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Encyclopedia > Egyptian chronology

Egyptian chronology involves assigning beginnings and endings to various Dynasties. The conventional Egyptian chronology is a type of chronology worked on for decades by scholars of Egyptology. This is a Conventional Egyptian chronology. ... Chronology is the science of locating events in time. ... Egyptologys a regional and thematic division Of the discipline of archeologist And ancient historian; whose broader visions less regional and thematic than the Egyptologist. ...

Contents


Scholarly task

There are several open problems concerning ancient Egypt and its history. There are various profound problems that exist with no satisfactory solution. Scholars consider the creation of an Egyptian chronology a difficult task. As Dr. Robert A. Hatch of the University of Florida puts it: An open problem is a problem that can be formally stated and for which a solution is known to exist but which has not yet been solved. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt as a general historical term broadly refers to the civilization of the Lower Nile Valley, between the First Cataract and the mouths of the Nile Delta, from circa 3300 BC until the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based... The history of ancient Egypt begins as the ancient unified Egyptian state formed around 3300 BC. It survived as an independent state until about 1300 BC. Archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for much longer. ...

The problem is two-fold: 1) there are internal problems of assigning beginnings and endings to various Dynasties, and 2) externally, the problem is reconciling dates in the Egyptian calendar with attested dates in other calendaric systems, for example, Greek, Jewish, Assyrian, Persian, and Julian/Gregorian. [1]

The archeological record is incomplete, also (with relics and artifacts missing or destroyed). Egyptian chronology is in a constant state of transition, with much of the terminology and dating in dispute. Professor E.J. Bickerman, Chronology of the ancient world (1980: 83-84 and 106), has properly called it "the rather fluid chronology of the Pharaohs and the Hittites," adding that Ramses II's accession is dated by various Egyptologists to 1304, 1290-92, or 1279 BCE. Archeologists may suggest solutions to ultimately settle many of these questions while others may last for eternity. Pharaoh (פַּרְעֹה, Standard Hebrew Parʿo, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh) is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. ... The Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (the modern village of Boğazköy in north-central Turkey), through most of the second millennium BC. The Hittite kingdom, which at its height controlled central... Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh. ... Egyptologys a regional and thematic division Of the discipline of archeologist And ancient historian; whose broader visions less regional and thematic than the Egyptologist. ...


Dating and eras

Reliable absolute dates, astronomical or other, are lacking, as Professor Heinrich Otten had noted. It is a "rubber chronology" that you can stretch or shrink anywhere, by arbitrarily established lengths of co-regencies between rulers and even overlapping dynasties. The possibility of a calendar reform called Menophres Era may radically modify the prevailing modern Egyptian chronology, so the previous "firm" dates cannot be supported astronomically.


This Menophres Era can be tied to at least four Egyptian rulers, although there was absolutely no doubt for Egyptologists that Ramses I reigned in 1322 BCE. Theon's text has long been interpreted such that a 1460 year long Sothic cycle ended in 139 CE. Therefore, the Menophres Era may have started in 1321 BCE. However, John F. Brug (Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary) in his detailed and important article has observed that Theon explicitly stated, and Al-Biruni supported him, that the beginning of the next Sothic cycle took place in 26 BCE, instead of 139 CE. nomen or birth name Menpehtyre Ramesses I was the founding Pharaoh of Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Aelius Theon was a mid-1st millennium Alexandrian sophist and author of a collection of preliminary exercises (pro-gymnasmata) for the training of orators. ... The Sothic cycle or Canicular period is a period of 1461 ancient Egyptian years (of 365 days) or 1460 Julian years (averaging 365. ... Events Births Deaths Zhang Heng, Chinese mathematician Categories: 139 ... Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary is located in Mequon, Wisconsin and trains clergy for the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS). ... Biruni - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... (Redirected from 26 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23...


In 1974, Ronald D. Long was making the same point as Rowton: "Mesopotamian chronology... does not coordinate with the eighteenth dynasty chronology which is dependent on the era of Menophreos dating. Ashur-uballit I and Akhenaton were contemporaries, yet if the era's dating is maintained, their contemporaneity is non-existent." Dr. Lappin, Decline and Fall of Sothis Dating states that all the plausible second millennium placements require that a major calendrical readjustment occurred at least once in Egyptian History. The Eighteenth Dynasty is perhaps the most famous of all the dynasties of Ancient Egypt. ... Ashur-uballit I, or Assur-uballit I, was king of the Assyrian empire (1365 BC to 1330 BC). ... Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ...


