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Encyclopedia > EgyptAir Flight 990
EgyptAir Flight 990
Summary
Date  October 31, 1999
Cause  Disputed
Site  Atlantic Ocean, 100 km (60 miles) S of Nantucket
Origin  Los Angeles International Airport
Last stopover  John F. Kennedy International Airport
Destination  Cairo International Airport
Fatalities  217
Aircraft
 Aircraft type  Boeing 767-336ER
Operator  EgyptAir
Tail number  SU-GAP
Ship name  Tuthmosis III
Passengers  203
Crew  14
Survivors  0

EgyptAir Flight 990 (MSR990) was a regularly-scheduled Los Angeles-New York-Cairo flight. On October 31, 1999, at around 1:50 a.m. EST, Flight 990 dove into the Atlantic Ocean, about 60 miles south of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, in international waters, killing all 217 people on board. is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Runway layout at LAX “LAX” redirects here. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK), originally known as Idlewild Airport and colloquially known as JFK, is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 km) from Lower Manhattan. ... Cairo International Airport (IATA: CAI, ICAO: HECA) (Arabic: مطار القاهرة الدولي) is the major civilian airport in Cairo, Egypt. ... American Airlines Boeing 767-300 at Gatwick Airport, England. ... EgyptAir Airlines Company, operating as EgyptAir (Arabic: مصر للطيران, Misr Lel-Tayaran) is the Cairo-based national airline of Egypt. ... EgyptAir Airlines Company, operating as EgyptAir (Arabic: مصر للطيران, Misr Lel-Tayaran) is the Cairo-based national airline of Egypt. ... Runway layout at LAX “LAX” redirects here. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK), originally known as Idlewild Airport and colloquially known as JFK, is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 km) from Lower Manhattan. ... Cairo International Airport (IATA: CAI, ICAO: HECA) (Arabic: مطار القاهرة الدولي) is the major civilian airport in Cairo, Egypt. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... EST is UTC-5 The North American Eastern Standard Time Zone (abbreviated EST) is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) resulting in UTC-5. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. Oceans and seas, waters...

Contents

Flight details

Flight 990 was being flown in a Boeing 767-366ER aircraft (registration SU-GAP). The flight was carrying 14 crew members and 203 passengers from seven countries (Canada, Egypt, Germany, Sudan, Syria, United States, and Zimbabwe).[1][2] Included in the passenger manifest were over 30 Egyptian military officers, among them were two brigadier-generals, a colonel, major and four air force officers. Newspapers in Cairo were prevented by censors from reporting the officers' presence on the flight.[3] American Airlines Boeing 767-300 at Gatwick Airport, England. ...


Flight 990 was crewed by 14 people, 10 flight attendants and four flight crewmembers. Because of the scheduled flight time, the flight required two complete flight crews (each consisting of one captain and one first officer). EgyptAir designated one crew as the "active crew" and the other as the "cruise crew" (sometimes also referred to as the "relief crew"). It was customary for the active crew to make the takeoff and fly the first four to five hours of the flight. The cruise crew then assumed control of the aircraft until about one to two hours prior to landing, at which point the active crew returned to the cockpit and assumed control of the airplane. EgyptAir designated the captain of the active crew as the Pilot-in-Command or the Commander of the flight. The active crew consisted of Captain El Habashy and First Officer Anwar, and the cruise crew were Captain El Sayed and First Officer Gameel Al-Batouti (the NTSB reports use the spelling "El Batouty").[4] Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... In commercial aviation, the first officer is the second pilot of an aircraft. ... The Pilot in Command (PIC) of an aircraft is the person aboard the aircraft who is ultimately responsible for its operation and safety during flight. ... Gameel Al-Batouti (February 2, 1940 - October 31, 1999) was a pilot for EgyptAir, his home countrys national airline. ...


