and regent of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567, was the illegitimate daughter of Charles V. Her mother, Johanna Maria von der Gheest, a servant of Charles de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny, was a Fleming. ... The Watergeuzen (or simply Geuzen) were a fleet of privateers during the Eighty Years War, the Low Countries (or Netherlands) rebellion against the Spanish occupation, which began during the reign of Philip II of Spain (in the 1550s). ...


1566 - Iconoclasm and repression

The atmosphere in the Netherlands was tense due to the rebellion preaching of Calvinist leaders, and hunger after bad harvests. Early August 1566, a mob stormed the church of Hondschoote in Flanders (now in Northern France)[7]. This relatively small incident spread North and led to a massive iconoclastic movement by Calvinists, who stormed churches to destroy statues and images of Catholic saints all over the Netherlands. According to the Calvinists, these statues represented worship of idols[6]. Nobody stepped in to rein in the vandalism of the Calvinists. Even before he answered the petition by the nobles, Philip had lost control in the troublesome Netherlands. He saw no other option than to send an army to suppress the rebellion. In 1567, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, marched into Brussels at the head of 10,000 troops[7]. Hondschoote is a commune of the Nord département, in northern France. ... Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are usually depicted as having halos. ... Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba. ...

Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba

Alba took harsh measures and rapidly established a special court (Raad van Beroerten or council of upheavals) to judge anyone who opposed the king. No one, not even high nobility who had been pleading for less harsh measures, was safe. The most prominent persons judged by the council were the counts of Egmont and Horne, who were arrested for high treason, condemned, and a year later decapitated on the Grand Place in Brussels. Egmont and Horne had been Catholic nobles who were loyal to the King of Spain until their death. The reason for their execution was that Alba considered they had been treasonous to the king in their tolerance to Protestantism. Their death, ordered by a Spanish noble, rather than a local court, provoked outrage throughout the Netherlands. Over one thousand people were executed in the following months.[3] The large number of executions led the court to be nicknamed the "Blood Court" in the Netherlands, and Alba to be called the "iron duke". Rather than pacifying the Netherlands, these measures helped to fuel the unrest. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Francisco Vásquez de Coronado This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Count of Egmont Lamoral, Count of Egmont (November 18, 1522 - June 5, 1568) was a general and statesman in Flanders just before the start of the Eighty Years War. ... Count of Hoorn Philip de Montmorency (1524-June 5, 1568) was also known as Count of Horne. ... Salome and the Beheading of St. ... A view of Lange (The Angel) on the Grand Place The Grand Place (French: Grand-Place or Grand Place, Dutch: Grote Markt) is the central market square of Brussels. ...

William I of Orange.
William I of Orange.

Portrait of William of Orange by A.Th. ... Portrait of William of Orange by A.Th. ...

William of Orange

Main article: William the Silent

William I of Orange was stadtholder of the provinces Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht, and Margrave of Antwerp; and the most influential noble in the States General who had signed the petition. After the arrival of Alba, to prevent arrest, as happened to Egmont and Horne, he fled from the Burgundian Empire to the lands ruled by his wife's father - the Elector Count of Saxony. All his lands and titles in the Netherlands were forfeited by the Spanish king and he was branded an outlaw. William I (William the Silent) William I of Orange-Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584), also widely known as William the Silent [Dutch: Willem de Zwijger], was born in the House of Nassau, and became Prince of Orange in 1544. ... William I (William the Silent) William I, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584) was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. ... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands with 6,07 million inhabitants. ... Capital Middelburg Queens Commissioner drs. ... Utrecht is the smallest province of the Netherlands, and is located in the center of the country. ... Margrave is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Anna of Saxony (December 23, 1544-December 18, 1577) was the only child and heiress of Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and Agnes of Hesse. ...


In 1568, William returned to try and drive the highly unpopular Duke of Alba from Brussels. He did not see this as an act of treason against the king (Philip II), but as an option for appeasement with the Spanish king. William's actions, disposing of ill-informed councillors like Alba, would allow the king to take up his legal place once more. This view is reflected in today's Dutch national anthem, the Wilhelmus, in which the last lines of the first stanza read: den koning van Hispanje heb ik altijd geëerd (I have always honoured the king of Spain). The Battle of Rheindalen, on 23 April 1568, near Roermond is often seen as the unofficial start of the Eighty Years' War. The Battle of Heiligerlee, commonly regarded as the beginning of the war, was fought on 23 May 1568. Nickname: The Capital Of Europe, Comic City City of a 100 Museums[] Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area    - City 162 (Region) km²  (62. ... An anthem is a choral composition to an English religious text sung in church services. ... Het Wilhelmus (The William [viz. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt from 1568 to 1648 was the secession war in which the proto-Netherlands first became an independent country and in which the region now known as Belgium became established. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... Roermond is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Friesland Commanders Louis of Nassau Adolf of Nassau † Johan de Ligne Strength 3,900 infantry 200 cavalry 3,200 infantry 20 cavalry Casualties 50 dead or wounded 1,500 – 2,000 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Heiligerlee in Groningen on 23 May 1568 was... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ...


