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Encyclopedia > Eidetic memory


Eidetic memory, photographic memory, or total recall is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with extreme accuracy and in abundant volume. The word eidetic (pronounced /aɪˈdɛtɨk/) means related to extraordinarily detailed and vivid recall of visual images, and comes from the Greek word είδος (eidos), which means "form".[1] Eidetic memory can have a very different meaning for memory experts who use the picture elicitation method to detect it. Eidetic memory as observed in children is typified by the ability of an individual to study an image for approximately 30 seconds, and maintain a nearly perfect photographic memory of that image for a short time once it has been removed--indeed such eidetikers claim to "see" the image on the blank canvas as vividly and in as perfect detail as if it were still there. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Photographic memory or eidetic memory is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with great accuracy and in seemingly unlimited volume. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about compression waves. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Eidos Interactive is a publisher of video and computer games based in Britain. ...


Although many adults have demonstrated extraordinary memory abilities, before this finding, it was previously unknown whether true eidetic memory can persist into adulthood.[2][3][4][5] While many artists and composers such as Claude Monet and Mozart are commonly thought to have had eidetic memory, it is possible that their memories simply became highly trained in their respective fields of art, as they each devoted large portions of their waking hours towards the improvement of their abilities.[6] Such a focus on their individual arts most likely improved the relevant parts of their memory, which may account for their surprising abilities.[citation needed] An artist is someone who employs creative talent to produce works of art. ... Composers are people who write music. ... This article is about Impressionist painter. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ...

Contents

People with eidetic memory

A number of people claim to have eidetic memory, but until 2008, nearly no one had been tested and documented as having a memory that is truly photographic in a literal sense.[7] Regardless, a number of individuals with extraordinary memory that have been labeled by some as eidetikers.[8]

  • André-Marie Ampère, French physicist and mathematician.[9]
  • Henri Poincaré[10]
  • Actress Marilu Henner
  • John Von Neumann (A polymath)
  • Stephen Wiltshire, MBE, is a prodigious savant,[11] capable of drawing the entire skyline of a city after a helicopter ride.[12]
  • Kim Peek "prodigious savant"
  • Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Tom Morton, a taxi driver, knew over 16,000 telephone numbers in Lancashire and beat the British Olympia Telephone Exchange computer with his recall while being interviewed by Esther Rantzen and Adrian Mills on the popular BBC magazine programme That's Life! in 1993.[13]
  • Nikola Tesla[14]
  • Stu Ungar, World Series of Poker Champion 1980,1981.
  • Abbie Hoffman, the charismatic leader of the Yippie movement. He states his ability in his 1968 book Revolution for the Hell of it
  • Sandra Schimmel Gold, a well known artist, was studied for years at the State University of New York in Oneonta by Dr. Michael Siegel. A paper about her abilities was presented at the national APA convention in 1976-77.
  • Emily Hong, a child prodigy from New Haven, Connecticut
  • Business tycoon Charles R. Schwab could remember the names of 8,000 employees.
  • Andriy Slyusarchuk, 34 years old Ukrainian professor from Lviv, who achieved a new world record (on 28.02.2006) after having memorized five thousand one hundred numbers in a two minutes flat.[15][16].
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Tamara Rosenberg
  • Hame Kapoor From Pune, India
  • Leonard Euler Swiss mathematician
  • Hamish Fowler
  • Kim Robinson Australian Engineer

André-Marie Ampère (January 20, 1775 – June 10, 1836), was a French physicist and mathematician who is generally credited as one of the main discoverers of electromagnetism. ... Jules Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912) (IPA: [1]) was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ... Marilu Henner (born April 6, 1952) is an American actress and producer. ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... Leonardo da Vinci is regarded in many Western cultures as the archetypal Renaissance Man. A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... Stephen Wiltshire Stephen Wiltshire: Times Square - oil on canvas Tokyo skyline Stephen Wiltshire MBE, (born 1974) is an accomplished architectural artist who has been diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand Cross... Kim Peek (born November 11, 1951), is a savant with a photographic or eidetic memory and developmental disabilities, possibly resulting from congenital brain abnormalities. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Esther Louise Rantzen CBE (born on 22 June 1940 ) (age 66)) is a British journalist and television presenter who is best known for her long stint in Thats Life! and her anti paedophile activism activities as founder of the charity ChildLine. ... Adrian Mills is a British television presenter who appeared in the 1980s on Thats Life! with Esther Rantzen, and in later years has been a host on TV Travel Shop. ... Thats Life! was a television magazine-style series on BBC between 1973 and 1994, presented by Esther Rantzen throughout the entire run, with various changes of co-presenters. ... Nikola Tesla (Nih koh la TESS lah) [2](Serbian Cyrillic: ) (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was an inventor, physicist, mechanical and electrical engineer. ... Stuart Errol Ungar (September 8, 1953 – November 22, 1998) was a professional poker and gin rummy player, considered to be the best in history at both games. ... Abbott Howard Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States who co-founded the Youth International Party (Yippies). Later he became a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine. ... Charles R. Schwab (born 1937) is the founder and CEO of the Charles Schwab Corporation. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... Leonhard Euler aged 49 (oil painting by Emanuel Handmann, 1756) Leonhard Euler (April 15, 1707 - September 18, 1783) (pronounced oiler) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist. ...

