FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower as seen from the Champ-de-Mars
View southeast from the top level of the Eiffel Tower, down the Champ de Mars, with the Tour Montparnasse (Montparnasse Tower) in the distance. ...

Information
Location Paris, France
Status Complete
Constructed 1887 – 1889
Use Observation tower
Radio broadcasting tower
Height
Antenna/Spire 324 metres (1,063 ft)
Roof 300.65 metres (986 ft)
Companies
Architect Gustave Eiffel
Structural
Engineer
Gustave Eiffel

The Eiffel Tower (French: Tour Eiffel, /tuʀ ɛfɛl/) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. The tower has become a global icon of France and is one of the most recognizable structures in the world. This article is about the capital of France. ... Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (December 15, 1832 – December 27, 1923; French pronunciation in IPA, in English usually pronounced ) was a French structural engineer and architect and a specialist of metallic structures. ... Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (December 15, 1832 – December 27, 1923; French pronunciation in IPA, in English usually pronounced ) was a French structural engineer and architect and a specialist of metallic structures. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... View of Champ de Mars from the top of the Eiffel Tower The Champ_de_Mars is a vast public area in Paris, France, located in the 7th arrondissement, between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the cole Militaire to the southeast. ... This article is about the river in France; it should not be confused with the Senne, a much smaller river that flows through Brussels. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... American cultural icons. ...

Contents

Introduction

Named after its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, the Eiffel Tower is the tallest building in Paris and one of the most recognized structures in the world.[1] More than 200,000,000 have visited the tower since its construction in 1889,[2] including 6,719,200  in 2006,[3] making it the most visited paid monument in the world.[4][5] Including the 24 m (79 ft) antenna, the structure is 325 m (1,063 ft) high (since 2000), which is equivalent to about 81 levels in a conventional building. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (December 15, 1832 – December 27, 1923; French pronunciation in IPA, in English usually pronounced ) was a French structural engineer and architect and a specialist of metallic structures. ... Paris is among the cities hosting the most skyscrapers in Europe: as of 2006 there are twelve skyscrapers with roof height above 150 meters (492 feet) and two more under construction (compared to 9 such skyscrapers in London, 9 in Frankfurt, 6 in Moscow, and 6 in Istanbul). ...


When the tower was completed in 1889 it was the world's tallest tower — a title it retained until 1930 when New York City's Chrysler Building (319 m — 1,047 ft tall) was completed.[6] The tower is now the fifth-tallest structure in France and the tallest structure in Paris, with the second-tallest being the Tour Montparnasse (210 m — 689 ft), although that will soon be surpassed by Tour AXA (225.11 m — 738.36 ft). New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. ... Tour Maine-Montparnasse (Maine-Montparnasse Tower), also commonly named Tour Montparnasse is a 210-metre (689-foot) tall office skyscraper located in Paris, France, in the area of Montparnasse. ... Tour AXA (also known as tour Assur, previously known as tour UAP between 1974-1998) is an office skyscraper located in La Défense, the high-rise business district of Paris, France. ...


The metal structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tons while the entire structure including non-metal components is approximately 10,000 tons. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm (7 in) because of thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun. The tower also sways 6-7 cm (2-3 in) in the wind.[7] As demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7300 tons of the metal structure were melted down it would fill the 125 meter square base to a depth of only 6 cm (2.36 in), assuming a density of the metal to be 7.8 tons per cubic meter.[citation needed] The first and second levels are accessible by stairways and lifts. A ticket booth at the south tower base sells tickets to access the stairs which begin at that location. At the first platform the stairs continue up from the east tower and the third level summit is only accessible by lift. From the first or second platform the stairs are open for anyone to ascend or descend regardless of whether they have purchased a lift ticket or stair ticket. The actual count of stairs includes 9 steps to the ticket booth at the base, 328 steps to the first level, 340 steps to the second level and 18 steps to the lift platform on the second level. When exiting the lift at the third level there are 15 more steps to ascend to the upper observation platform. The step count is printed periodically on the side of the stairs to give an indication of progress of ascent. The majority of the ascent allows for an unhindered view of the area directly beneath and around the tower although some short stretches of the stairway that are enclosed.


Maintenance of the tower includes applying 50 to 60 tons of paint every seven years to protect it from rust. In order to maintain a uniform appearance to an observer on the ground, three separate tones of paint are used on the tower, with the darkest tone on the bottom, and the lightest at the top. On occasion the colour of the paint is changed — the tower is currently painted a shade of brownish-grey. [8] On the first floor there are interactive consoles hosting a poll for the colour to use for a future session of painting. The co-architects of the Eiffel Tower are Emile Nouguier, Maurice Koechlin and Stephen Sauvestre.[9]


History

Eiffel Tower under construction in July 1888.
Eiffel Tower under construction in July 1888.

The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. Eiffel originally planned to build the tower in Barcelona, for the Universal Exposition of 1888, but those responsible at the Barcelona city hall thought it was a strange and expensive construction, which did not fit into the design of the city. After the refusal of the Consistory of Barcelona, Eiffel submitted his draft to those responsible for the Universal Exhibition in Paris, where he would build his tower a year later, in 1889. The tower was inaugurated on March 31, 1889, and opened on 6 May. Three hundred workers joined together 18,038 pieces of puddled iron (a very pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million rivets, in a structural design by Maurice Koechlin. The risk of accident was great, for unlike modern skyscrapers the tower is an open frame without any intermediate floors except the two platforms. However, because Eiffel took safety precautions, including the use of movable stagings, guard-rails and screens, only one man died. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Tour_Eiffel_1878. ... Image File history File links Tour_Eiffel_1878. ... The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a Worlds Fair held in Paris, France from May 5, to October 31, 1889. ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Schematic drawing of a puddling furnace The puddling furnace is a metalmaking technology to create wrought iron from the pig iron produced in a blast furnace. ... I NEED TO FUCK SOMEONE! I AM TIRED OF PORN! SOMEONE HELP ME! ... Maurice Koechlin (March 8, 1856 - January 14, 1946) was a French structural engineer. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ...


