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Encyclopedia > Egyptology
Egyptology Portal

Egyptology is the study of Ancient Egypt and Egyptian antiquities and is a regional and thematic branch of the larger disciplines of ancient history and archaeology. A practitioner of the discipline is an Egyptologist, though egyptology is not exclusive to such practitioners. Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 982 KB) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Great Sphinx of Giza Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 982 KB) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Great Sphinx of Giza Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... The Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt The Great Sphinx of Giza is a large half-human, half-lion Sphinx statue in Egypt, on the Giza Plateau at the west bank of the Nile River, near modern-day Cairo (). It is one of the largest single-stone statues on Earth, and... The Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Sphinx of Giza Khafres Pyramid, is the second largest of the ancient Egyptian Pyramids of Giza and the tomb of the fourth-dynasty pharaoh Khafre (Chephren). ... 19th-century tourists in front of the Sphinx - view from South-East, Great Pyramid in background Giza pyramids, view from south in late 19th century. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... The times before writing belong either to protohistory or to prehistory. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαίος, archae, ancient; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... An Egyptologist is any archaeologist, historian, linguist, or art historian who specializes in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ...

Contents

Development of the field

Egyptology investigates the range of Ancient Egyptian cultures (language, literature, history, religion, art, economics, and ethics) from the 5th millennium BC up to the end of Pagan religion in the 4th century AD. One of the first historical accounts of Egypt was done by Manetho, an Egyptian priest, during Ptolemy I and II regien. The professional exploration of Egypt began in the late 18th century. Napoleon's French scholars recorded Egypt's flora, fauna and history. This was published as "Description de l'Egypte (1809)". The British took over Egypt from the French and gained the Rosetta Stone. Modern Egyptology (as opposed to an antiquarian interest in the land of Egypt) is generally perceived as beginning in the year 1822, began shortly around this time. Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Title page to Historians History Of The World. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek ēthikos, the adjective of ēthos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, including genetics is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... IDescription de lÉgypte (English: Description of Egypt) is the monumental French comprehensive scientific description of ancient and modern Egypt as well as its natural history. ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs.

Jean François Champollion and Ippolito Rosellini were some of the first Egyptologists of wide acclaim. The German Karl Richard Lepsius was an early participant in the investigations of Egypt; mapping, excavating, and recording several sites. Champollion announced his general decipherment of the system of Egyptian hieroglyphics for the first time, employing the Rosetta Stone as his primary aid. The Stone's decipherment was a very important development of Egyptology. With subsequently ever-increasing knowledge of Egyptian writing and language, the study of Ancient Egyptian civilisation was able to proceed with greater academic rigour and with all the added impetus that comprehension of the written sources was able to engender. Egyptology became more professional via work of William Matthew Flinders Petrie, among others. Petrie introduced techniques of field preservation, recording, and excavating. Howard Carter expedition brought much acclaim to the field of Egyptology. Around 1830, Rifa's al-Tahtawi was one of the first main works of Egyptian Egyptology. Egyptian Egyptology developed slowly compared to its Western scholars, primarily because Islamic identity (and the disdain of pre-Islamic antiquity by some Muslims) and Western imperialism (till decolonization in the 1920s). Islamic and modern Egyptian civilization has been influenced by the pre-Islamic Egyptian culture of which Egyptology is concerned with. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (592x695, 142 KB)Cursive hieroglyphs from the Papyrus of Ani, an example of the Egyptian Book of the Dead The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (592x695, 142 KB)Cursive hieroglyphs from the Papyrus of Ani, an example of the Egyptian Book of the Dead The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those... The Papyrus of Ani is a papyrus from the 19th dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt containing portions of the Book of Going Forth by Day, more commonly known as the Books of the Dead. ... Jean-François Champollion For the Champollion comet rendezvous spacecraft, see Champollion (spacecraft). ... Ippolito Rosellini (1800-1843), Italian Egyptologist, was born at Pisa. ... Karl Richard Lepsius 1810 – 1884 Karl (or Carl) Richard Lepsius (December 23, 1810 – July 10, 1884) was a pioneering Prussian Egyptologist and linguist and pioneer of modern archaeology. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 – 28 July 1942) was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ... Plate LXXA shows detail on a ceremonial walking staff found buried with Tutankhamun; it depicts the two foes, or the Northern and Southern enemies of Egypt. ...