Soon after this battle, many cities were taken over by the rebel movement. However, the initial successes were in large part due to the drain on the garrisons caused by the simultaneous war that Spain was fighting against the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean Sea. After their victory in the Battle of Lepanto (1571), the Spanish were able to send more troops to the Netherlands and suppress the rebellion. William of Orange stayed at large and was from then on seen as the leader of the rebellion. When the Netherlands rebelled once more he moved his court back to the Netherlands; to Delft, as the ancestral lands of Orange in Breda remained occupied by the Spanish. Delft remained William's base of operations until his assassination by Balthasar Gérard in 1584. Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... // Combatants Holy League: Republic of Venice Spain Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 9,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 30,000 dead or wounded... Country Netherlands Province South Holland Coordinates Area 24. ... Balthasar Gérard (in Dutch Gerards or Gerardts) (1557-1584) was the assassin of the Dutch independence leader, William the Silent, also known as William I of Orange. ...


Resurgence (1572–1585)

By 1572 the Spanish had mostly suppressed the rebellion throughout the Netherlands. Strategic mistakes by the Dutch, and lack of stamina among the general public after the initial outburst of anger, contributed to this. However, Alba's proposal to introduce a new tax, the "tenth penny", aroused great protest from both Catholics and Protestants, and support for the rebels grew once more. With the capture of Brielle by the Sea Beggars on April 1, 1572, the rebels had gained a foothold, and more importantly a token victory in the north. This was a sign for Protestants all over the Low Countries to rebel once more.[3] The Sea Beggars were an international group of anti-Spanish exiles and criminals, among them many Englishmen. ...


Most of the important cities in the province of Holland declared loyalty to the rebels. A notable exception being Amsterdam, which remained a loyal Catholic city until 1578. William of Orange was put at the head of the revolt. The influence of the rebels rapidly growing in the northern provinces brought the war into a second and more decisive phase. Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 741,329 (1 August 2006) Agglomeration - 1. ...


Pacification of Ghent

Being unable to deal with the rebellion, Alba was replaced in 1573 by Luis de Requesens and a new policy of moderation was attempted. Spain, however, had to declare bankruptcy in 1575. De Requesens had not managed to broker a policy acceptable to both the Spanish king and the Netherlands when he died in early 1576. The inability to pay the Spanish soldiers endured, leading to numerous mutinies and in November 1576 troops sacked Antwerp at the cost of some 8,000 lives. This so-called "Spanish Fury" strengthened the resolve of the rebels in the 17 provinces to take fate into their own hands. Luís de Zúñiga y Requesens (? - March 5, 1576), Spanish governor of the Netherlands, had the misfortune to succeed the duke of Alva and to govern amid hopeless difficulties under the direction of Philip II. During his rule, the Spanish troops mutinied and Spain went bankrupt. ... The sack of Antwerp during the Eighty Years War is known as the Spanish Fury. ...


The Netherlands negotiated an internal treaty, the Pacification of Ghent, in which the provinces agreed to religious tolerance and pledged to fight together against the Spanish forces. However, some religious hostilities continued and Spain, aided by shipments of bullion from the New World, was able to send a new army under Alexander Farnese[3]. The Pacification of Ghent, signed on November 8 of 1576, was an alliance of the provinces of the Netherlands for the purpose of driving the Spanish from the country. ... A precious metal is a rare metallic element of high, durable economic value. ... Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ... Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza (1545 - 1592) was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma and Margaret, the illegitimate daughter of the Habsburg Emperor Charles V. Thus Alessandro was the nephew of Philip II of Spain and of Don John of Austria. ...

1579 Map of the Netherlands indicating the Unions of Utrecht (blue) and Atrecht (yellow)
1579 Map of the Netherlands indicating the Unions of Utrecht (blue) and Atrecht (yellow)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (599x687, 173 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (599x687, 173 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ...

Unions of Arras and Utrecht

On January 6, 1579, prompted by the new Spanish governor Alexander Farnese (Duke of Parma) and upset by aggressive Calvinism of the Northern States, some of the Southern States (located in what is now France and Wallonia) signed the Union of Arras (Atrecht), expressing their loyalty to the Spanish king. This meant the end of the cooperation aimed at a level of independence among the 17 Netherlands, agreed upon only three years previously in the pacification of Ghent. January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... The Duchy of Parma was a small Italian state between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1860. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... Map of the Spanish Netherlands, the Union of Utrecht and the Union of Arras (1579) The Union of Atrecht (French: Arras) was an accord signed on January 6, 1579 in Atrecht (Arras), under which the southern states of the Spanish Netherlands, mostly today in Wallonia and the Nord region in... Arras (Dutch: Atrecht) is a city in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ...


In response to the union of Arras, William united the northern states of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and the province of Groningen in the Union of Utrecht on January 23, 1579. Southern cities like Bruges, Ghent, Brussels and Antwerp joined the Union of Utrecht. Effectively, the 17 provinces were now divided into a group loyal to the Spanish king, and a group in rebellion. For the present province also called Guelders in English, see Gelderland. ... The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... The Union of Utrecht (Dutch: Unie van Utrecht) is a treaty signed on January 23, 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under control of Spain. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bruges called Brugge by its native Dutch language name which assumedly used to signify landing stage, is the capital of the province of West Flanders in present-day Flanders, the Flemish Region of Belgium. ... Ghent municipality and district in the province East Flanders Ghent (IPA: ; Gent in Dutch; Gand in French, formerly Gaunt in English) is a city and a municipality located in Flanders, Belgium. ...