Memory records

Guinness World Records lists people with extraordinary memories. For example, on July 2, 2005, Akira Haraguchi managed to recite pi's first 83,431 decimal places from memory and more recently to 100,000 decimal places in 16 hours (October 4, 2006). The 2004 World Memory Champion Ben Pridmore memorized the order of cards in a randomly shuffled 52-card deck in 31.03 seconds. The authors of the Guinness Book of Records, Norris and Ross McWhirter, had extraordinary memory, in that they could recall any entry in the book on demand, and did so weekly in response to audience questions on the long-running television show Record Breakers. However, such results can be duplicated using mental images and the "method of loci". Guinness World Records 2008 edition. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Akira Haraguchi (原口證) (born 1946) is a Japanese mental health counsellor best known for memorizing and reciting digits of Pi. ... When a circles diameter is 1, its circumference is Ï€. Pi or Ï€ is the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, approximately 3. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Ben Pridmore, born October 14, 1976 in Boston, England, was the World Memory Champion in 2004. ... Norris Dewar McWhirter, CBE (August 12, 1925 – April 19, 2004) was a writer, political activist, co-founder of the Freedom Association, and a television presenter. ... Alan Ross McWhirter (12 August 1925 - 27 November 1975), known as Ross McWhirter, was, with his twin brother, Norris McWhirter, co-founder of the Guinness Book of Records. ... ÆÀÉRecord Breakers was a British Guinness Book of Records themed childrens TV show, originally presented by Roy Castle with twin brothers Norris McWhirter and Ross McWhirter. ... The method of loci or Ars memoriae (art of memory) is a technique for remembering that has been practiced since Classical times. ...


Some individuals with autism display extraordinary memory, including those with related conditions such as Asperger's syndrome. Autistic savants are a rarity but they, in particular, show signs of spectacular memory. However, most individuals with a diagnosis of autism do not possess eidetic memory. Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Asperger described his patients as little professors. Aspergers syndrome (AS, or the more common shorthand Aspergers), is characterized as one of the five pervasive developmental disorders, and is commonly referred to as a form of high functioning autism. ... An autistic savant (historically described as idiot savant) is a person with both autism and Savant Syndrome. ...


Synesthesia has also been credited as an enhancement of auditory memory, but only for information that triggers a synesthetic reaction. However, some synesthetes have been found to have a more acute than normal "perfect color" sense with which they are able to match color shades nearly perfectly after extended periods of time, without the accompanying synesthetic reaction. For other uses, see Synesthesia (disambiguation). ...


Many people who generally have a good memory claim to have eidetic memory. However, there are distinct differences in the manner in which information is processed. People who have a generally capable memory often use mnemonic devices to retain information while those with eidetic memory remember very specific details, such as where a person was standing, etc. They may recall an event with great detail while those with a normal memory remember daily routines rather than specific details that may have interrupted a routine.


Also, it is not uncommon that some people may experience 'sporadic eidetic memory', where they may describe a rather limited number of memories in very close detail. These sporadic occurrences of eidetic memory are not triggered consciously in most cases.


A young boy Jayson has displayed eidetic memory without any concentration on what he was looking at.


Fiction

Main article: List of People in fiction with claimed eidetic memory

Works of fiction often have characters with extraordinary memory. Characters with eidetic memory are found in written works, film, television, and games. Eidetic memory (also called photographic memory) is described in many works of fiction. ...