The tower was met with much criticism from the public when it was built, with many calling it an eyesore. (Novelist Guy de Maupassant — who claimed to hate the tower — supposedly ate lunch in the Tower's restaurant every day. When asked why, he answered that it was the one place in Paris where you couldn't see the Tower.) Today, it is widely considered to be a striking piece of structural art. Guy de Maupassant. ...


One of the great Hollywood movie clichés is that the view from a Parisian window always includes the tower. In reality, since zoning restrictions limit the height of most buildings in Paris to 7 stories, only a very few of the taller buildings have a clear view of the tower. ...


Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years, meaning it would have had to be dismantled in 1909, when its ownership would revert to the City of Paris. The City had planned to tear it down (part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it could be easily demolished) but as the tower proved valuable for communication purposes, it was allowed to remain after the expiration of the permit. The military used it to dispatch Parisian taxis to the front line during the First Battle of the Marne, and it therefore became a victory statue of that battle. Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bülow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total...


Shape of the tower

Eiffel Tower from the base

At the time the tower was built many people were shocked by its daring shape. Eiffel was criticised for the design and accused of trying to create something artistic, or inartistic according to the viewer, without regard to engineering. Eiffel and his engineers, as renowned bridge builders however, understood the importance of wind forces and knew that if they were going to build the tallest structure in the world they had to be certain it would withstand the wind. In an interview reported in the newspaper Le Temps, Eiffel said: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 3008 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 3008 pixel, file size: 2. ...

Now to what phenomenon did I give primary concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument's four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation dictated it should be (...) will give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole.

—translated from the French newspaper Le Temps of February 14, 1887[10] Wind resistance is overall drag on a body due to its interaction with the atmosphere. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

The shape of the tower was therefore determined by mathematical calculation involving wind resistance. Several theories of this mathematical calculation have been proposed over the years, the most recent is a nonlinear integral differential equation based on counterbalancing the wind pressure on any point on the tower with the tension between the construction elements at that point. That shape is exponential. A careful plot of the tower curvature however, reveals two different exponentials, the lower section having a stronger resistance to wind forces.[11][12] To do: 20th century mathematics chaos theory, fractals Lyapunov stability and non-linear control systems non-linear video editing See also: Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov Dynamical system External links http://www. ... Visualization of airflow into a duct modelled using the Navier-Stokes equations, a set of partial differential equations. ...


Installations

The Eiffel tower and the Seine at night
The Eiffel tower and the Seine at night

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the tower has been used for radio transmission. Until the 1950s, an occasionally modified set of antenna wires ran from the summit to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. They were connected to long-wave transmitters in small bunkers; in 1909, a permanent underground radio centre was built near the south pillar and still exists today.[citation needed] On November 20, 1913 the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an antenna, exchanged sustained wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory which used an antenna in Arlington, Virginia. The object of the transmissions was to measure the difference in longitude between Paris and Washington, DC.[13] View of Champ de Mars from the top of the Eiffel Tower The Champ_de_Mars is a vast public area in Paris, France, located in the 7th arrondissement, between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the cole Militaire to the southeast. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aerial view of USNO. The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000... This article is about the capital of France. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


The tower has two restaurants: Altitude 95, on the first floor (95 m, 311 ft, above sea level); and the Jules Verne, an expensive gastronomical restaurant on the second floor, with a private lift. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. In January 2007 a new multi-Michelin star chef Alain Ducasse was brought in to run Jules Verne.[14] For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Gastronomy is the study of relationship between culture and food. ... New York City 2006 First Michelin Red Guide for North America The Michelin Guide (Le Guide Michelin) is a series of annual guide books published by Michelin for over a dozen countries. ... Alain Ducasse (b. ...


The uppermost observation deck, with a height of 275 metres, is the highest area of an architectural structure in the European Union open for the public.[citation needed] In architecture, a deck is a constructed flat surface capable of supporting weight, similar to a floor but typically constructed outdoors and usually (though not always) connected to a building. ...


The passenger lifts from ground level to the first level are operated by cables and pullies driven by massive water-powered pistons. As they ascend the inclined arc of the legs, the elevator cabins tilt slightly, but with a slight jolt, every few seconds in order to keep the floor nearly level.[citation needed] The elevator works are on display and open to the public in a small museum located in one of the four tower bases.