Oath of Abjuration

In the late 16th century, it was not conceivable that a country could be governed by anyone but high nobility, if not a king, so the States General tried to find a suitable replacement for Philip. The Protestant Queen of England, Elizabeth I seemed the obvious choice to be protector of the Netherlands. Elizabeth, however, did not want to provoke Philip any more than necessary and declined the offer. Subsequently the States offered the younger brother of the French king, the Duke of Anjou, as sovereign ruler. Anjou accepted on the condition that the Netherlands officially denounce any loyalty to Philip. In 1581, the Oath of Abjuration was issued, in which the Netherlands proclaimed that the king of Spain had not upheld his responsibilities to the Netherlands population and would therefore no longer be accepted as rightful king. Anjou was, however, deeply distrusted by the population and he became increasingly bothered by the limited influence the States were willing to allow him. After some effort to increase his power by military action against the uncooperative cities, Anjou left the Netherlands in 1583. The States-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ... hi opooouyuyyyyvfjcxv Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... The Oath of Abjuration or Plakkaat van Verlatinghe of July 26, 1581, was the formal declaration of independence of the northern Low Countries from the Spanish king, Philip II. This point meant a climax in the Dutch Revolt, a point of no return, in which the Low Countries asserted they...


Elizabeth was now offered the sovereignty of the Netherlands, but she declined. All options for foreign royalty being exhausted, the civilian body States General eventually decided to rule as a republican body instead.


The fall of Antwerp

Assassination of William of Orange by Balthasar Gérard (1584).
Assassination of William of Orange by Balthasar Gérard (1584).

Immediately after the oath of abjuration, Spain sent a new army to recapture the United Provinces. Over the following years, Parma reconquered the major part of Flanders and Brabant, as well as large parts of the northeastern provinces. The Roman Catholic religion was restored in much of this area. By 1585, Antwerp -- the largest city in the Low Countries at the time -- fell into his hands, which caused over half its population to flee to the north (see also Siege of Antwerp). Between 1565 and 1590, the population of Antwerp plummeted from 105,000 inhabitants to 40,000. Download high resolution version (772x608, 68 KB)The murder on William the Silent by Balthazar Gerards. ... Download high resolution version (772x608, 68 KB)The murder on William the Silent by Balthazar Gerards. ... Balthasar Gérard (in Dutch Gerards or Gerardts) (1557-1584) was the assassin of the Dutch independence leader, William the Silent, also known as William I of Orange. ... This article deals with the historical county of Flanders, for present-day Flanders see Flanders The geographical region and former county of Flanders contains not only the two Belgian provinces but also the present-day French département of Nord, in parts of which there is still a Flemish-speaking... Brabant is a former duchy in the Low Countries, and a former province of Belgium. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


On July 10 1584, William I was assassinated by a supporter of Philip II. He would be succeeded as leader of the rebellion by his son Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange. Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange - portrait by Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt Maurice of Nassau (in Dutch Maurits van Nassau) (14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625), Prince of Orange (1618–1625), son of William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony, was born at the castle of Dillenburg. ...


The Netherlands were split into an independent northern part, while the southern part remained under Spanish control. Due to the almost uninterrupted rule of the Calvinist-dominated separatists, most of the population of the northern provinces became converted to Protestantism over the next decades. The south, under Spanish rule, remained a Catholic stronghold; most of its Protestants fled to the north. Spain retained a large military presence in the south, where it could also be used against France.


De facto independence of the north (1585–1609)

With the war going against them, the United Provinces had sought help from the kingdoms of France and England. The Dutch had even offered each monarch the crown of the Netherlands, but both had declined. Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ...


While England had unofficially been supporting the Dutch for years, Elizabeth now decided to intervene directly. In 1585, under the Treaty of Nonsuch, Elizabeth I sent the Earl of Leicester to take the rule as lord-regent, with 5,000 to 6,000 troops, including 1,000 cavalry. The Earl of Leicester proved to be a poor commander, and also did not understand the sensitive trade arrangements between the Dutch regents and the Spanish. Within a year of his arrival, he had lost his public support. Leicester returned to England, after which the States-General, being unable to find any other suitable regent, appointed Maurice of Orange (William's son), at the age of 20, to the position of Captain General of the Dutch army in 1587. This desperate appointment soon proved to be salvation of the pressured republic. The Treaty of Nonsuch was signed by Queen Elizabeth and her English allies, and the Netherlands on August 20, 1585 at Nonsuch Palace in Surrey. ... hi opooouyuyyyyvfjcxv Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester (also referred to as Lord Leycester such as at the Lord Leycester Hospital. ... Captain General is a rank and a title. ...

Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange

The borders of the present-day Netherlands were largely defined by the campaigns of Maurice of Orange. The Dutch successes owed not only to his tactical skill but also to the financial burden Spain incurred replacing ships lost in the disastrous campaign of the Spanish Armada in 1588, and the need to refit its navy to recover control of the sea after the subsequent English counter attack. In 1595, when Henry IV of France declared war against Spain, the Spanish government declared bankruptcy again. However, by regaining control of the sea, Spain was able to greatly increase its supply of gold and silver from the Americas, which allowed it to increase military pressure on England and France. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (695x1000, 290 KB) (after) Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt: Maurice of Nassau, prince of Orange and Stadhouder Oil on canvas, 106 cm x 75 cm Château de Versailles, Versailles Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Maurice of... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (695x1000, 290 KB) (after) Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt: Maurice of Nassau, prince of Orange and Stadhouder Oil on canvas, 106 cm x 75 cm Château de Versailles, Versailles Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Maurice of... For the navy of Spain, see Spanish Navy. ... The English Armada (also known as the Counter Armada) was a fleet of warships sent to the Iberian coast by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1589, during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) in an attempt to drive home the advantage won upon the defeat and dispersal of the... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ...