This article is about Arthur Conan Doyles fictional detective. ... Mycroft Holmes as depicted by Sidney Edward Paget in Strand Magazine Mycroft Holmes is a fictional character in the stories written by Arthur Conan Doyle. ... Robert Langdon (June 22, 1964 in Exeter, New Hampshire, United States) is a fictional professor of religious iconology and symbology at Harvard University who appeared in the Dan Brown novels Angels and Demons (2000) and The Da Vinci Code (2003). ... The Da Vinci Code is a mystery/detective novel by American author Dan Brown, published in 2003 by Doubleday. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Angels and Demons Angels and Demons (Angels & Demons) is a bestselling mystery novel by Dan Brown. ... Severian is the narrator and main character of Gene Wolfes four-volume novel, The Book of the New Sun as well as its follow-up work, The Urth of the New Sun. ... The first two books of The Book of the New Sun, 2000 omnibus printing. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Good Will Hunting. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Adrian Monk is the protagonist of the television series Monk, portrayed by Tony Shalhoub. ... Monk is an Emmy and Golden Globe winning U.S. television show about the private detective Adrian Monk (Tony Shalhoub). ... Marshall J. Flinkman is a fictional character on the television series, Alias. ... Alias was an American Spy-fi television series created by J. J. Abrams which was broadcast on ABC from September 30, 2001 to May 22, 2006, spanning five seasons. ... Charlene Charlie Andrews is a fictional character featured in the television show Heroes. ... This is an alphabetical list of characters with special abilities appearing in the television series Heroes as well as the Heroes graphic novels. ... Heroes is an American science fiction serial drama television series created by Tim Kring, which premiered on NBC on September 25, 2006. ... Special Agent Fox William Mulder (born October 13, 1961), nicknamed Spooky Mulder, is a fictional character played by David Duchovny on the 1993-2002 television series, The X-Files. ... This article is about the TV show. ... Paul Cook, born on July 20, 1956, is an English drummer and former member of the Sex Pistols. ... Hackers is a 1995 film that follows the misfortunes of the young hackers Dade Murphy (Crash Override/Zero Cool, played by Jonny Lee Miller), Kate Libby (Acid Burn, played by Angelina Jolie) and their friends. ... Seven of Nine (born Annika Hansen) is a fictional character in the television series Star Trek: Voyager, portrayed by actress Jeri Ryan. ... Jeri Ryan as Seven of Nine, wearing the silver catsuit for which the character was noted. ... The starship Voyager (NCC-74656), an Intrepid-class starship. ... Winter was a childhood friend of Leia Organa, and a member of Alderaans Royal House. ... This article is about the series. ... This is a list of Star Wars books. ... For other uses, see Batman (disambiguation). ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Martian Manhunter is the superhero alias of Jonn Jonzz, alternately known as the Manhunter from Mars, a fictional comic book superhero who was created by DC Comics. ... Martian Manhunter Real name unpronouncable Publisher DC Comics First appearance Detective Comics #225 ( 1955) Created by Joe Samachson Joe Certa Jonn Jonzz, the Martian Manhunter, is a comic book hero appearing in DC Comics. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Criminal Minds is a crime drama that premiered on September 22, 2005 on CBS. It follows the adventures of an FBI profiling team from the FBIs Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU) from Quantico, Virginia. ... Criminal Minds is a crime drama that premiered on CBS on September 22, 2005. ... Inspector is a rank in many police forces. ... Nash Bridges was an American television police drama that was created by Carlton Cuse. ... Nash Bridges was an American television police drama that was created by Carlton Cuse. ... The Truth Machine (1996), science fiction novel by James L. Halperin about a genius who invents an infallible lie detector. ... Womens Murder Club is an American police procedural and legal drama set in San Francisco. ... Star Wars: Republic Commando is a first-person shooter Star Wars computer and video game, released in the US on 1 March 2005. ... Orson Scott Card (born August 24, 1951)[1] is a bestselling American author, as well as being a critic, political writer, and speaker. ... This article is about the TV show. ... Quantum Leap is an American science fiction television series that ran for 96 episodes from March 1989 to May 1993 on the NBC network. ... Detective School Q ) is a manga series, authored by Seimaru Amagi and Fumiya Satou, which was adapted into an anime series, produced by Pierrot. ... Shawn Spencer is a fictional character on the American television dramedy Psych played by American actor James Roday. ... This article is about the television series. ... Lexie Grey is a fictional character from the ABC television series Greys Anatomy. ... This article is about the television series. ... This article is about the character from Red Dragon. ... This article is about the novel. ... Susan Ivanova is a fictional character in the universe of the science fiction television series Babylon 5, played by Claudia Christian. ... Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ...

Controversy

Dr. Marvin Minsky, in his book The Society of Mind, was unable to verify claims of eidetic memory and considered reports of eidetic memory to be an "unfounded myth". Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927), sometimes affectionately known as Old Man Minsky, is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MITs AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy. ... The Society of Mind is the book and theory of natural intelligence as written and developed by Marvin Minsky. ...


Support for the belief that eidetic memory could be a myth was supplied by the psychologist Adriaan de Groot, who conducted an experiment into the ability of chess Grandmasters to memorize complex positions of chess pieces on a chess board. Initially it was found that these experts could recall surprising amounts of information, far more than non-experts, suggesting eidetic skills. However, when the experts were presented with arrangements of chess pieces that could never occur in a game, their recall was no better than the non-experts, implying that they had developed an ability to organise certain types of information, rather than possessing innate eidetic ability. Adriaan de Groot, a Dutch chess master and psychologist conducted some of the most famous chess experiments of all time in the 1940s-60. ... This article is about the Western board game. ...