Events

Lightning strikes the Eiffel Tower on 3 June 1902, at 9:20 P.M
Lightning strikes the Eiffel Tower on 3 June 1902, at 9:20 P.M
The Eiffel Tower served as an advertising space for Citroën from 1925 to 1934.
The Eiffel Tower served as an advertising space for Citroën from 1925 to 1934.
To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from one who has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison.
  • In 1902, the tower was struck by lightning (see photo at right). 100 m (330 ft) of the top had to be reconstructed and the damaged lights illuminating the tower had to be replaced.[15]
  • Father Theodor Wulf in 1910 took observations of radiant energy radiating at the top and bottom of the tower, discovering at the top more than was expected, and thereby detecting what are today known as cosmic rays.[16]
  • On February 4, 1912, Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt died after jumping 60 metres from the first deck of Eiffel tower with his home-made parachute.
  • In 1925, the con artist Victor Lustig twice "sold" the tower for scrap metal.
  • In 1930, the tower lost the title of the world's tallest structure when the Chrysler Building was completed in New York City.
  • From 1925 to 1934, illuminated signs for Citroën adorned three of the tower's four sides, making it the tallest advertising space in the world at the time.
  • Upon the Nazi occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb the steps to the summit. The parts to repair them were allegedly impossible to obtain because of the war. In 1940 Nazi soldiers had to climb to the top to hoist the swastika, but the flag was so large it blew away just a few hours later, and it was replaced by a smaller one. When visiting Paris, Hitler chose to stay on the ground. It was said that Hitler conquered France, but did not conquer the Eiffel Tower. A Frenchman scaled the tower during the German occupation to hang the French flag. In August 1944, when the Allies were nearing Paris, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order. The lifts of the Tower were working normally within hours of the Liberation of Paris.
  • On January 3, 1956, a fire damaged the top of the tower.
  • In 1957 the present radio antenna was added to the top.
  • In the 1980s an old restaurant and its supporting iron scaffolding midway up the tower was dismantled; it was purchased and reconstructed on St. Charles Avenue in New Orleans, Louisiana by entrepreneurs John Onorio and Daniel Bonnot, originally as the Tour Eiffel Restaurant, known more recently as the Red Room. The restaurant was re-assembled from 11,000 pieces that crossed the Atlantic in a 40-foot (12 m) cargo container.
  • On March 31, 1984, Robert Moriarty flew a Beechcraft Bonanza through the arches of the tower.[17]
  • In 1985's James Bond action/adventure film A View to a Kill, Sir Roger Moore as James Bond chases May Day played by actress Grace Jones up the Eiffel Tower. She parachutes from the structure to escape. The video of the film's theme tune, performed by the group Duran Duran, also included several scenes of the band staged on the tower intercut with clips from the film. A full 20 years earlier, the Bond film Thunderball (1965) featured an establishing shot of the tower as the villainous Largo, played by Adolfo Celi, parks outside the headquarters of SPECTRE in Paris.
  • On July 14 1995, Bastille Day, French synthesiser musician Jean Michel Jarre performed Concert For Tolerance at the tower in aid of UNESCO. The free concert was attended by an estimated 1.5 million people, filling the Champ-de-Mars. The concert featured lighting and projection effects on the tower, and a huge firework display throughout. Exactly 3 years later, he returned to the same spot for a more dance music orientated show, Electronic Night.
  • On New Year's Eve 2000, the Eiffel Tower played host to Paris' Millennium Celebration. Fireworks exploded from the whole length of the tower in a spectacular display. An exhibition above a cafeteria on the first floor commemorates this event.
  • In 2000, flashing lights and four high-power searchlights were installed on the tower. Since then the light show has become a nightly event. The searchlights on top of the tower make it a beacon in Paris' night sky.
  • The tower received its 200,000,000th guest of all-time in 2002.[18][19]
  • At 19:20 on July 22, 2003, a fire occurred at the top of the tower in the broadcasting equipment room. The entire tower was evacuated; the fire was extinguished after 40 minutes, and there were no reports of injuries.
  • Since 2004, the Eiffel Tower has hosted an ice skating rink on the first floor during the winter period.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1072x1624, 2129 KB) Description: Lightning striking the Eiffel Tower, June 3, 1902, at 9:20 P.M. This is one of the earliest photographs of lightning in an urban setting In:Thunder and Lightning, Camille Flammarion, translated by Walter Mostyn Published... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1072x1624, 2129 KB) Description: Lightning striking the Eiffel Tower, June 3, 1902, at 9:20 P.M. This is one of the earliest photographs of lightning in an urban setting In:Thunder and Lightning, Camille Flammarion, translated by Walter Mostyn Published... Image File history File links Tour_Eiffel_Citroen. ... Image File history File links Tour_Eiffel_Citroen. ... Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Edison redirects here. ... Look up guest book in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Theodor Wulf (July 28, 1868 - June 19, 1946) was a German physicist and Jesuit priest who was one of the first experimenters to detect excess atmospheric radiation. ... Radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic waves. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Franz Reichelt wearing the parachute that he designed Franz Reichelt (Unknown - February 4, 1912) was an Austrian tailor best known for his recorded accidental suicide. ... This article is about the device. ... Victor Lustig (January 4, 1890 – March 11, 1947) is held to have been one of the most talented confidence tricksters who ever lived. ... The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën. ... The military history of France during World War II covers the period from 1939 until 1940, which witnessed French military participation under the Third Republic, and the period from 1940 until 1945, which was marked by colonial struggles between Vichy France and the Free French Forces under Charles de Gaulle... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... Hitler redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the symbol. ... The national flag of France (known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... General der Infanterie Dietrich von Choltitz (November 9, 1894, Schloss Wiese, Silesia - November 4, 1966, Baden-Baden) was the German military governor of Paris during the closing days of the German occupation of that city during World War II. In World War I, von Choltitz served at the Western frontier... Combatants Free French Forces French Resistance Germany Commanders Philippe Leclerc Raymond Dronne Henri Rol-Tanguy Jacques Chaban-Delmas Dietrich von Choltitz # Strength 2nd Armoured Division, French resistance 20,000 Casualties 1,500 dead French resistance 71 dead, 225 wounded Free French Forces[1] 3,200 dead, 12,800 POW The... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... NOLA redirects here. ... The Fork Tailed Doctor Killer. ... This article is about the spy series. ... A View to a Kill is a 1985 spy film. ... For other persons named Roger Moore, see Roger Moore (disambiguation). ... Grace Jones (born Grace Mendoza on May 19, 1948, in Spanish Town, Jamaica) is a model, singer and actress. ... Duran Duran are an award-winning English rock band notable for a long series of popular singles and vivid music videos. ... For other topics with this name, see Thunderball. ... Adolfo Celi (July 27, 1922 – February 19, 1986) was an Italian film actor and director. ... Spectre, taken from the Battle for Wesnoth computer game. ... For the Battlestar Galactica episode, see Bastille Day (Battlestar Galactica). ... The term synthesiser is also used to mean frequency synthesiser, an electronic system found in communications. ... Jean-Michel André Jarre (born August 24, 1948 in Lyon, France) is a French composer, performer and music producer. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... View southeast from the top level of the Eiffel Tower, down the Champ de Mars, with the Tour Montparnasse (Montparnasse Tower) in the distance. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... For other articles with similar names, see New Year (disambiguation). ... Edisons classical searchlight cart. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ...