In the Modern era, the Supreme Council for Antiquities control excavation permits for Egyptologists to conduct their work. The field can now use geophysical methods and other applications of modern sensing techniques to further Egyptology. The Egyptian languages (such as Hieratics and Coptic) and the Egyptian writing systems are still of importance in Egyptology. Part of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (commonly abbreviated SCA) is responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in Egypt. ... Written records of the ancient Egyptian language have been dated from about 3200 BC. Egyptian is part of the Afro-Asiatic group of languages and is related to Berber and Semitic (languages such as Arabic, Amharic, Tigrinya and Hebrew). ... Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ... Coptic is an adjective referring to the original inhabitants of Egypt, the Copts. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ...


Egyptology has attracted various pseudoscientific theories of which most are widely discounted by many Egyptologist, though not all. This includes esoteric, or extraterrestrial, subjects which are considered ahistorical, quasihistorical, and pseudohistorical overall. Few in Egyptology entertain views of the "New Age", ufology, occultism, "secret societies", or Atlantis theories. A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... Extraterrestrial, as an adjective, refers to something that originates, occurs, or is located outside Earth or its atmosphere. ... Pseudohistory is the historical equivalent of pseudoscience. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Ufology is the study of unidentified flying object (UFO) reports, sightings, alleged physical evidence, and other related phenomena. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... A secret society is a social organization that requires its members to conceal certain activities—such as rites of initiation or club ceremonies—from outsiders. ... Picture of Platos description of Atlantis Atlantis (Greek: , Island of Atlas) is the name of a legendary island first mentioned in Platos dialogues Timaeus and Critias. ...


Problems and mysteries

There are many open problems concerning Ancient Egypt, and some of them may never be solved. Egyptian archaeology is in a state of constant transition, with much of the terminology and chronology in dispute. The archaeological record is incomplete, with countless relics and artifacts missing or destroyed. New archaeological discoveries can call into question previous conclusions about Ancient Egypt. Furthermore, there are internal problems of overall cohesion of various dynasties and there are problems reconciling the Egyptian civilization with other concurrent civilizations. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ...


Origins and chronology

pharaoh "pr-`3"

in hieroglyphs

Ancient Egypt appeared as a unified state no earlier than 3300 BC. It survived as an independent state until about 300 BC. Archaeological evidence suggests that a developed Egyptian society may have existed for much longer. The creation of a reliable Chronology of Ancient Egypt is a task fraught with problems. There is a "Conventional Egyptian chronology" that has a general consensus. While the overwhelming majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many of the details of a common chronology, disagreements either individually or in groups have resulted in a variety of dates offered for rulers and events. This variation begins with only a few years in the Late Period, gradually growing to a decade at the beginning of the New Kingdom, and eventually to as much as a century by the start of the Old Kingdom. The reader is advised to include this factor of uncertainty with any date offered either in Wikipedia or any history of Ancient Egypt. Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This is a Conventional Egyptian chronology. ...


Temples and pyramids

Many Egyptian temples are still standing today. Some are in ruin from wear and tear, while others have been lost entirely. The Egyptian structures are among the largest man-made constructions ever conceived. They constitute one of the most potent and enduring symbols of Ancient Egyptian civilization. King Tut's rock-cut tomb in the Valley of the Kings was full of jewelery and antiques.


Burial and tombs

Mummification of the dead was not always practised in Egypt. Once the practice began, an individual was placed at his or her final resting place through a set of rituals and protocol. The Egyptian funeral was a complex ceremony including various monuments, prayers, and rituals undertaken in the deads' honor. The poor, which could not afford expensive tombs, were buried in shallow graves in the sand, and because of the arid environment they were often naturally mummified. A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or airlessness. ...


Biblical

The ancient Egyptians are featured in the Old Testament, and played a prominent role in the early Hebrews' life, from Joseph's capture to the departure of the Hebrews from Egypt to later interaction with the Kingdom of Israel. There are several unanswered questions as to the precise influence each had on the other. Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ...


See also

  • Categories
    Austrian Egyptologists, English Egyptologists, Canadian Egyptologists, American Egyptologists, Australian Egyptologists, Dutch Egyptologists, British Egyptologists, Belgian Egyptologists, Prussian Egyptologists, Scottish Egyptologists