Radiocarbon dating

Thanks to several radiocarbon (C-14) dates, the approximate dates for the first Egyptian dynasty have been established (cf. Fekri A. Hassan, "Radio-Carbon Chronology of Archaic Egypt", JNES, 1980, 39, 203-207). However, there are no reliable absolute dates for Egypt for its first 3000 years. Not a single eclipse record has been utilized from that period so far. Pharaoh Sahure or Sephres was a king of the fifth dynasty that had begun with Userkaf and has been concluded with Unas. A wooden cartouche of Sahure (c.2487-2473 BCE) has been found in a tomb of Dorak, near Constantinople, tells E. Bacon, Archaeology; Discoveries in the 1960s). It has been dated by radiocarbon test. In another case Libby, using the 5720 half-life of the carbon-14, dated that the boat of Pharaoh Sesostris III about 3,621 years before c. 1950 CE. Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ... Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ... The First and second Dynasties of Ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. ... Total solar eclipse in Zambia, 2001 An eclipse (Greek verb: ecleipo = cease to exist) is an astronomical event that occurs when one celestial object moves into the shadow of another. ... Sahure was the second king of ancient Egypts 5th Dynasty. ... The Fifth Dynasty of Egypt is considered part of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. ... Userkaf was the first Pharaoh of the Fifth dynasty. ... Unas (also Wenis, Oenas, Unis, or Ounas) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, the last king of the Fifth dynasty. ... Sahure was the second king of ancient Egypts 5th Dynasty. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Radiocarbon dating is the use of the naturally occurring isotope of carbon-14 in radiometric dating to determine the age of organic materials, up to ca. ... Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ... nomen or birth name Senusret III was a pharaoh of Egypt. ...


Barry J. Kemp, Amarna reports I (London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1984: 184-185) wrote that "There is a difference of some 260 years between the radiocarbon dates and the historic dates" in the Amarna period. Another example can be added to this carbon-14 debate: Professor Norman Hammond has been director of the archaeological programme of the Rutgers University, and archeaeological correspondent of the Times from 1967. He wrote in his Ancient Maya civilization (1982: 114), "...dating to perhaps 2100-2200 BCE (1700-1800 BCE in radiocarbon years)." In the same book he dated a building at Belize to about 1900 BCE, equating it with 1550 BCE in radiocarbon years. His c. 10% correction seems exaggerated but he had a valid point for the problems of the radiocarbon dating for good absolute dates. It can be added here that different authorities in different decades offered different figures (5513, 5568, 5700, 5730, or 5770) years for the half-life of the carbon-14 isotope. Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ... Rutgers University Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is located in New Brunswick and Piscataway. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom. ... Raw radiocarbon measurements are usually reported as years before present (BP). ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Isotopes are forms of a chemical element whose nuclei have the same atomic number, Z, but different atomic masses, A. The word isotope, meaning at the same place, comes from the fact that all isotopes of an element are located at the same place on the periodic table. ...


Astronomical dates

According to John Brug, The astronomical dating of ancient history before 700 BCE, the chronology of ancient Egypt rests on a host of unproven assumptions. "There is a surprising amount of uncertainty and conjecture in the data and interpretations which form the basis for the presently accepted chronology of the Ancient Near East. We run a very real danger of debating about millimeters and centimeters when we should rather be rechecking our measurement of the meters, ... and perhaps even the centuries are in doubt," he adds. The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Anatolia (modern Turkey), Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria), and the Iranian Plateau (Iran). ...


An article signed by the Perseus Research Team, is about George Syncellus and his Book of Sothis. They confirm John Brug's observation that 26 BCE was the beginning of a cycle, not 139 CE. If such calendrical reform has taken place in Egypt, then the claim that a heliacal rising of Sirius took place on the first day of the seventh year of Sesostris III of the Twelfth Dynasty in 1872 is useless. Please also refer to William F. Edgerton's old study, "Chronology of the twelfth dynasty" in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies (around 1941 or later, page 307). Edgerton points out that the fragment of the el-Lahun temple register that foretells a heliacal rising of the Sothis, does not name any Egyptian king. He is not certain if Borchardt had used the photographic facsimiles of the originals or not. All these may mean that encyclopaedias should consider shifting the orthodox dates of Akhenaton or Tutankhamun up by 164 years. George the Syncellus (died after 810) was a Byzantine chronicler and ecclesiastic. ... The heliacal rising of a star (or other body such as the moon or a planet) occurs when it first becomes visible above the eastern horizon at dawn, after a period where it was hidden below the horizon or when it was just above the horizon but hidden by the... The position of Sirius Sirius (α CMa / α Canis Majoris / Alpha Canis Majoris) is the brightest star in the nighttime sky, with a visual apparent magnitude of −1. ... nomen or birth name Senusret III was a pharaoh of Egypt. ... The chronology of the Twelfth dynasty is the most stable of any period before the New Kingdom. ... Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... Tutankhamuns funeral mask. ...


