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Encyclopedia > Eight hour day
Eight-hour day banner, Melbourne, 1856
Eight-hour day banner, Melbourne, 1856

The Eight-hour day movement, also known as the Short-time movement, had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life and imposed long hours and poor working conditions. With working conditions unregulated, the health, welfare and morale of working people suffered. The exploitation of child labour was common. The working day could range from 10 hours up to 16 hours for six days a week. Image File history File links Eight-hour day banner, Melbourne, 1856. ... Image File history File links Eight-hour day banner, Melbourne, 1856. ... The Industrial Revolution was the major technological, socioeconomic and cultural change in the late 18th and early 19th century resulting from the replacement of an economy based on manual labor to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture. ... A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is a large industrial building where workers manufacture goods or products. ...


Robert Owen had raised the demand for a ten-hour day as early as 1810, and instituted it in his socialist enterprise at New Lanark. As early as 1817 he had formulated the goal of the eight-hour day and coined the slogan Eight hours labour, Eight hours recreation, Eight hours rest. Women and children in England were granted the ten-hour day in 1847. French workers won the twelve-hour day after the February revolution of 1848. A shorter working day and improved working conditions was part of the general protests and agitation for Chartist reforms, and the early organisation of trade unions. Robert Owen Robert Owen continues to be looked up to in this Manchester statue Robert Owen (May 14, 1771 – November 17, 1858) was a Welsh social reformer. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The New Lanark mills were founded in 1784 next to the town of Lanark, and subsequently purchased by a partnership that included Robert Owen in the early nineteenth century. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Chartism is also an alternate term for technical analysis A movement for social and political reform in the United Kingdom during the mid-19th century, Chartism gains its name from the Peoples Charter of 1838, which set out the main aims of the movement. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The International Workingmen's Association took up the demand for an eight-hour day at its convention in Geneva in August 1866 declaring The legal limitation of the working day is a preliminary condition without which all further attempts at improvements and emancipation of the working class must prove abortive and The Congress proposes eight hours as the legal limit of the working day. The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class. ... 1866 is a common year starting on Monday. ...


Although there were initial successes in achieving an eight-hour day in New Zealand and by the Australian labour movement for skilled workers in the 1840s and 1850s, most employed people had to wait to the early and mid twentieth century for the condition to be widely achieved through the industrialised world through legislative action. The Australia labour movement reaches back to the 19th century and has a long tradition of organised unions of workers. ...


The Eight hour day movement forms part of the early history for the celebration of Labour Day, and May Day in many nations and cultures. Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-08-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... May Day is a name for various holidays celebrated on May 1 (or in the beginning of May). ...

Contents


New Zealand

In 1840 in New Zealand Samuel Parnell, a carpenter, refused to work more than eight-hours a day, and successfully negotiated the working condition and campaigned for its extension in the infant Wellington community. A meeting of Wellington carpenters in October 1840 pledged "to maintain the eight-hour working day, and that anyone offending should be ducked into the harbour". 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Former wooden parliament buildings on the left and part of the current complex, The Beehive, on the right Wellington (Te Whanganui-a-Tara or Poneke) is the capital city of New Zealand and the countrys second-largest urban area. ...


Parnell is reported to have said: "There are twenty-four hours per day given us; eight of these should be for work, eight for sleep, and the remaining eight for recreation and in which for men to do what little things they want for themselves." With tradesmen in short supply the employer was forced to accept Parnell's terms. Parnell later wrote, "the first strike for eight hours a day the world has ever seen, was settled on the spot".


Emigrants to Otago while onboard ship decided on a reduction of working hours. When the resident agent of the New Zealand Company, Captain Cargill, attempted to enforce a ten-hour day in January 1849 in Dunedin, he was unable to overcome the resistance of trades people under the leadership of house painter and plumber, Samuel Shaw. Building trades in Auckland achieved the eight-hour day on 1 September 1857 after agitation led by Chartist painter, William Griffin. For many years achievement of the eight-hour day was confined to craft tradesmen and unionised workers. Labour Day, which commemorates the introduction of the eight-hour day, became a national public holiday in 1899. 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, located in coastal Otago. ... Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest urban area in New Zealand. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-08-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Australia

Eight-hour day march circa 1900, outside Parliament House in Spring Street, Melbourne.
Enlarge
Eight-hour day march circa 1900, outside Parliament House in Spring Street, Melbourne.