The 72 names

Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers and other notable people. This engraving was painted over at the beginning of the twentieth century but restored in 1986-1987 by the Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company contracted to operate business related to the Tower. On the Eiffel Tower, seventy two names of French scientists, engineers and some other notable people are engraved in recognition of their contributions by Gustave Eiffel. ...


Image copyright claims

Images of the tower have long been in the public domain; however, in 2003 SNTE (Société nouvelle d'exploitation de la tour Eiffel) installed a new lighting display on the tower. The effect was to put any night-time image of the tower and its lighting display under copyright. As a result, it was no longer legal to publish contemporary photographs of the tower at night without permission in some countries.[20][21] The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


The imposition of copyright has been controversial. The Director of Documentation for SNTE, Stéphane Dieu, commented in January 2005, "It is really just a way to manage commercial use of the image, so that it isn't used in ways we don't approve." However, it also potentially has the effect of prohibiting tourist photographs of the tower at night from being published[22] as well as hindering non profit and semi-commercial publication of images of the tower.


In a recent decision, the Court of Cassation ruled that copyright could not be claimed over images including a copyrighted building if the photograph encompassed a larger area. This seems to indicate that SNTE cannot claim copyright on photographs of Paris incorporating the lit tower. The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ...


In jurisdictions, this claim of copyright is explicitly disallowed. In Irish copyright law, works "permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public" may be freely included in visual reproductions.[23]


In popular culture

Main article: Eiffel Tower in popular culture
Panoramic view from underneath the Eiffel Tower.
Panoramic view from underneath the Eiffel Tower.

As a global landmark, the Eiffel Tower is featured in media including films, video games, and television shows. The Eiffel Tower has appeared frequently in works of fiction. ...


Lattice towers taller than Eiffel Tower

Name Pinnacle height Year Country Town Remarks
Kiev TV Tower 1263 ft 385 m 1973 Ukraine Kiev Tallest lattice tower of the world
Tashkent Tower 1230 ft 374.9 m 1985 Uzbekistan Tashkent
Pylons of Yangtze River Crossing 1137 ft 346.5m 2003 People’s Republic of China Jiangyin 2 towers, tallest pylons in the world
Dragon Tower 1102 ft 336 m 2000 People’s Republic of China Harbin
Tokyo Tower 1091 ft 332.6 m 1958 Japan Tokyo
Emley Moor transmitting station 1084 ft 330.4 m 1971 United Kingdom West yorkshire, England
WITI TV Tower 1078 ft 329 m 1962 U.S. Shorewood, Wisconsin
WSB TV Tower 1075 ft 327.6 m 1957 U.S. Atlanta, Georgia

Up close view of the Kiev TV Tower. ... The Eiffel Tower is a famous example of a lattice tower A lattice tower is a freestanding steel framework tower. ... The TV Tower of Tashkent is a 375 meter high tower, located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. ... The Yangtze River Crossing may refer to one of three overhead power lines crossing the Yangtze River, China. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... People on the stairs to the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago In general, the English word people refers to a specific group of humans, or to persons in a general sense. ... Pylon redirects here. ... The Dragon Tower in Harbin, China is a tall tower of lattice steel used for communication. ... People on the stairs to the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago In general, the English word people refers to a specific group of humans, or to persons in a general sense. ... Tokyo Tower ) is a tower in Shiba Park, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan ( ). It is 332. ... Map showing the location of Emley Moor within West Yorkshire. ... The WITI tower, situated at 43°0526. ... WSB TV Tower is a 327. ...