ATC tracking

Flight profile of EA990 (Source:NTSB)
Flight profile of EA990 (Source:NTSB)

U.S. Air Traffic Controllers provide trans-Atlantic flight control operations as a part of the "New York Center" (referred to in radio conversations simply as "Center" and abbreviated in the reports as "ZNY"). The airspace is divided into "areas", and "Area F" was the section that oversaw the airspace through which Flight 990 was flying. Trans-Atlantic commercial air traffic travels via a system of routes called "North Atlantic Tracks", and Flight 990 was the only aircraft at the time assigned to fly North Atlantic Track Zulu. There are also a number of military operations areas over the Atlantic, called "Warning Areas", which are also monitored by New York Center, but records show that these were inactive the night of the accident.[5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1650 × 1275 pixel, file size: 309 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Flight profile of EgyptAir Flight 990, from NTSB investigation files, [1] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1650 × 1275 pixel, file size: 309 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Flight profile of EgyptAir Flight 990, from NTSB investigation files, [1] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that... Air Traffic Control Towers (ATCTs) at Amsterdams Schiphol Airport Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. ...


Interaction between ZNY and Flight 990 was completely routine. After takeoff, Flight 990 was handled by three different controllers as it climbed up in stages to its assigned cruising altitude.[5] The aircraft, like all commercial airliners, was equipped with a Mode C transponder, which automatically reported the plane's altitude when queried by the ATC radar. At 1:44, the transponder indicated that Flight 990 had leveled off at FL330. Three minutes later, the controller requested that Flight 990 switch communications radio frequencies for better reception. A pilot on Flight 990 acknowledged on the new frequency. This was the last transmission received from Flight 990. A Cessna ARC RT-359A Transponder (the beige box) mounted beneath a Bendix/King KY197 VHF communication radio in a light airplane instrument panel A transponder is an electronic device that produces a response when it receives a radio-frequency interrogation. ... A Cessna ARC RT-359A Transponder (the beige box) mounted beneath a Bendix/King KY197 VHF communication radio in a light airplane instrument panel A transponder is an electronic device that produces a response when it receives a radio-frequency interrogation. ...


The records of the radar returns then indicate a sharp descent:[5]

  • 0649:53Z - FL329
  • 0650:05Z - FL315
  • 0650:17Z - FL254
  • 0650:29Z - FL183 (this was the last altitude report received by ATC)

In a span of 36 seconds, the plane dropped 14,600 feet (nearly three miles). Several subsequent "primary" returns (simple radar reflections without the encoded Mode C altitude information) were received by ATC, the last being at 0652:05. At 0654, the ATC controller tried notifying Flight 990 that radar contact had been lost, but received no reply.[5]


Two minutes later, the controller contacted ARINC to determine if Flight 990 had switched to an oceanic frequency too early. ARINC attempted to contact Flight 990 on SELCAL, also with no response. The controller then contacted a nearby aircraft, Lufthansa Flight 499, asking them to see if they could raise Flight 990. They responded that they had no radio contact, and were not receiving any ELT signals. Air France Flight 439 was asked to overfly the last known position of Flight 990, but reported nothing out of the ordinary. Center also provided coordinates of Flight 990's last-known position to Coast Guard rescue aircraft.[5] Aeronautical Radio, Incorporated (ARINC) is the leading provider of transport communications and systems engineering solutions for five major industries (aviation, airports, defense, government and transportation) since 1929. ... Audio sample: SelCall (file info) — Example of a CCIR-format call. ... The Luftansa headquarters in Cologne, Germany. ... ELT, a TLA of: Emergency Locator Transmitter Every Little Thing English Language Teaching This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Air France (Compagnie Nationale Air France) is an airline based in Paris, France, a subsidiary of Air France-KLM Group and is the international flag carrier of France. ...


Crash

Flight data showed that the flight controls were used to move the elevators in order to initiate and sustain the steep dive. The flight deviated from its assigned altitude of 33,000 feet (FL330) and dove to 16,000 feet, climbed again to 24,000, then continued to dive, hitting the Atlantic Ocean within the span of 36 seconds. Radar and radio contact was lost 30 minutes after the aircraft departed JFK Airport in New York on its flight to Cairo. Forces on the captain's and first officer's control columns were recorded and completely consistent with the recorded elevator deflections and a struggle for control of the aircraft. There were no other aircraft in the area. There was no indication that an explosion occurred on board. The engines operated normally for the entire flight until they shut down and the left engine was torn from the wing from the stress of the maneuvers. Aircraft flight controls allow a pilot to adjust and control the aircrafts flight attitude. ... For other meanings of elevator see Elevator (disambiguation). ...