Giovanni Battista Belzoni, from Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries Within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia by Giovanni Battista Belzoni,London, 1820. ... KV62 in the Valley of the Kings Howard Carter (May 9, 1874 – March 2, 1939) was an English archaeologist and Egyptologist born in Kensington, England. ... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ... Richard Anthony Parker (December 10, 1905 - June 3, 1993) was a prominent professor of Egyptology. ... Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 – 28 July 1942) was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ... An Egyptologist is any archaeologist, historian, linguist, or art historian who specializes in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαίος, archae, ancient; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the comparative study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Epigraphy (Greek, επιγραφή - written upon) is the study of inscriptions engraved into stone or other permanent materials, or cast in metal, the science of classifying them as to cultural context and date, elucidating them and assessing what conclusions can be deduced from them. ... ŅSocial history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ... Ethnoarchaeology is the ethnographic study of peoples for archaeological reasons, usually focusing on the material remains of a society, rather than its culture. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... The sun rising over Stonehenge at the 2005 Summer Solstice. ... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... An 1812 map of Africa Afrocentrism is an academic, philosophical, and historical approach to the study of world history. ... Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages and peoples by Western scholars. ... Biblical studies is the academic study of the Christian and Jewish Scriptures. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... An artifact (also artefact) is a term coined by Sir Julian Huxley meaning any object or process resulting from human activity. ...

External links and articles

Publications

  • Archibald's guide to the mysteries of ancient Egypt. Swfte International, Ltd., 1994.
  • Bauval, Robert, and Adrian Gilbert, The Orion Mystery : Unlocking the Secrets of the Pyramids. 1994. ISBN 0-517-88454-2
  • Childress, David Hatcher, Technology of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients. Adventures Unlimited Press, 2000. ISBN 0-932813-73-9
  • David, Rosalie. Religion and magic in ancient Egypt. Penguin Books, 2002. ISBN 0-14-026252-0
  • Jacq, Christian. Magic and mystery in ancient Egypt. Souvenir Press, 1998. ISBN 0-285-63462-3
  • Knapp, Ron. Tutankhamun and the mysteries of ancient Egypt. Messner, 1979. ISBN 0-671-33036-5
  • Manley, Bill (ed.). The Seventy Great Mysteries of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05123-2
  • Mertz, Barbara. Red Land, Black Land: Daily Life in Ancient Egypt. Dodd Mead, 1978. ISBN 0-396-07575-4
  • Mertz, Barbara. Temples, Tombs and Hieroglyphs: A Popular History of Ancient Egypt. Bedrick, 1990. ISBN 0-87226-223-5
  • Morris, Margaret. The Egyptian Pyramid Mystery Is Solved. ISBN 0-9720434-0-3
  • Mysteries of Egypt. National Geographic Society, 1999. ISBN 0-7922-9752-0
  • Rhys-Davies, John. Riddles of the monument builders : Who built the Sphinx. Time-Life Video, 1995.
  • Sitchin, Zecharia. The earth chronicles expeditions : journeys to the mythical past. Bear & Co., 2004. ISBN 1-59143-036-4

Websites

  • Archaeological Institute of America
  • Mysteries of Egypt. Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation, 2001.
  • Official Website for Dr. Zahi Hawass
  • Egyptian Mysteries
  • Catchpenny Mysteries of Ancient Egypt.
  • Gray, Martin, The Great Pyramid, Egypt. 2005.
  • Dörnenburg, Frank, Mysteries of the Past. 2004.
  • Berkeley Groks Science Radio, Show June 30th, 2004: Egyptology
  • Theban Mapping Project
  • Uruguayan Egyptology
  • The Hall of Ma'at
  • The Antiquity of Man Exploring human evolution and the dawn of civilisation
  • Egyptology - Ancient Near East .net - a collection of links to online Egyptology resources
  • Sussex Egyptology Society Online
  • CNN.com: " Egyptologists launching online encyclopedia"
  • Ancient Egyptian Hairstyles
  • Biblical Egyptology Discussion Group

  Results from FactBites:
 
Egyptology News (2777 words)
Highclere is a grand, foursquare, not very welcoming house, and the room is a mix of the very expensive and the shabby: priceless paintings, pre-war lamp flex, flaky Morocco-leather volumes fenced in with picture wire and screw-eyes.
In 1908, the mummies were unwrapped at The University of Manchester and examined in one of the first scientific studies of bodies from ancient Egypt.
Egyptology is constantly enriched as new evidence comes to light, and every discovery provides food for thought.
Egyptology and Egyptologists (1299 words)
The science of Egyptology is not exclusive to Egyptologists, because there are other professions that are needed in the study of ancient Egypt.
For example, Egyptology does not really encompass the study of Egypt before the existence of mankind, and usually does not attempt to study Egypt prior to about 5,000 BC, nor is it interested in the period of time after the Arab conquest.
Basically, that is because many people enjoy studying Egyptology, and even doing research on it, but they lack a formal education in the topic and they do not earn their living studying the science.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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