Some people attribute exceptional powers of memory to enhanced memory techniques as opposed to any kind of innate difference in the brain. However, support for the belief that eidetic memory is a real phenomenon has been supplied by some studies. Charles Stromeyer studied his future wife Elizabeth who could recall poetry written in a foreign language that she did not understand years after she had first seen the poem. She also could recall random dot patterns with such fidelity as to combine two patterns into a stereoscopic image.[17] She remains the only person to have passed such a test. You can test yourself by examining the bottom pair of the exemplar Julesz random-dot stereograms in this Wiki without a stereoscope or without crossing your eyes to view them stereoscopically. There are more complex figures in Foundations of Cyclopean Perception, a book on such patterns by Bela Julesz.[18] A Random Dot Stereogram (RDS) is a technique created by Dr. Bela Julesz, described in the book Foundations of Cyclopean Perception. ... Pocket stereoskop WILD 1985 Old Zeiss pocket stereoscope with original test image Stereo card of a stereoscope in use. ... Foundations of Cyclopean Perception (ISBN 0-226-41527-9) is a book by Bela Julesz, published in 1971. ... Bela Julesz (February 19, 1928_December 31, 2003) was a visual neuroscientist and experimental psychologist in the fields of visual and auditory perception. ...


A.R. Luria wrote a famous account, Mind of a Mnemonist, of a subject with a remarkable memory, S.V. Shereshevskii; among various extraordinary feats, he could memorize lengthy lists of random words and recall them perfectly decades later. Luria believed the man had effectively unlimited recall; Shereshevskii is believed by some to be a prodigious savant like Peek. However, it is possible that he used memory techniques as well. Alexander Romanovich Luria (July 16, 1902-1977) was a famous Russian neuropsychologist. ... Solomon V. Shereshevskii (1886 - 1958?) (Russian: ), also known simply as S (Ш), was a Russian journalist and mnemonist. ...


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Category:Mnemonics
  • Synaptic plasticity
  • Autistic savant
  • Hyperthymesia - a condition where the affected individual has a superior autobiographical memory
  • Mnemonic
  • Absolute pitch (perfect pitch) - the ability to differentiate pitches, recall tones in the exact note without aid, and name a certain note played in an instant
  • Ayumu (chimpanzee), who outperforms humans in short-term memory tests

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of the connection, or synapse, between two neurons to change in strength. ... An autistic savant (historically described as idiot savant) is a person with both autism and Savant Syndrome. ... Hyperthymesia or hyperthymestic syndrome is a condition where the affected individual has a superior autobiographical memory. ... For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... Absolute pitch (AP), widely referred to as perfect pitch, is the ability of a person to identify or sing a musical note without the benefit of a known reference. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Eidetic. American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed. (2000). Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  2. ^ Taking a Picture of Good Memory Newspaper article; The Washington Times, October 2, 2003
  3. ^ Ask the Expert: Is there such a thing as a photographic memory? Scientific American. Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  4. ^ The Truth About Photographic Memory. Retrieved on 2006-03.
  5. ^ Joseph Foer. No One Has a Photographic Memory. Retrieved on 2006-04-27.
  6. ^ Monet painted from memory. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  7. ^ No One Has a Photographic Memory.
  8. ^ Is there such a thing as a photographic memory? Scientific American. Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  9. ^ Sartori, E. (1999). Histoire des grands scientifiques français (in French). Plon. ISBN 2259190715. 
  10. ^ Toulouse, E., 1910. Henri Poincaré. - (Source biography in French)
  11. ^ Treffert, Darold (1989). Extraordinary People: understanding "idiot savants". New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0060159456. 
  12. ^ David Martin, Savants: Charting "islands of genius" CNN broadcast September 14, 2006
  13. ^ Memory man left pi and dry (1998-03-08). BBC News. Last accessed 2007-11-14
  14. ^ Cheney, Margaret, "Tesla: Man Out of Time", 1979. ISBN
  15. ^ http://www.lviv-life.com/news/news/36-As_Easy_As_Pi As Easy As Pi
  16. ^ http://www.book.adamant.ua/akt/2slysar4uk/1.htm Ukrainian Book of Records
  17. ^ Stromeyer, C. F., Psotka, J. (1970). "The detailed texture of eidetic images.". Nature 225: 346-349. doi:10.1038/225346a0. 
  18. ^ ^ Julesz, B. (1971). Foundations of Cyclopean Perception. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-41527-9.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jules Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912) (IPA: [1]) was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

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