The Australian gold rushes attracted many skilled tradesmen to Australia. Some of these trades people had been active in the chartism movement, and subsequently became prominent in agitation for better working conditions in the Australian colonies. Download high resolution version (1200x750, 325 KB)Melbourne eight-hour day march circa 1900, outside Parliament House in Spring Street. ... Download high resolution version (1200x750, 325 KB)Melbourne eight-hour day march circa 1900, outside Parliament House in Spring Street. ... The City of Melbourne Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia (after Sydney), with a population of 3. ...


The Stonemasons Society in Sydney issued an ultimatum to employers on 18 August 1855, that after six months masons would only work an eight-hour day. Construction of many buildings was occurring with the rapid increase in population caused by the gold rushes, so skilled labour was scarce. Stonemasons working on the Holy Trinity Church and the Mariners Church (an evangelical mission to seafarers), decided not to wait and pre-emptively went on strike, thus winning the eight-hour day. They celebrated with a victory dinner on 1 October 1855. When the six month ultimatum expired in February 1856, stonemasons generally in Sydney agitated for a reduction of hours. Although opposed by employers, a two week strike on the construction of Tooths Brewery on Parramatta Road proved effective, and stonemasons won an eight-hour day by early March 1856, but with a reduction in wages to match. Sydney Harbour looking south from the vicinity of the Sydney Harbour Bridge towards the CBD skyline; the Opera House is visible in the background on the left. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Agitation was also occurring in Melbourne where the craft unions were more militant. Stonemasons working on Melbourne University organised to down tools on 21 April 1856 and a march on to Parliament House with other members of the building trade. The movement in Melbourne was led by veteran chartists and mason James Stephens (1821-1889), T.W. Vine and James Galloway. The government agreed that workers employed on public works should enjoy an eight-hour day with no loss of pay and Stonemasons celebrated with a holiday and procession on Monday 12 May 1856, when about 700 people marched with 19 trades involved. By 1858 the eight-hour day was firmly established in the building industry and by 1860 the eight-hour day was fairly widely worked in Victoria. From 1879 the eight-hour day was a public holiday in Victoria. The initial success in Melbourne led to the decision to organise a movement, to actively spread the eight-hour idea and secure the condition generally. The City of Melbourne Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia (after Sydney), with a population of 3. ... The University of Melbourne, located in Melbourne, in Victoria, is the second oldest university in Australia (the University of Sydney is the oldest). ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1858 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1879 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1903 veteran socialist Tom Mann spoke to a crowd of a thousand people at the unveiling of the Eight Hour Day monument, funded by public subscription, and located on the corner of Victoria and Russell Streets, outside Melbourne Trades Hall. 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... Tom Mann (15 April 1856 - 13 March 1941) was a noted British trade unionist. ... Melbourne Trades Hall entrance on Lygon Street Melbourne Trades Hall is a Trades Hall building located in the suburb of Carlton, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, and home to the Victorian Trades Hall Council. ...

Eight-hour day procession by miners in Wyalong, New South Wales - late 1890s
Eight-hour day procession by miners in Wyalong, New South Wales - late 1890s

It took further campaigning and struggles by trade unions to extend the reduction in hours to all workers in Australia. In 1916 the New South Wales Eight Hours Act was passed granting the eight-hour day to all workers in the state. The eight hour day was not achieved nationally until the 1920s. The Commonwealth Arbitration Court gave approval of the 40-hour five-day working week nationally beginning on 1 January 1948. The achievement of the eight-hour day has been described by historians such as Rowan Cahill: one of the great successes of the Australian working class during the nineteenth century, demonstrating to Australian workers that it was possible to successfully organise, mobilise, agitate and exercise significant control over working conditions and quality of life. The Australian trade union movement grew out of eight-hour campaigning and the movement that developed to promote the principle. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x764, 281 KB)Wyalong, New South Wales eight-hour day march, late 1890s. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x764, 281 KB)Wyalong, New South Wales eight-hour day march, late 1890s. ... Eight-hour day procession by miners in Wyalong - late 1890s Wyalong is part of the Bland Shire located in the Northern Riverina Region of New South Wales, Australia. ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... Sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or primarily in North America as the Roaring Twenties. // Events and trends Technology John T. Thompson invents Thompson submachine gun, also known as Tommy gun John Logie Baird invents the first working mechanical television system (1925) Charles Lindbergh becomes the first person to... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The intertwined numbers 888 soon adorned the pediment of many union buildings constructed around Australia. The Eight Hour March which began on April 21, 1856, continued each year until 1951 in Melbourne, when the conservative Victorian Trades Hall Council decided to forgo the tradition for the Moomba festival on the Labour Day weekend. In capital cities and regional towns across Australia Eight Hour day marches became a regular social event each year, with early marches often restricted to those workers who had won an eight hour day. A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The Victorian Trades Hall Council is a representative body of trade union organisations in the State of Victoria, Australia. ... Moomba is an annual festival in the city of Melbourne, Australia. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-08-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