Architectural structures in France taller than Eiffel Tower

Name Pinnacle height Year Structure type Town Remarks
Longwave transmitter Allouis 350 m 1974 Guyed Mast Allouis
HWU transmitter 350 m  ? Guyed Mast Rosnay Multiple masts
Viaduc de Millau 343 m 2004 Bridge Pillar Millau
TV Mast Niort-Maisonnay 330 m  ? Guyed Mast Niort
Transmitter Le Mans-Mayet 342 m 1993 Guyed Mast Mayet
Transmitter Roumoules 330 m 1974 Guyed Mast Roumoules spare transmission mast for longwave, insulated against ground

This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... HWU Transmitter is a facility for transmitting orders to submerged submarines of the French Navy. ... The nearly completed bridge in September 2004 The Millau Viaduct (French: le Viaduc de Millau) is a cable-stayed road bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France. ... The TV Mast Niort-Maisonnay is a 330 metre high guyed mast for TV transmission near Niort, France. ... The transmitter Le Mans-Mayet is a 342 metre high guyed mast for TV- and FM-radio transmission near Le Mans, France. ... The Transmitter Roumoules is the broadcasting facility for long-, medium and shortwave of RMC near Roumoules, France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Similar towers and reproductions

Similar towers (not scale models)

In order of decreasing height:

This article is about the CN Tower in Toronto. ... Up close view of the Kiev TV Tower. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... The Radio and TV Tower from below The Riga Radio and TV Tower (RÄ«gas radio un televÄ«zijas tornis) is the tallest structure in Riga, Latvia and Baltic states. ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... Macau Tower, Macau The observation deck, viewed from underneath A fountain in the shape of a lotus, the representative flower of Macau, outside the Macau Tower Macau Tower, also known as Macau Sky Tower, is a tower located in Macau, a Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Dragon Tower in Harbin, China is a tall tower of lattice steel used for communication. ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... Tokyo Tower ) is a tower in Shiba Park, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan ( ). It is 332. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Yerevan TV Tower as seen from the Nork highway Yerevan TV Tower is a 311. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... The Saint Petersburg TV Tower is a 310 metre high lattice steel tower in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The Star Tower is a 956 foot high transmitting tower for TV and FM in Cincinnati, Ohio at 39°1201. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... Qingdao TV Tower is a 232 metre high lattice TV Tower at Quingdao China with an observation deck in a height of 130 metres. ... The Crystal Palace Transmitter is a telecommunications tower in the Crystal Palace area in the London Borough of Bromley, England (grid reference TQ339712). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Masts of the Rugby VLF transmitter in England Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials in the UK) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. ... Brasilia TV Tower is a 218 metre high TV tower at Brasilia. ... Bras lia is the capital city of Brazil and is located in the center of the country in a federal district created in the state of Goi s. ... Guangzhou Tower is a telecommunication tower in the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou at 217m and was erected in 1991. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Blosenbergturm is a transmitting tower in Beromünster, Canton of Lucerne, Switzerland, built in 1937 for the German radio station DRS and sending at a AM frequency of 531 kHz. ... Beromünster is a town in Switzerland. ... ... A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... Nagoya TV tower The Nagoya TV tower (名古屋テレビ塔; Nagoya Terebi-tō) is an electric wave tower in Nagoya. ... Nagoya ) is the fourth largest city in Japan. ... OdinstÃ¥rnet (The Odin Tower) was an observation tower in Odense, Denmark. ... Odense is the third largest city in Denmark with 145,554 inhabitants (Odense city January 1, 2004) and the capital of the island of Funen. ... The Arts Centre spire The Arts Centre is a complex of theatres and concert halls in the Southgate precinct of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Melbourne is the state capital and largest city in the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-largest city in Australia, with a population of approximately 3. ... The Transmitter Ismaning is a large radio station inaugaurated in 1932. ... Ismaning is a town near Munich with 14,638 inhabitants. ... Looking down to the road below through the glass floor The Blackpool Tower is a tourist attraction in the town of Blackpool, Lancashire, in Northern England (grid reference SD306360). ... This article is about the town in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Mesquite Tower is a free-standing lattice tower at Mequite, Texas, USA at 32°4546. ... Mesquite is a suburb of Dallas, Texas, located in Dallas County and Kaufman County, Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The Croydon Transmitter is a television transmission facility in Upper Norwood, London, England (grid reference TQ332696), in the London Borough of Croydon, owned by Arqiva. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Funkturm Berlin Funkturm - blue illuminated on the occasion of the Funkausstellung 2005 Berliner Funkturm seen from the Zentraler Omnibus Bahnhof The Berliner Funkturm or Funkturm Berlin (Radio Tower Berlin) is a transmitting tower in Berlin, built between 1924 and 1926 by Heinrich Straumer. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Masts of the Rugby VLF transmitter in England Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials in the UK) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. ... Sapporo TV Tower Sapporo TV Tower (札幌テレビ塔), built in 1957, is a 147. ... Sapporo redirects here. ... The Gliwice Radio Tower is the transmission tower of the Gliwice, Poland, radio station, situated at 50°1848. ... Gliwice (pronounce: [gliviʦε]; German: ), is an industrial city in southern Poland with 200,361 inhabitants (2004) over the KÅ‚odnica River, about 20 km to the west from Katowice. ... AWA Tower The AWA Tower is an office and communications complex in Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Beppu Tower is a 100 metre high lattice transmission tower with an observation deck in a height off 55 metres in Beppu, Japan. ... Beppu (別府市; -shi) is a city located in Oita, Japan. ... The Tour métallique de Fourvière at night The Tour métallique de Fourvière is a landmark of Lyon, France. ... This article is about the French city. ... The Eiffel Tower is a famous example of a lattice tower A lattice tower is a freestanding steel framework tower. ... The Torre del Reformador is a 75 metre high steel framework tower at Guatamala City. ... Guatemala City (in full, La Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción; locally known as Guatemala or Guate) is the capital and largest city of the nation of Guatemala. ... The Brookmans Park transmitter is a facility for medium wave broadcasting north of London (national grid reference: TL259050). ... The Petřínská rozhledna is a 60 metre high steel framework tower in Prague, which strongly resembles the Eiffel Tower. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Bachtel Tower Bachtel Tower ( German: Bachtelturm ) is a 60 metre tall radio tower on 1116 metre high Bachtel mountain near Hinwil, Switzerland. ... Hinwil is a municipality in the district of Hinwil, in the canton of Zürich, Switzerland. ... Wiesbaden is a city in central Germany. ... Watkins Tower was a partially-completed building in London, England also known as Watkins Folly or the London Stump. It was marketed as the great tower of London in its day. ... Wembley Park tube station is a London Underground station at Wembley. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Josephs Cross (Josephskreuz) is an observation tower in form of a double cross on the 579 metre high Auerberg near Stollberg (Hartz). ... Stollberg is a town in Saxony, capital of the district Stollberg. ... The Harz is a mountain range in northern Germany. ... Lemberg Tower is a 33 meters high observation tower built in 1899 on the 1015 meters high Lemberg, the highest mountain of the Swabian Alb, at 48° 09 03N and 8° 44 56 E. Lemberg Tower is implemented as steel framework construction and carries also some antennas for directional... Gehrenberg Tower is a 30 metres tall observation tower of lattice steel on Gehrenberg, a 704 metres high mountain north of Markdorf at 47°4410 N and 9°2414 E. Gehrenberg Tower has some similiarities to Eiffel Tower as it has a bow between its feet like Eiffel... Salzgitter is a city in southeast Lower Saxony, Germany, located between Hildesheim and Braunschweig. ... The Tour du Belvédère is a 20 metre tall observation tower located on Belvédère mountain near Mulhouse in Alsace, France. ... Woodwards was a pioneering department store in Alberta and British Columbia that was created in 1892 and sold to Hudsons Bay Company in 1993. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... For automobile roofs, see Sunroof. ... Location in Maryland. ...