Under financial and military pressure, in 1598, Philip ceded the Netherlands to his favorite daughter Isabella and to her husband, Philip's nephew Archduke Albert of Austria, following the conclusion of the Treaty of Vervins with France. By that time Maurice was engaged in conquering important cities in the Netherlands. Starting with the important fortification of Bergen op Zoom (1588), Maurice conquered Breda (1590), Zutphen, Deventer, Delfzijl and Nijmegen (1591), Steenwijk, Coevorden (1592) Geertruidenberg (1593) Groningen (1594) Grol, Enschede, Ootmarsum, Oldenzaal (1597) and Grave (1602)[8]. As this campaign was restricted to the border areas of the current Netherlands, the heartland of Holland remained at peace, during which time it moved into its Golden age. Isabella Clara Eugenia, possibly around 1584 Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (Segovia 12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633) was Infanta of Spain, Archduchess of Austria and the joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces. ... Albert and his wife Isabella Archduke Albert Ernst of Austria (15 November 1559 – 13 July 1621) was appointed for the Spanish monarchy as Governor of the Low Countries in 1595, and from 1598 became joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces with his wife, the Isabella Clara Eugenia, daughter of Philip... The Peace of Vervins was signed between Henry IV of France and Philip II of Spain on May 2, 1598. ... Bergen op Zoom is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... Grote Kerk (main church) or Onze Lieve Vrouwe Kerk (Church of Our Lady) Breda ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... Deventer is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Overijssel on the east bank of the IJssel river. ... Satellite image of the Ems estuary showing the location of Delfzijl (left bank, center) Delfzijl is a municipality and city in the northeast of the Netherlands. ... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area 57. ... Steenwijkerland (before 2003 called Steenwijk) is a municipality in the eastern Netherlands. ... Coevorden is a municipality and a city in the northeastern Netherlands. ... Geertruidenberg ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... Boroughs of Groningen Groningen is the capital city of the province of Groningen in the Netherlands. ... Groenlo is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. ... Raadhuisstraat in Enschede, with the Grote Kerk in the background Enschede or Eanske in the local dialect (Twents) is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands, in the province of Overijssel, in the Twente region. ... Ootmarsum () is a town in the Dutch province of Overijssel. ... Oldenzaal is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands, near the border with Germany. ... Look up Grave in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Dutch Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ...

1600 - efforts to eliminate the naval threat of Dunkirker raiders lead to the Battle of Nieuwpoort
1600 - efforts to eliminate the naval threat of Dunkirker raiders lead to the Battle of Nieuwpoort

By now, it had become clear that Spanish control of the Southern Netherlands was strong. However, control over Zeeland meant that the Northern Netherlands could control and close the estuary of the Scheldt, the entry to the sea for the important port of Antwerp. The port of Amsterdam benefited greatly from the blockade of the port of Antwerp, to the extent that merchants in the North began to question the desirability of reconquering the South. A campaign to control the Southern provinces' coast region was launched against Maurice's advice in 1600. Although portrayed as a liberation of the Southern Netherlands, the campaign was chiefly aimed at eliminating the threat to Dutch trade posed by the Spanish-supported Dunkirker Raiders. The Spanish strengthened their positions along the coast, leading to the Battle of Nieuwpoort. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1098, 190 KB) Summary Maurice of Nassau at the Battle of Nieuwpoort by Pauwels van Hillegaert. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1098, 190 KB) Summary Maurice of Nassau at the Battle of Nieuwpoort by Pauwels van Hillegaert. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... During the Dutch revolt (1568 - 1648) the Dunkirk Raiders (Dutch: Duinkerker kapers) were pirates in the service of the Spanish Empire operating from the city of Dunkirk. ... Combatants United Provinces Spain Commanders Maurits of Nassau Archduke Albrecht of Austria Strength 9,500 infantry 1,400 cavalry 14 guns 6,000 infantry 1,200 cavalry 9 guns Casualties 1,700 dead or wounded 3,000 dead or wounded 600 captured {{{notes}}} The Battle of Nieuwpoort, between a Dutch...

1607 - Battle of Gibraltar the recently expanded Dutch navy destroys a Spanish fleet at Gibraltar
1607 - Battle of Gibraltar the recently expanded Dutch navy destroys a Spanish fleet at Gibraltar

Although the States-General army won great acclaim for itself and its commander by inflicting a then-surprising defeat of a Spanish army in open battle, Maurice halted the march on Dunkirk and returned to the Northern Provinces. Maurice never forgave the regents, led by van Oldenbarneveld, for being sent on this mission. By now the division of the Netherlands into separate states had become almost inevitable. With the failure to eliminate the Dunkirk threat to trade, the states decided to build up their navy to protect sea trade, which had greatly increased through the creation of the Dutch East Indies Company in 1602. The strengthened Dutch fleets would prove to be a formidable force, hampering Spain's naval ambitions thereafter. Download high resolution version (1105x770, 150 KB)Battle of Gibraltar 1607 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (1105x770, 150 KB)Battle of Gibraltar 1607 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... For other uses of Dunkirk or Dunkerque, see Dunkirk (disambiguation). ... Johan van Oldenbarnevelt (September 14, 1547 – May 13, 1619) was a Dutch statesman, who played an important role in the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain. ... Royal Netherlands Navy Jack The Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy ) is the navy of the Netherlands. ... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... This page is about the year. ...