United States

In the United States, Philadelphia carpenters struck in 1791 for the ten-hour day. By the 1830s, this had become a general demand. In 1835, workers in Philadelphia organized a general strike, led by Irish coal heavers. Their banners read, From 6 to 6, ten hours work and two hours for meals. Labor movement publications called for an eight-hour day as early as 1836. Boston ship carpenters, although not unionised, achieved an eight-hour day in 1842. 1791 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1864, the eight-hour day quickly became a central demand of the Chicago labor movement. The Illinois legislature passed a law in early 1867 granting an eight-hour day but had so many loopholes that it was largely ineffective. A city-wide strike that began on May 1, 1867, shut down the city's economy for a week before collapsing. In 1868, Congress passed an eight-hour law for federal employees, which was also of limited effectiveness. 1864 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1868 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


In August 1866 the National Labor Union at Baltimore passed a resolutuion that said, "The first and great necessity of the present to free labour of this country from capitalist slavery, is the passing of a law by which eight hours shall be the normal working day in all States of the American Union. We are resolved to put forth all our strength until this glorious result is achieved." 1866 is a common year starting on Monday. ... The National Labor Union was the first national labor federation in the United States. ... This article is about the city in the US state of Maryland. ...


During the 1870s, eight hours became a central demand, especially among labor organizers, anarchists and socialists, with a network of Eight-Hour Leagues which held rallies and parades. A hundred thousand workers in New York City struck and won the eight-hour day in 1872, mostly for building trades workers. In Chicago, Albert Parsons became recording secretary of the Chicago Eight-Hour League in 1878, and was appointed a member of a national eight-hour committee in 1880. Events and Trends Technology The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... 1872 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Albert Parsons, ca. ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


At its convention in Chicago in 1884, the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions resolved that "eight hours shall constitute a legal day's labour from and after May 1, 1886, and that we recommend to labour organisations throughout this jurisdiction that they so direct their laws as to conform to this resolution by the time named." Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... 1884 is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar). ... The Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions was the immediate predecessor of the American Federation of Labor. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ...


The leadership of the Knights of Labor, under Terence V. Powderly, rejected appeals to join the movement as a whole, but many local Knights assemblies joined the strike call including Chicago, Cincinnati and Milwaukee. On May 1, 1886, Albert Parsons, head of the Chicago Knights of Labor, with his wife Lucy Parsons and two children, led 80,000 people down Michigan Avenue, Chicago, in what is regarded as the first-ever modern May Day Parade, in support of the eight-hour day. In the next few days they were joined nationwide by 350,000 workers who went on strike at 1,200 factories, including 70,000 in Chicago, 45,000 in New York, 32,000 in Cincinnati, and additional thousands in other cities. Some workers gained shorter hours (eight or nine) with no reduction in pay; others accepted pay cuts with the reduction in hours. Knights of Labor seal The Knights of Labor was a labor union founded in secrecy in December 1869, by a group of Philadelphia tailors led by Uriah S. Stephens. ... Terence V. Powderly (1849-1924) was born in Carbondale, Pennsylvania, the son of Irish immigrants. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Knights of Labor seal The Knights of Labor was a labor union founded in secrecy in December 1869, by a group of Philadelphia tailors led by Uriah S. Stephens. ... Lucy Parsons (1853-1942) was a radical labor organizer, anarchist and is remembered as a powerful orator. ...