Search and rescue efforts

The USCG cutters Monomoy (foreground) and Spencer searching for survivors of the crash.

Search and rescue operations were launched within minutes of the loss of radar contact, with the bulk of the operation being conducted by the United States Coast Guard (USCG). At 3:00 AM, an HU-25 Falcon jet took off from Airbase Cape Cod Mass, becoming the first rescue party to reach the last known position of the plane. All USCG cutters in the area were immediately diverted to search for the aircraft, and an urgent marine information broadcast was issued, requesting mariners in the area to keep a lookout for the downed aircraft. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Cutter is a United States Coast Guard vessel 65 feet in length or greater, having adequate accommodations for crew to live on board. ... Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces and is involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense. ... Dassault Falcon 20s at RIAT 2005. ... An Airbase, sometimes referred to as a military airport or airfield, provides basing and support of military aircraft. ... A Cutter is a United States Coast Guard vessel 65 feet in length or greater, having adequate accommodations for crew to live on board. ...


At sunrise, the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy training vessel King's Pointer found an oil sheen and some small pieces of debris. Rescue efforts continued by air and by sea, with a group of USCG cutters covering 10,000 square miles on October 31 with the hope of locating survivors, although all that could be recovered was a single body in the debris field. Atlantic Strike Team members brought two truckloads of equipment from Fort Dix to Newport to set up an incident command post. Officials from the Navy and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration were dispatched to join the command. The search and rescue operation was eventually suspended on November 1, 1999, with the rescue vessels and aircraft moving instead to recovery operations. Seal of the US Merchant Marine Academy The US Merchant Marine Academy represents Federal involvement in maritime training that is more than a century old. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Fort Dix in Burlington County Fort Dix is a United States Army installation located in parts of New Hanover Township, Pemberton Township, and Springfield Township, in Burlington County, New Jersey. ... Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ... USN redirects here. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


These operations were ceased when the naval vessels USS Grapple and USNS Mohawk and the NOAA research vessel Whiting arrived to take over salvage efforts, including recovery of the bulk of the wreckage from the seabed. In total, a C-130, an H-60 helicopter, the HU-25 Falcon and the cutters USCGC Monomoy, USCGC Spencer, USCG Reliance, USCG Bainbridge Island, USCG Juniper, USCG Point Highland USCG Chinook, and USCG Hammerhead, along with their supporting helicopters, participated in the search.[6] USS Grapple (ARS-53) is a Safeguard-class salvage ship in the United States Navy. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules, a four-engine turboprop aircraft, is the main tactical air transport aircraft of the United States and UK military forces. ... H-60 is often used as a general name for wide family of U.S. military helicopters, however they all use a modified mission pre-fix in addition to the H vehicle type designator under the 1962 United States Tri-Service aircraft designation system (there is no H-60). The... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors, each rotor consisting of two or more rotor blades. ... USCGC Spencer (WMEC-905) is a United States Coast Guard medium endurance cutter. ... USCGC Reliance (WMEC-615) is a United States Coast Guard medium endurance cutter. ...


A second salvage effort was made in March, 2000, which recovered the aircraft's second engine and some of the cockpit controls.[7]


Investigation

Under the International Civil Aviation Organization treaty, the investigation of an airplane crash in international waters is under the jurisdiction of the country of registry of the aircraft. At the request of the Egyptian government, the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) took the lead in this investigation, with the Egyptian Civil Aviation Authority (ECAA) participating. The investigation was supported by the Federal Aviation Administration, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the United States Coast Guard, the U.S. Department of Defense, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, EgyptAir, and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Engines.[1] The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... Politics of Egypt takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential republic, whereby the President of Egypt is de facto both head of state and head of government, and of a party system dominated by the National Democratic Party. ... Seal of the National Transportation Safety Board The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government independent organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ... “FAA” redirects here. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ), serving as both a federal criminal investigative body and a domestic intelligence agency. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces and is involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Boeing Commercial Airplanes, based in Renton, Washington, is a unit of The Boeing Company, consisting of the Seattle-based former Boeing Airplane Company (the civil airliner division), as well as the Long Beach-based Douglas Aircraft division of the former McDonnell Douglas Corporation. ... Pratt & Whitney is an American aircraft engine manufacturer whose products are widely used in both civil and military aircraft. ...