Twelve Years' Truce (1609–1621)

Main article: Twelve Years' Truce
Johan van Oldenbarnevelt the most prominent victim of the religious infighting in Dutch Protestantism during the 12 years' truce
Johan van Oldenbarnevelt the most prominent victim of the religious infighting in Dutch Protestantism during the 12 years' truce

1609 saw the start of a ceasefire, afterwards called the Twelve Years' Truce, between the United Provinces and the Spanish controlled southern states, mediated by France and England at The Hague. It was during this ceasefire the Dutch made great efforts to build their navy, which was later to have a crucial bearing on the course of the war. A cease fire made at the end of the Dutch revolt war that lasted for twelve years. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1219x1600, 116 KB) Johan van Oldenbarnevelt ca. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1219x1600, 116 KB) Johan van Oldenbarnevelt ca. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... A cease fire made at the end of the Dutch revolt war that lasted for twelve years. ... Arms of The Hague Flag of The city of The Hague. ...


During the Truce, two factions emerged in the Dutch camp, along political and religious lines. On one side were the Arminians, whose prominent supporters included Johan van Oldenbarnevelt and Hugo Grotius[9]. They tended to be well-to-do merchants who accepted a less strict interpretation of the Bible than did classical Calvinists. They were opposed by the more radical Gomarists, who supported the ever-popular Prince Maurice[citation needed]. In 1617 the conflict escalated when republicans pushed the "Sharp Resolution", allowing the cities to take measures against the Gomarists. Prince Maurice accused van Oldenbarnevelt of treason, had him arrested, and in 1619, executed. Hugo Grotius fled the country after escaping from imprisonment in Castle Loevestein[9]. For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... Johan van Oldenbarnevelt (September 14, 1547 – May 13, 1619) was a Dutch statesman, who played an important role in the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain. ... Hugo Grotius Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10th April 1583 - Rostock, 28th August 1645) worked as a jurist in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands) and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... A Gomarist, Contra-remonstrant or Counter-remonstrant is a follower of Franciscus Gomarus. ... Castle Loevestein (Slot Loevestein in Dutch) is a medieval castle built by the knight Dirc Loef van Horne in 1368. ...




Final stages (1621–1648)

War recommences

Negotiations for a permanent peace went on throughout the truce. Two major issues could not be resolved. First, the Spanish demand for religious freedom of Catholics in Northern Netherlands was countered by a Dutch demand for a similar religious freedom for Protestants in the Southern Netherlands. Second, there was a growing disagreement over the trade routes to the different colonies (in the Far East and the Americas) which could not be resolved. The Spanish made one last effort to reconquer the North, and the Dutch used their navy to enlarge their colonial trade routes to the detriment of Spain. The war was on once more - and crucially, merging with the wider Thirty Years' War. The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

1625 - The Surrender of Breda (Velázquez) depicting one of the few Dutch defeats in the latter stage of the war.
1625 - The Surrender of Breda (Velázquez) depicting one of the few Dutch defeats in the latter stage of the war.
1645 - the Siege of Hulst, the last big siege of the war
1645 - the Siege of Hulst, the last big siege of the war

In 1622, a Spanish attack on the important fortress town of Bergen op Zoom was repelled. However, in 1625 Maurice died while the Spanish laid siege to the city of Breda. The Spanish commander Ambrosio Spinola succeeded in conquering the city of Breda (an episode immortalized by the Spanish painter Velázquez in his famous painting "Las Lanzas"). After that victory, however, the tide changed definitively in favour of the Dutch Republic. Maurice's half-brother, Frederick Henry had succeeded his brother and took command of the army. Frederick Henry conquered the pivotal fortified city of 's-Hertogenbosch in 1629. This town, largest in the northern part of Brabant, had been considered to be impregnable from attack. Its loss was a serious blow to the Spanish. Download high resolution version (1023x851, 179 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (1023x851, 179 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... For others named Velázquez, see Velazquez (disambiguation). ... 1645 - Siege of the city of Hulst in Zeeuws Vlaanderen during the Eighty Years` War File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1645 - Siege of the city of Hulst in Zeeuws Vlaanderen during the Eighty Years` War File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hulst ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southwestern Netherlands in the east of Zeeuws-Vlaanderen. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Bergen op Zoom is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Grote Kerk (main church) or Onze Lieve Vrouwe Kerk (Church of Our Lady) Breda ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. ... Ambrosio Spinola Doria, marqués de los Balbases (1569 - September 25, 1650), Spanish general, was born in Genoa in 1569. ... Velázquezs 1643 self-portrait This article pertains to the artist. ... Frederick Henry (January 29, 1584–March 14, 1647), Prince of Orange, the youngest child of William the Silent, was born at Delft about six months before his fathers assassination. ... s-Hertogenbosch (literally The Dukes Forest in Dutch; translated in French as Bois-le-Duc), unofficially also called Den Bosch, is a municipality in the Netherlands, the capital of the province of North Brabant. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ...