One astronomical date comes from a record of a total eclipse of the moon in the 15th regnal year of Takelot II, apparently three days away from a breakout of a dated, disastrous mutiny, "even though the sky did not swallow the moon" (Kitchen, 1973: 331). This eclipse has not been utilized by historians so far, regardless whether it had taken place on March 16, 851 BCE or several years earlier. Kenneth Kitchen (1973: 181) demonstrated that this event cannot be placed in 822 BCE, for there is an irreducible total of the 106 years from the 15th year of Takelot II to the 38th year and death of Shoshenq V; if reckoned from 822 BCE, then the end of Shoshenq's reign falls on 716 BCE, far too late. Takelot II was a http://en. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in Leap years). ... Kenneth Anderson Kitchen is Personal and Brunner Professor Emeritus of Egyptology and Honorary Research Fellow at the School of Archaeology, Classics and Oriental Studies, University of Liverpool, England. ...


Eusebius of Caesarea placed the eclipse of Thales (May 585 BCE) in the eighth or twelfth year of Waphres (Apries) Egyptian ruler who is called Hophra in the Jeremiah 44: 30. Cosmas Indicopleustes (fl. 540-550 CE) has listed several lunar eclipses given by Egyptian dates (month and day) scattered in his chronicle. Apparently not much attention has been paid to those. Although they may not have been too archaic records, they could be verified and identified. At least we could establish how trustworthy he or the Egyptian calendar was in his days. Eusebius of Caesarea (~275 – May 30, 339) (often called Eusebius Pamphili, Eusebius [the friend] of Pamphilus) was a bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is often referred to as the father of church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church. ... Apries (Egyptian Haaibre) was a pharaoh of Egypt, (589 - 570 BC) of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirmiyahu in Hebrew), is a book that is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Cosmas Indicopleustes (India-voyager) of Alexandria was a Greek sailor in the early 6th century who travelled to Ethiopia, India and Sri Lanka. ... The ancient Egyptian civil calendar had a year that was 365 days long, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. ...


Chronologies

Origins

Ancient Egypt appears to have been a unified state no later than 3300 BC. It survived as an independent state until about 1300 BC. Archeological evidence suggest that a developed Egyptian society may have existed for much longer. It is not known for certian when or where the Egyptians come from and what the Egyptians knew of their own history.


Lists of Kings

Manetho, who according to Stuart Piggot wrote c. 280 BCE, in his List of Kings, makes Menes the first king of Egypt. This name, without doubt, represents the Egyptian Mena, or Men, tells Sir E.A. Wallis Budge. Fix states (1978: 74) that, in dating the beginning of Menes' reign, nineteenth century estimates ranged from 5867 BCE to 2320 BCE, with every variable in between. If Diodorus Siculus is right, it is possible that King Menes or Mneves, whose reign took place during the first flood (that may not have been connected with Noah), reigned before 2985 BCE. An attempt was made by Z.A. Simon (1985: 161) for an early Egyptian chronology as follow: Manetho or Manethon of Sebennytos, (ca. ... This article is under dispute for accuracy. ... Diodorus Siculus was a Greek historian, born at Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira, in the Province of Enna). ...


Pre-Dynastic rulers (not necessarily all in Egypt):

Naqrá-wus I
Naqrá-wus II
Misrám
cAnqám
cArbáq
Ludjim
Khaslim
Harsál
Qadrashán
Shamrud
Busaidun (Poseidon?) Re
Sharbáq and Shu
Sahluq (Salahon) and Geb
S(a)urid (Tau-Ro, Baisar) = Osiris, Ousir
Hardjit (Horus II, Hor-djedef, Har-end-yotef)
3023-2770 BCE First Dynasty
From Nama-Aha or Narmer-Menes to Biénekhés (Kebh or Ká-Senmu)
2770-2649 BCE Second Dynasty
From Hetep-Sekhemwy (Ny-netjerbau or Baen-netjer) to Kha-sekhemwy (Hutchefa/Hezefa or Khenerés)
2649-2575 BCE Third Dynasty
From Sa-nakht (Nebka or Nekhrofés) to Huny (Huni-Nysuteh)
2575-2467 BCE Fourth Dynasty
From Sneferu (Sifouris, Snofru) to Shepses-kaf
2465-2323 BCE Fifth Dynasty
From Weser-kaf (Userkaf) to Wenis (or Unas)