Artist impression of the bomb explosion in Haymarket Square
Artist impression of the bomb explosion in Haymarket Square

On May 3, 1886, August Spies, editor of the Arbeiter-Zeitung (Workers Newspaper), spoke at a meeting of 6,000 workers, and afterwards many of them moved down the street to harass scabs at the McCormick plant in Chicago. The police arrived, opened fire, and killed four people, wounding many more. At a subsequent rally on May 4 to protest this violence, a bomb exploded at the Haymarket Square. Hundreds of labour activists were rounded up and the prominent labour leaders arrested, tried, convicted, and executed giving the movement its first martyrs. On June 26, 1893 Illinois Governor John Peter Altgeld set the remaining leaders free, and granted full pardons to all those tried claiming they were innocent of the crime for which they had been tried and the hanged men had been the victims of "hysteria, packed juries and a biased judge". (From user talk:MyRedDice), Yes, all my images are in public domain. ... (From user talk:MyRedDice), Yes, all my images are in public domain. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... August Spies (1855–11 November 1887) was an anarchist labor activist hanged under doubtful circumstances following a bomb attack on police at the Haymarket Riot. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... The Haymarket Riot on 4 May 1886 in Chicago, Illinois is the origin of international May Day observances and in popular literature inspired the inaccurate caricature of the bomb-throwing anarchist. The causes of the incident are still controversial, although deeply polarized attitudes separating the business and working communities in... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 1893 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... John Peter Altgeld (December 30, 1847 - March 12, 1902) was the governor of the U.S. state of Illinois from 1893 until 1897. ...


The American Federation of Labor, meeting in St Louis in December 1888, set May 1, 1890 as the day that American workers should work no more than eight hours. The International Workingmen's Association (Second International), meeting in Paris in 1889, endorsed the date for international demonstrations, thus starting the international tradition of May Day. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Second International was an organization formed in 1889 (after several years of preparation) by socialist and labour parties who wished to work together for international socialism. ... 1889 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... May Day is a name for various holidays celebrated on May 1 (or in the beginning of May). ...


The United Mine Workers won an eight-hour work day in 1898. United Mine Workers of America seal The United Mine Workers (UMW or UMWA) is a United States labor union that represents workers in mining. ... 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The Building Trades Council (BTC) of San Fransisco , under the leadership of P.H. McCarthy, won the eight-hour day in 1900 when the BTC unilaterally declared that its members would work only eight hours a day for $3 a day. When mill resisted, the BTC began organizing mill workers; the employers responded by locking out 8,000 employees throughout the Bay Area. The BTC, in return, established a union planing mill from which construction employers could obtain supplies — or face boycotts and sympathy strikes if they did not. The mill owners went to arbitration, where the union won the eight-hour day, a closed shop for all skilled workers, and an arbitration panel to resolve future disputes. In return, the union agreed to refuse to work with material produced by non-union planing mills or those that paid less than the Bay Area employers. Patrick Henry McCarthy (March 17, 1863 — July 1, 1933), generally known as P.H. McCarthy and sometimes, more jocularly, as Pinhead, was an influential labor leader in San Francisco and Mayor of the City from 1910 to 1912. ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ...


By 1905 the Eight-hour day is widely installed in the printing trades.


On January 5, 1914, the Ford Motor Company took the radical step of doubling pay to $5 a day, and cut shifts from nine hours to an eight hour day, moves that were not popular with rival companies, although seeing the increase in Ford's productivity, most soon followed suit. January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Ford Motor Company (often referred to simply as Ford; sometimes nicknamed Fords or FoMoCo, NYSE: F is an automobile maker founded by Henry Ford in Detroit, Michigan, and incorporated on June 16, 1903. ...


The Adamson Act was a United States law passed in 1916 that established an eight-hour workday, with additional pay for overtime work, for railroad workers. This was the first federal law that regulated the hours of workers in private companies. The United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Act in 1917. The Adamson Act was a United States law passed in 1916 that established an eight-hour workday, with additional pay for overtime work, for railroad workers. ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ...


The eight-hour day was realised for many working people in the USA in 1938, when the Fair Labor Standards Act under the New Deal made it a legal day's work throughout the nation. 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The New Deal was President Franklin D. Roosevelts legislative agenda for rescuing the United States from the Great Depression. ...


Europe

A law instituting the eight-hour day was introduced in 1921 in France. See Léon Jouhaux. Léon Jouhaux (1 July 1879 - 28 April 1954) was a French trade union leader who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1951. ...


In Portugal a vast wave of strikes occurred in 1919, supported by the National Workers' Union, the biggest labor union organization at the time. The workers achieved important objectives, including the historic victory of an eight-hour working day.