In 1632, Frederick Henry captured Venlo, Roermond and Maastricht during his famous "March along the Meuse" in a pincer move to prepare for the conquest of the major cities of Flanders. Attempts in the next years to attack Antwerp and Brussels failed, however. The Dutch were disappointed by the lack of support they received from the Flemish population. This was mainly because of the pillaging of Tienen and the new generation that had been raised in Flanders and Brabant, that had been thoroughly reconverted to Roman Catholicism and now distrusted the Calvinist Dutch even more than it loathed the Spanish occupants. See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Venlo ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Roermond is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Flag of Maastricht. ... Tienen (French: Tirlemont) is a municipality in the province of Flemish Brabant, in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Colonial theatre

As the European countries were starting to build their empires, the war between the countries extended to colonies as well. Battles for profitable colonies were fought as far away as Macao, East Indies, Ceylon, Formosa (Taiwan), the Philippines, Brazil, and others. The most important of these conflicts would become known as the Dutch-Portuguese War. The Dutch carved out a trading empire all over the world, using their dominance at sea to great advantage. The Dutch East India Company was founded to administrate all Dutch trade with the East, while the Dutch West India Company did the same for the West. The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... Combatants ° Kingdom of Portugal (under Spanish Crown) ° Kingdom of Spain ° Kingdom of Cochin ° Maranhao Tupis ° Republic of the Seven United Provinces ° Kingdom of England ° Sultanate of Johore ° Kandyan Kingdom ° Kingdom of Kongo ° Kingdom of Ndongo-Matamba ° Rio Grande Tupis ° Nhandui Tarairiu Tribe ° Potiguar Tribe Commanders * Viceroy Pedro da Silva * High... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ...


In the Western colonies, the Dutch States General mostly restricted itself to supporting privateering by their captains in the Caribbean to drain the Spanish coffers, and to fill their own. The most successful of these raids was the capture of the larger part of the Spanish treasure fleet by Piet Hein in 1628; which allowed Frederick Henry to finance the siege of 's Hertogenbosch; and seriously troubled Spanish payments of troops. But attempts were also made to conquer existing colonies or found new ones in Brazil, North America and Africa. Most of these would be only partially or temporarily succesful.[10] A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government to attack and seize cargo from another countrys ships. ... In the 16th century the Spanish treasure fleets brought the wealth of the Spanish colonies in Central and South America to Spain, in the form of silver, gold, gems, spices, cocoa and other exotic goods (Zarin, 2005). ... Piet Heyn, 1577-1629 Piet Pieterszoon Hein (also written as Heyn) (November 25, 1577 – June 18, 1629) was a Dutch naval officer and folk hero during the Eighty Years War between the Netherlands and Spain. ...


In the East the activities led to the conquest of many profitable trading colonies, a major factor in bringing about the Dutch Golden Age.[11] Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Dutch Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ...


From war to peace

In 1639, Spain sent an armada bound for Flanders, carrying 20,000 troops to assist in a last large scale attempt to defeat the northern "rebels". The armada was decisively defeated by Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp in the Battle of the Downs. This victory had historic consequences far beyond the Eighty Years' War as it marked the end of Spain as the dominant sea power. Armada may refer to: Armada Española, the Spanish Navy. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... Image:Marten Harpertszoon Tromp. ... Combatants Spain United Provinces Commanders Antonio DOquendo Maarten Tromp Strength 77 ships 117 ships Casualties 15,200 dead 60 ships destroyed or captured 100 dead 1 ship burned The naval Battle of the Downs took place on 31 October 1639 (New style) during the Eighty Years War and was...


An alliance with France changed the balance of power. The Republic could now hope to reconquer the Southern Netherlands. However, this would not mean that they would become a part of the Netherlands, but that they would be divided among the victors, resulting in a powerful French state bordering on the Republic. Furthermore it would mean that the port of Antwerp would most likely no longer be blockaded and might become serious competition for Amsterdam. With the Thirty Years' War decided, there was also no longer any need to fight on in order to support fellow Protestant nations. As a result, the decision was made to end the war.[12] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Peace

Main article: Peace of Westphalia
Amsterdam citizens celebrating the Peace of Münster, 1648 painting by Bartholomeus van der Helst

On January 30 1648, the war ended with the Treaty of Münster between Spain and the Netherlands. This treaty was part of the European scale Peace of Westphalia that also ended the Thirty Years' War. In the treaty, the power balance within the Holy Roman Empire is readjusted to the actual geopolitical reality. This means that de facto the Dutch Republic is recognized as an independent state and retains control over the territories that were conquered in the later stages of the war[13]. The new republic consisted of seven provinces: Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, Overijssel, Friesland and Groningen. Each province was governed by its local Provincial States and by a stadtholder[citation needed]. In theory, each stadtholder was elected and subordinate to the States-General. However, the princes of Orange-Nassau, beginning with William I of Orange, became de facto hereditary stadtholders in Holland and Zeeland. In practice they usually became stadtholder of the other provinces as well. A constant power struggle, which already had shown its precursor during the Twelve year's Truce, emerged between the Orangists, who supported the stadtholders, and the Regent's supporters. The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, refers to the... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1555x670, 192 KB) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, painted 1648. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1555x670, 192 KB) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, painted 1648. ... Bartholomeus van der Helst (1613–1670) was a Dutch portrait painter. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, refers to the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flag of Overijssel Overijssel is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch Oranje-Nassau), is a family that has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of the Fatherland) organised the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after... The Orangists were a political faction in the Netherlands in the second half of the eigtheenth century. ...


The border states, parts of Flanders, Brabant and Limburg that were conquered by the Dutch in the final stages of the war, were to be federally governed by the States-General. The so called Generality Lands (Generaliteitslanden), which consisted of Staats-Brabant (present North Brabant), Staats-Vlaanderen (present Zeeuws-Vlaanderen) and Staats-Limburg (around Maastricht)[citation needed]. The Generality Lands (Dutch: Generaliteitslanden) were border territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the Estates-General of the Netherlands. ... The Generality Lands (Dutch: Generaliteitslanden) were border territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the Estates-General of the Netherlands. ... North Brabant (Dutch: Noord-Brabant) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country, bordered by Belgium in the south, the Meuse River (Maas) in the north, Limburg in the east and Zeeland in the west. ... The Generality Lands (Dutch: Generaliteitslanden) were border territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the Estates-General of the Netherlands. ... Satellite image of the Scheldt delta Zeeuws-Vlaanderen is the part of the Netherlands on the left shore of the Scheldt river (here called Westerschelde), nr. ... The Generality Lands (Dutch: Generaliteitslanden) were border territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the Estates-General of the Netherlands. ... Flag of Maastricht. ...