Reproductions

In order of decreasing height:

Replica at Kings Island near Cincinnati, Ohio

This article is about the Las Vegas hotel. ... The south end of The Strip; approximately one third of the entire Strip is represented here. ... Looking west toward Paradise Road and the Las Vegas Strip in the CDP of Paradise, Nevada Paradise is a census-designated place located in Clark County, Nevada. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... Shenzhen is a sub-provincial city of Guangdong province in southern China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1332x1296, 617 KB) Summary Paramounts Kings Island 1/3 Scale Eiffel Tower Replica, Photo taken by me in 1994 with a cheap disposable camera, should be replaced as soon as possible Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1332x1296, 617 KB) Summary Paramounts Kings Island 1/3 Scale Eiffel Tower Replica, Photo taken by me in 1994 with a cheap disposable camera, should be replaced as soon as possible Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current... Kings Island is a 364 acre (1. ... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Kings Island is a 364 acre (1. ... Mason is a city in southwestern Warren County, Ohio, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Kings Dominion is a 400 acre amusement park located in Doswell in Hanover County 23 miles (37 km) north of Richmond, Virginia and 83 miles (134 km) south of Washington, DC on Interstate 95. ... Doswell is located in Hanover County and in the Central Region of the state of Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Coordinates: , Country Romania County IalomiÅ£a Government  - Mayor Gabi IonaÅŸcu, since 2000, SDP Area  - City 132. ... Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russian: , Chelyabinskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... ... Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russian: , Chelyabinskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Nickname: Location of Fayetteville, North Carolina Coordinates: , Country State County Cumberland Settled 1762 Government  - Mayor Anthony G. Chavonne  - City Manager Dale E. Iman Area  - Total 60. ... Cinderella Castle, at the center of the Magic Kingdom, is Walt Disney World Resorts most recognizable icon Introduction Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company, the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida, USA is home to four theme parks, two water parks, several resort hotels and golf courses... This article is about the Epcot theme park. ... Theme Park is a simulation computer game designed by Bullfrog Productions, released in 1994, in which the player designs and operates an amusement park. ... Lake Buena Vista is a city located in Orange County, Florida, U.S., at the 2000 census the population was 16. ... Epcots logo Spaceship Earth is the symbol of Epcot. ... This article is about the city in Northeast Texas. ... Meccano is a model construction kit comprising re-usable metal strips, plates, angle girders, wheels, axles and gears, with nuts and bolts to connect the pieces. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Meckenheim is a town and a municipality in the Rhein-Sieg district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Satteldorf is a town in the district of Schwäbisch Hall in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... UAE redirects here. ... For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ... Mini-Europe is a part of Heysel in Brussels, Belgium that contains replicas of famous buildings from countries in the European Union, presented at a scale of 1 to 25. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... The replica of the Eiffel tower in Paris, Tennessee. ...

Broadcasting stations

FM-Radio

Programme Frequency ERP
France Inter
Regional 90,35 MHz 3 kW
France Culture 93,35 MHz 3 kW
France Musique 97,6 MHz 3 kW

France Inter is the major French public radio network. ... A region can be any area that has some unifying feature. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... France Culture is a French public radio station devoted to cultural matters. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... France Musique is a French public radio station devoted to music, including classical music and jazz. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ...