Biblical relations

Egyptian civilization have played a significant role in the early Hebrews' life, from Joseph capture to the departure of the Hebrews from Egypt and, later, interactions with the Kingdom of Israel. There are several unanswered question as to the precise influence each had on the other.

  • Persona : Was Joseph the vizier to Amenhotep III (father of Akhenaten)? If so, was he in fact Vizier Yuya (Osarseph)?
  • Persona : Is there a connection between Moses and Akhenaten?
  • Persona : Is there a connection between Moses and Osarseph?
  • Persona : Who was Labaya? Was he a biblical figure (such as Saul )?
  • Persona : What Pharaoh gave Solomon his daughter to marry?
  • Event : Was the the Exodus of the Israelites mythological or historical? If it was historical, under which Pharaoh did it occur? How many Hebrews were in Egypt? How many left in the Exodus?
  • Event : Was King Solomon involved in Egyptian religious practices, such as Atenism?
  • Event : Did Egyptian Pharaohs rule over Canaan?

Joseph is a given name originating from Hebrew, recorded in the Hebrew Bible, as יוֹסֵף, Standard Hebrew Yosef, and Tiberian Hebrew YôsÄ“pÌ„. In Arabic, including in the Quran, the name is يوسف or YÅ«suf. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Amenhotep III, Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin The northern Colossus of Memnon Amenhotep III (called Nibmu(`w)areya in the Amarna letters) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the XVIIIth dynasty. ... Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... An excavation assistant beside the 2. ... Osarseph is a person that Manetho (writing in the first millenium BC) claimed was a high priest mainly during the reign of Amenhotep III. According to Manetho, he was part of the priesthood at Heliopolis, and supported the introduction of monotheism by Akhenaten. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Musa), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ... Labaya; possibly Labayu or Lbayu Canaanite warlord of (probably) the 14th century BCE. Labaya is referred to in several of the Amarna Letters. ... Saul or Shaul (שָׁאוּל Borrowed, Standard Hebrew Å aʾul, Tiberian Hebrew Šāʾûl) was the first king of Israel according to the Old Testament of the Bible, as taught in Judaism. ... Solomon (Hebrew, Shlomo from Shalom for peace, also Arabic as Suleiman or Sulyaman meaning peace) can mean any of the following: 1. ... The Exodus was the departure of the Hebrew slaves from Egypt under the leadership of Moses. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Atenism (or the Amarna heresy) is the monotheistic religion associated above all with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under the name he later adopted, Akhenaten. ... Canaan or Knáan (Arabic کنعان, Kanʻān, Hebrew כְּנַעַן / כְּנָעַן, KÉ™náʻan / KÉ™nāʻan; Septuagint Greek Χανααν, Khanaan) is an ancient term for a region roughly corresponding to present-day Israel, the West Bank, western Jordan, southern and coastal Syria and Lebanon continuing up until the border of modern Turkey. ...

New chronology

David Rohl has proposed and described in detail what he calls the "new chronology" which incorporates many of these ideas and also those of Immanuel Velikovsky. David Rohl is an British Egyptologist and historian who has put forth several controversial theories concerning the chronology of Ancient Egypt and Palestine. ... Immanuel Velikovsky (June 10, 1895 – November 17, 1979). ...


See also



  Results from FactBites:
 
Egyptian chronology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (995 words)
The first problem the student of Egyptian chronology faces is that they used no single system of dating: they had no concept of an Era similar to Anno Domini, Anno Hajirae — or even the concept of named years like limmu used in Mesopotamia.
The most important of these is with the Assyrian and Babylonian chronologies, although synchronisms with the Hittites, ancient Palestine, and in the final period with ancient Greece are also used.
Synchronisms with inscriptions relating to the burial of Apis bulls begin as early as the reign of Amenhotep III and continue into Ptolemaic times, but there is a significant gap in the record between Ramesses XI and the 23rd year of Osorkon II.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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