The peace would not be long-lived as the newly emerged world powers: the Republic of the Netherlands and the Commonwealth of England would start their first war in 1652, only four years after the peace was signed. Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Sites of the battles of the First Anglo-Dutch War. ...


Aftermath

Nature of the war

The Eighty Years' War began with a series of classical battles mostly fought by mercenaries, as was typical of the time. While successes for both parties were limited, costs were high. As the revolt and its suppression centered largely around issues of religious freedom and taxation, the conflict necessarily involved not only soldiers but also civilians at all levels of society. This may be one reason for the resolve and subsequent successes of the Dutch rebels in defending cities. Another factor was the fact that a few cities were sacked after having surrendered. Given the involvement of all sectors of Dutch society in the conflict, a more-or-less organized, irregular army emerged alongside the regular forces. Among these were the geuzen (from the French word "gueux" meaning "beggars"), who waged a guerrilla war against Spanish interests. Especially at sea, geuzen troops were effective agents of the Dutch cause. Mercenary (disambiguation). ... The Watergeuzen (or simply Geuzen) were a fleet of privateers during the Eighty Years War, the Low Countries (or Netherlands) rebellion against the Spanish occupation, which began during the reign of Philip II of Spain (in the 1550s). ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There were very few pitched battles where armies met in the field. Most battles were sieges, as was typical of the era, resulting in protracted and expensive use of the military forces available. The Dutch had fortified most of their cities and even many smaller towns in accordance with the most modern views of the time. Sometimes these sieges were broken off when the enemy threatened to attack the besieging army.


In the later stages, Maurice raised a professional standing army that was even paid when no hostilities were taking place, a radical innovation in that time and part of the Military Revolution. This ensured him of loyal soldiers, who were trained in cooperating among each other and were intimately familiar with the doctrines of their commanders and were capable of carrying out complicated manoeuvres. Similar to Charlemagne’s re-establishment of the feudal monarch, the invention of gunpowder for warfare brought another great change and transformation to Europe. ...


Effect on the Low Countries

In the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, Charles V established the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands as an entity separate from France, Burgundy or the Holy Roman Empire. The Netherlands at this point were among the wealthiest regions in Europe, and an important center of trade, finance and art. The Eighty Years' War introduced a sharp breach in the region, with the Dutch Republic (the present-day Netherlands) growing into a world power (see Dutch Golden Age), and the Southern Netherlands (more or less present-day Belgium) losing all economic and cultural significance for centuries to come. The Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 was an edict, promulgated by The Emperor Charles V reorganizing the Seventeen Provinces. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Dutch Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ...


Politically, a unique situation had emerged in the Netherlands where a republican body (the States General) ruled, but where a (increasingly hereditary) noble function of Stadtholder was occupied by the house of Orange-Nassau. This division of power prevented large scale fighting between nobility and civilians as happened in the English Civil War. The frictions between the civil and noble fractions, that already started in the twelve years' truce, were numerous and would finally lead to an outburst with the French supported Batavian Republic, where Dutch bourgeoisie hoped to get rid of the increasing self-esteem in the nobility once and for all. However, in a dramatic resurgence of nobility after the Napoleonic era the republic would be abandoned in favor of the foundation of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Thus, the oldest republic of Europe was turned into a monarchy, which it still is today. The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of the Fatherland) organized the Dutch revolt... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modelled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) is a classification used in analyzing human societies to describe a class of people who are in the middle class nobility, whose status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth as opposed to aristocratic origin. ... The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe. ... Map of the kingdom United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815 - 1830) (1839) (Dutch: Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, French: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas and German: Vereinigte Königreich der Niederlande) were the unofficial names used to refer to a new unified European state created during the Congress of Vienna in...


Effect on the Spanish Empire

The Spanish empire and the republic in 1648, after the Peace of Westphalia.
The Spanish empire and the republic in 1648, after the Peace of Westphalia.

The conquest of various American territories made Spain the leading European power of the 16th century. This brought them into continuous conflict with France and the emerging power that was England. In addition, the deeply religious monarchs Charles V and Philip II saw a role for themselves as protectors of the Catholic faith against Islam in the Mediterranean and against Protestantism in northern Europe. This meant the Spanish Empire was almost continuously at war. Of all these conflicts, the Eighty Years' War was the most prolonged and had a major effect on the Spanish finances and the morale of the Spanish people, who saw taxes increase and soldiers not returning, with little successes to balance the scales. The Spanish government had to declare several bankruptcies. The Spanish population increasingly questioned the necessity of the war in the Netherlands and even the necessity of the Empire in general. The loss of Portugal in 1640 and the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, ending the war were the first signs that the role of the Spanish Empire in Europe was declining. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (665x601, 64 KB) Rex 18:49, 16 October 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (665x601, 64 KB) Rex 18:49, 16 October 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[2] - is described in the Oxford Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or Western... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration - see text) in the UK. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of a individuals or organizations to pay their... Military flag of the Spanish Empire from the 16th century up to 1843. ...