TV

Programme Channel-Number Frequency ERP
Canal+ 6 182,25 MHz 100 kW
France 2 22 479,25 MHz 500 kW
TF1 25 503,25 MHz 500 kW
France 3 28 527,25 MHz 500 kW
France 5 30 543,25 MHz 100 kW
M6 33 567,25 MHz 100 kW

Canal+ (Canal Plus, meaning Channel Plus/More in French) is a French premium pay television channel launched in 1984. ... TF1 is a private French TV channel, controlled by TF1 Group, whose major share-holder is Bouygues. ... Métropole 6, known popularly as simply M6, is a French television service owned by a company called Métropole Télévision. ...

Other structures carrying this name

  • Eiffel Tower Co-op in Hackensack, New Jersey, USA[29]

See also

The under construction Burj Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates is the worlds current tallest freestanding structure on land, rising 585. ... This article contains a list of the tallest buildings and structures both inside Paris city limits and within neighboring communes that are part of the Paris metropolitan area. ... On the Eiffel Tower, seventy two names of French scientists, engineers and some other notable people are engraved in recognition of their contributions by Gustave Eiffel. ...

References

  1. ^ The Eiffel Tower as a World monument
  2. ^ Number of visitors since 1889
  3. ^ A few statistics
  4. ^ The Guardian: New look for Eiffel Tower
  5. ^ LeMonde.fr : Tour Eiffel et souvenirs de Paris
  6. ^ ThinkQuest article on the Eiffel Tower.
  7. ^ A few statistics
  8. ^ Painting the Eiffel Tower
  9. ^ Conception and design of the Eiffel Tower
  10. ^ Extrait de la réponse d'Eiffel
  11. ^ Elegant Shape Of Eiffel Tower Solved Mathematically By University Of Colorado Professor
  12. ^ The Virginia Engineer: Correct Theory Explaining The Eiffel Tower’s Design Revealed
  13. ^ "Paris Time By Wireless," New York Times, November 22, 1913, pg 1.
  14. ^ Paris France Guide: Paris Hotels, Food, Wine and Discounts - The Eiffel Tower Breaking News
  15. ^ "Thunder and Lightning", Camille Flammarion, translated by Walter Mostyn, published in 1906.
  16. ^ Wulf, Theodor. Physikalische Zeitschrift, contains results of the four-day long observation done by Theodor Wulf while at the top of the Eiffel Tower in 1910.
  17. ^ A Bonanza in Paris. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  18. ^ The Eiffel Tower: Paris' Grande Dame. france.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  19. ^ Soirée réussie le 28 novembre pour fêter l'année du 200 millionième visiteur (French). Official Site (2002). Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  20. ^ Statement that publishing pictures of the lighting requires a fee
  21. ^ In the United States, for example, 17 USC 120(a) explicitly permits the publication of photographs of copyrighted architecture in public spaces. In Germany this is known as Panoramafreiheit.
  22. ^ Eiffel Tower: Repossessed
  23. ^ Irish Statute Books - Representation of certain artistic works on public display
  24. ^ http://en.structurae.de/files/photos/2328/ismaning02.jpg
  25. ^ http://www2.odn.ne.jp/yoko—tower/list1—e.htm
  26. ^ Disney's official French Pavilion page - lists the Eiffel Tower as approximately 1/10th the height of the original.
  27. ^ Eiffel Tower
  28. ^ :: Falconcity of Wonders (L.L.C) ::
  29. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=19207

is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Frémy, Dominique, Quid de la Tour Eiffel, Robert Lafont, Paris (1989) — out of print

Gallery

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Official website of the Eiffel Tower (French)
  • English version (English)
  • Eiffel Tower in the Structurae database
  • Mechanical Engineering Magazine: Deconstructing Eiffel
  • Reconstructing the Eiffel Tower in CATIA ,3DXML file to download and CG Images
  • 3D render of the Eiffel Tower for use in Google Earth
  • The first transmitters at Eiffel Tower
  • Eiffel Tower is at coordinates 48°51′30″N 2°17′40″E / 48.8583, 2.2945 (Eiffel Tower)Coordinates: 48°51′30″N 2°17′40″E / 48.8583, 2.2945 (Eiffel Tower)
Preceded by
Washington Monument
World's tallest structure
1889—1931
300.24m
Succeeded by
Chrysler Building