In the region of Alcoy, Spain, workers struck in 1873 for the eight hour day following much agitation from the anarchists. In 1919 in Barcelona, after a 44 day long general strike with over 100,000 participants which had effectively crippled the Catalan economy, the Government in Barcelona settled the strike by granting all of the striking workers demands which included an eight hour day, union recognition, and the rehiring of fired workers. Spain became the first country in the world to pass a national eight hour day law, as a result of 1919's general strike. See Anarchism in Spain. Alcoy is an agricultural municipality located in the province of Cebu in the Philippines. ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Barcelona within Barcelonès Population (2003) 1,582,738 Area 1004 Km2 Population density (2001) 15,764/Km2 Barcelona is the capital city of Catalonia, an autonomous community in northeastern Spain, and Spains second-largest city (after Madrid). ... Anarchism, the political philosophy advocating a libertarian society without hierarchy, based on mutual aid and voluntary cooperation, historically gained the most support and influence in Spain, especially in the seventy or so years before Francisco Francos victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ...


South America

A strike for the eight-hour day was held in May 1919 in Peru. In Uruguay during the second term of president José Batlle y Ordóñez such things as unemployment compensation (1914), eight-hour workdays (1915), and universal suffrage were introduced. José Batlle y Ordóñez (May 21, 1856 - October 20, 1929) was the president of Uruguay from 1903 until 1907 and for a second term from 1911 to 1915. ...


Central America and Caribbean

The Mexican Revolution of 1910-1920, produced the Constitution of 1917, which contained Article 123 that gave workers the right to organize labor unions and to strike. It also provided protection for women and children, the eight hour day, and a living wage. See Mexican labor law. The Mexican Revolution was a violent social and cultural movement, colored by socialist, nationalist, and anarchist tendencies, that began with the popular rejection of dictator Porfirio Díaz Mori in 1910 and continued even after the promulgation of a new constitution seven years later. ... Mexican labor law governs the process by which workers may organize labor unions, engage in collective bargaining, and strike. ...


In Puerto Rico in May 1899, while under US administration, General George W. Davis succeeded to Island command and decreed Freedom of assembly, speech, press, religion and an eight-hour day for government employees. Brigadier George Whitefield Davis (1839-1918) was Governor of Puerto Rico from 1898 to 1899. ...


United Kingdom

The Factory Act of 1833 was an act of the parliament of the United Kingdom, which limited the workday for children in factories. Those between 9 and 13 could only work eight hours, and children between 14 and 18 could work twelve hours. Children under 9 were required to attend school. The Factory Act of 1833 was an act of the parliament of the United Kingdom, which limited the workday for children in factories. ...


In 1884, Tom Mann joined the Social Democratic Federation (SDF) and published a pamphlet calling for the working day to be limited to eight hours. Mann formed an organisation, the Eight Hour League, which successfully pressured the TUC to adopt the eight-hour day as a key goal. Tom Mann (15 April 1856 - 13 March 1941) was a noted British trade unionist. ... Trades Union Congress headquarters at Congress House in Great Russell Street near Tottenham Court Road, Camden, London. ...


See Also

Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-08-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... May Day is a name for various holidays celebrated on May 1 (or in the beginning of May). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Australia labour movement reaches back to the 19th century and has a long tradition of organised unions of workers. ... The Haymarket Riot on 4 May 1886 in Chicago, Illinois is the origin of international May Day observances and in popular literature inspired the inaccurate caricature of the bomb-throwing anarchist. The causes of the incident are still controversial, although deeply polarized attitudes separating the business and working communities in...

References

  • Anarchism and State Violence in Sydney and Melbourne 1886-1896, (1986) Bob James.[1]
  • The Dramas of Haymarket accessed 23/06/2005 [2]
  • May Day, The Workers' Day, born in the struggle for the eight-hour day, Andy McInerney, in Liberation & Marxism, issue no. 27, Spring 1996 [3]
  • Mayday: A short History of 100 years of May Day 1890-1990 Melbourne May Day Committee, (1990)
  • Unionism and the Labor Movement, John Child, (1971)
  • A Documentary History of the Australian Labor Movement 1850 - 1975, Brian McKinley (ed), (1979) ISBN 0909081298

External Links

Australia

New Zealand

  • Eight-hour-day Movement in New Zealand An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand (1966)
  • Origins of Labour Day in New Zealand

United States of America


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