Political implications in Europe

The Dutch revolt against their lawful king, most obviously illustrated in the oath of abjuration (1581), implied that a king could be disposed by the population if there was agreement that he did not fullfill his God given responsibility and thus challenged the concept of a divine right of kings. Eventually this led to the Dutch Republic. The acceptance of a non-monarchic country by the other European powers in 1648 spread across Europe, fueling resistance against the divine power of Kings. Thus the Dutch rebellion can be seen as a precursor of the English Civil War (1642-1651) and the French Revolution (1789-1799), where monarchs with power based on their divine right were disposed of. As such, the Dutch revolt is the predecessor of liberalism in modern governments. The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... i heart kate young The French Revolution was a period of major political and social change in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


See also

The Synod of Dort met in the city of Dordrecht in 1618-1619, as a national assembly of the Dutch Reformed Church, to which were invited representatives from the Reformed churches in eight foreign countries. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

External links

  • The Dutch Revolt site of Leiden University; http://dutchrevolt.leidenuniv.nl/ (also in English)
  • The canon of Dutch history has several topics related to the Eighty Years' War; http://entoen.nu/ (also in English)

Further reading

  • The works of John Lothrop Motley (1814-1877) give an old but very detailed account of the Dutch republic in this time - Works by John Lothrop Motley at Project Gutenberg (free E-texts)
  • Geyl, Pieter. (1932), The Revolt of the Netherlands, 1555-1609. Williams & Norgate, UK.
  • Geyl, Pieter. (1936), The Netherlands Divided, 1609-1648. Williams & Norgate, UK.
  • Israel, Jonathan I. (1998), The Dutch Republic. Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477-1806, Clarendon Press, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-820734-4.
  • Parker, Geoffrey (1977), The Dutch revolt, Penguin books, London

John Lothrop Motley (April 15, 1814 - May 29, 1877), was an American historian. ... Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ... Pieter Carharinus Arie Geyl (1887-1966) was a Dutch historian well known for his studies in early modern Dutch history and in historiography. ... Pieter Carharinus Arie Geyl (1887-1966) was a Dutch historian well known for his studies in early modern Dutch history and in historiography. ...

Notes and References

  1. ^ This article adopts 1568 as starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies. There is, however, a long period of unrest leading to this war, therefore it is not easy to give an exact date when the war started. The first open violence that would lead to the war was the 1566 iconoclasm. Sometimes the first Spanish repressions of the riots (i.e. battle of Oosterweel 1567) are considered the start of the war. Most accounts give the 1568 invasions of armies of mercenaries paid by William of Orange as the official starting date of the war (this article adopts that point of view). Sometimes the start of the war is set at the capture of Brielle in 1572.
  2. ^ Huizinga, Johan (1997). The Autumn of the Middle Ages (Dutch edition - Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen), 26th (1st - 1919), Olympus. ISBN 90-254-1207-6. 
  3. ^ a b c d Kamen, Henry (2005). Spain, 1469–1714: a society of conflict, 3rd, Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-582-78464-6. 
  4. ^ Jansen, H. P. H. (2002). Geschiedenis van de Middeleeuwen (in Dutch), 12th (1st - 1978), Het Spectrum. ISBN 90-274-5377-2. 
  5. ^ de Bruin, R. E.; T. J. Hoekstra, A. Pietersma (1999). The city of Utrecht through twenty centuries : a brief history, 1st, SPOU and the Utrecht Archief; Utrecht Nl. ISBN 90-5479-040-7. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Geyl, Pieter (2001). History of the Dutch-Speaking peoples 1555-1648, 1sr (combines two volumes from 1932 and 1936), Phoenix Press, London UK. ISBN 1-84212-225-8. 
  7. ^ a b Van der Horst, Han (2000). Nederland, de vaderlandse geschiedenis van de prehistorie tot nu (in Dutch), 3rd, Bert Bakker. ISBN 90-351-2722-6. 
  8. ^ Blokker, Jan (2006). Waar is de Tachtigjarige Oorlog gebleven? (in Dutch), 1st, De Harmonie. ISBN 90-6169-741-7. 
  9. ^ a b Motley, John L. (1874). The Life and Death of John of Barneveld. Project Gutenberg. 
  10. ^ Heijer, den, Henk J. (2002). De geschiedenis van de West-Indische Compagnie, 2nd, Zutphen, The Netherlands: Walburg Pers. ISBN 90-6011-912-6. 
  11. ^ Gaastra, Femme S. (1991). De geschiedenis van de VOC, 2nd, Zutphen, The Netherlands: Walburg Pers. ISBN 90-6011-929-0. 
  12. ^ Blom, J.C.H. (1993). Geschiedenis van de Nederlanden, 2nd, Rijswijk, The Netherlands: Nijgh en Van Ditmar Universitair. ISBN 90-237-1164-5. 
  13. ^ Osiander, Andreas (Spring 2001). "Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Westphalian Myth". International Organization 55 (2): 251-287. 

Johan Huizinga (December 7, 1872 - February 1, 1945), a Dutch historian, one of the founders of modern cultural history. ... Harlow is a new town and local government district in Essex, England. ... Pieter Carharinus Arie Geyl (1887-1966) was a Dutch historian well known for his studies in early modern Dutch history and in historiography. ... John Lothrop Motley (April 15, 1814 - May 29, 1877), was an American historian. ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Jaagpad street in Rijswijk Rijswijk ( listen), also Ryswick in English (population: 47,693 in 2004) is a suburb of The Hague in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


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