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Structurae is an on-line database containing works of structural and civil engineering of all kinds such as Bridges, High-rise buildings, towers, dams, etc. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This article is about the monument in Washington, D.C. For other monuments dedicated to George Washington, see Washington Monuments (world). ... For many millennia the record holder for worlds tallest structure was clearly defined (see table below. ... The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Paris. ... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... The Sacré-CÅ“ur Basilica (French: Basilique du Sacré-CÅ“ur, Basilica of the Sacred Heart) is a Roman Catholic basilica and popular landmark in Paris, France, dedicated to the Sacred Heart. ... For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... Centre Georges Pompidou (constructed 1971–1977 and known as the Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the IVe arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles and the Marais. ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  ) is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. ... The Palais de Justice, the Conciergerie and the Tour de lHorloge, after 1858 - by Adrien Dauzats The Conciergerie (French: La Conciergerie) is a former prison in Paris, located on the west of the ÃŽle de la Cité, near the Cathedral of Notre-Dame. ... Grand Palais in 2004 The Grand Palais (Grand Palace) is a large glass exhibition hall that was built for the Paris Exhibition of 1900. ... People relaxing in front of the Luxembourg Palace The Jardin du Luxembourg (familiar nickname Luco) is a 224,500 m² public park and the largest in the city located in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, France. ... The church at the Invalides Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings original purpose. ... This article is about the museum. ... Vincent Van Gogh: Starry Night Over the Rhone, painted in September 1888 at Arles Pierre-Auguste Renoir: Bal au moulin de la Galette, Montmartre, 1876 Édouard Manet: The Luncheon on the Grass, 1862-3 Gustave Courbet: The Artists Studio (detail), 1855 Paul Cézanne: Apples and Oranges, circa 1899... The Palais Garnier, Paris The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris as well as the Opéra Garnier, is a 2,200 seat opera house in Paris, France. ... Looking down the hill at Père-Lachaise. ... Image File history File links Paris-metropolitan-area-symbol. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Milad Tower under construction, as of June 22nd, 2005. ... Beijings CCTV Tower The China Central Television TV (CCTV) Tower is the tallest structure in Beijing, China. ... This article is about the CN Tower in Toronto. ... The Berliner Fernsehturm seen from a distance. ... Gerbrandy tower, IJsselstein, NL The tower at Christmas The Gerbrandy Tower (Dutch: ) is a tower which was built in 1961 in the Netherlands. ... Located in the city of Guangzhou, China, Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Tower [1] will be the tallest free standing structure after its completion in 2009, provided the Burj Dubai does not open first. ... HöiÃ¥smasten is a TV tower used for FM- and TV-transmission near Halden at Norway. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For the North Korean TV channel, see Korean Central Television KCTV is the CBS-affiliated television station for the Kansas City metropolitan area. ... Up close view of the Kiev TV Tower. ... The Kuala Lumpur Tower (officially known as Menara Kuala Lumpur; referred later as KL Tower) is a tall tower located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and was built in 1995. ... The KXJB-TV mast is a television transmitting tower in Traill County, North Dakota, United States. ... KVLY-TV mast seen close-up The KVLY-TV mast (formerly the KTHI-TV mast) is a television transmitting mast in Traill County, North Dakota, USA, used by Fargo station KVLY channel 11. ... At 372 m, the Liberation Tower (seen in background) is the worlds 21st tallest free-standing structure, by pinnacle height. ... Macau Tower, Macau The observation deck, viewed from underneath A fountain in the shape of a lotus, the representative flower of Macau, outside the Macau Tower Macau Tower, also known as Macau Sky Tower, is a tower located in Macau, a Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of... The Oriental Pearl Tower (Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Official Name: 东方明珠电视塔) is a TV tower in Shanghai, China. ... Vertical panorama of Ostankino Television Tower The Ostankino tower seen from the grounds at All-Russia Exhibition Centre. ... The Radio and TV Tower from below The Riga Radio and TV Tower (RÄ«gas radio un televÄ«zijas tornis) is the tallest structure in Riga, Latvia and Baltic states. ... Saint Petersburg TV Tower as seen from the Medikov street The Saint Petersburg TV Tower is a 310 metre high lattice steel tower in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Looking up at the Sky Tower / Sky Tower lit up at night. ... The Stratosphere Las Vegas is a hotel and casino located on the Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada, owned by American Casino & Entertainment Properties which is a wholly owned subsidiary of American Real Estate Partners. ... Sydney Tower (also known as the AMP Tower, AMP Centrepoint Tower, Centrepoint Tower or just Centrepoint) is Sydneys tallest free-standing structure, and the second tallest in Australia (with the Q1 building on the Gold Coast being the tallest). ... Tallinn TV Tower, looking up at the top. ... The TV Tower of Tashkent is a 375 meter high tower, located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. ... Tbilisi TV Tower Georgia Tbilisi TV Broadcasting Tower is a free-standing tower structure used for communications purposes. ... The Tianjin Radio and Television Tower is a 415. ... Tokyo Tower ) is a tower in Shiba Park, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan ( ). It is 332. ... Downtown San Antonio features the historic San Fernando Cathedral, the Tower Life Building and the Tower of The Americas. ... The Torrena is a 336. ... The Vilnius TV Tower (Lithuanian: Vilniaus televizijos bokÅ¡tas) is a 326. ... The Warsaw radio mast in Konstantynów The Warsaw radio mast a few months after collapse Warsaw Radio Mast from far away The Warsaw radio mast was the tallest structure ever built; however, it existed only from 1973 to 1991. ... Zendstation Smilde is a tall free-standing structure, similar as Gerbrandy Tower, built for directional radio services and TV and FM-transmissions in 1959 in the Netherlands. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Eiffel Tower - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2408 words)
The Eiffel Tower (pronounced /ˌaɪfəl 'taʊɚ/; French: La Tour Eiffel, pronounced /tuʀ ɛfɛl/) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris.
At the time of its construction in 1889, the tower replaced the Washington Monument as the tallest structure in the world, a title it retained until 1930, when New York City's Chrysler Building (319 m/1063.33 ft tall) was completed (although the tower was still taller if the respective spires of the two structures were excluded).
The tower was met with resistance from the public when it was built, with many calling it an eyesore (Novelist Guy de Maupassant ate at a restaurant at the tower regularly, because it was the one place in Paris he was sure he wouldn't see it).
Eiffel Tower - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2408 words)
Named after its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, it is a premier tourist destination.
The Eiffel Tower served as a billboard for Citroën from 1925 to 1934.
Brasilia TV Tower, Brasilia, Brazil — 218 m lattice tower with an observation deck at a height of 75 m.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m