Two weeks after the crash, the NTSB proposed declaring the crash a criminal event and handing the investigation over to the FBI. Egyptian government officials protested, and Omar Suleiman, head of Egyptian intelligence traveled to Washington to join the investigation.[7]


Hamdi Hanafi Taha defection

In February 2000, EgyptAir 767 captain Hamdi Hanafi Taha sought political asylum in London after landing his aircraft there. In his statement to British authorities, he claimed to have knowledge of the circumstances behind the crash of Flight 990. He is reported to said that he wanted to "stop all lies about the disaster", and to put much of the blame on EgyptAir management.[7]


Reaction was swift, with the NTSB and FBI sending officials to interview Taha, and Osama El-Baz, an advisor to Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak saying, "This pilot can't know anything about the plane, the chances that he has any information [about the crash of flight 990] are very slim."[8] EgyptAir officials also immediately dismissed Taha's claim.[9] However, Taha's information was reportedly of little use to the investigators, and his application for asylum was turned down.[7] Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad Ḥusnī Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك Ḥusnī Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ...


Investigation criticism

The investigation and its results drew criticism from the Egyptian Government, which advanced several alternative theories about mechanical malfunction of the aircraft. In Western countries, the Egyptian rejection of the NTSB report was attributed to a strong Egyptian cultural aversion to suicide. The theories proposed by Egyptian authorities were tested by the NTSB, and none were found to match the facts. For example, an elevator assembly hardover (in which the elevator in a fully extended position sticks because the hinge catches on the tail frame) proposed by the Egyptians was discounted, because the flight recorder data showed the elevator was in a "split condition". In this state, one side of the elevator is up and the other down; on the 767, this condition is only possible through flight control input (e.g., one yoke is pushed forward, the other pulled backward). Politics of Egypt takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential republic, whereby the President of Egypt is de facto both head of state and head of government, and of a party system dominated by the National Democratic Party. ... Mayor of Leipzig, Germany, committed suicide along with his wife and daughter on April 20, 1945. ...


Investigation conclusions

NTSB

The NTSB's final report was issued on March 21, 2002,[2] after a two year investigation.[10] Their conclusion[11] was: March 21 is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of the EgyptAir flight 990 accident is the airplane's departure from normal cruise flight and subsequent impact with the Atlantic Ocean as a result of the relief first officer's flight control inputs. The reason for the relief first officer's actions was not determined.

ECAA

The ECAA's final report, based largely on the NTSB's, came to distinctly different conclusions[12]:

1. The Relief First Officer (RFO) did not deliberately dive the airplane into the ocean. Nowhere in the 1665 pages of the NTSB’s docket or in the 18 months of investigative effort is there any evidence to support the socalled “deliberate act theory.” In fact, the record contains specific evidence refuting such a theory, including an expert evaluation by Dr. Adel Fouad, a highly experienced psychiatrist.

2. There is evidence pointing to a mechanical defect in the elevator control system of the accident. The best evidence of this is the shearing of certain rivets in two of the right elevator bellcranks and the shearing of an internal pin in a power control actuator (PCA) that was attached to the right elevator. Although this evidence, combined with certain data from the Flight Data Recorder (FDR), points to a mechanical cause for the accident, reaching a definitive conclusion at this point is not possible because of the complexity of the elevator system, the lack of reliable data from Boeing, and the limitations of the simulation and ground tests conducted after the accident. Additional evidence of relevant Boeing 767 elevator malfunctions in incidents involving Aero Mexico (February 2000), Gulf Air and American Airlines (March, 2001). There were also two incidents on a United Airlines airplane in 1994 and 1996.


3. Investigators cannot rule out the possibility that the RFO may have taken emergency action to avoid a collision with an unknown object. Although plausible, this theory cannot be tested because the United States has refused to release certain radar calibration and test data that are necessary to evaluate various unidentified radar returns in the vicinity of Flight 990.

Media coverage

While the official investigation was proceeding, speculation about the crash ran rampant in both the western media and the Egyptian press.


Western media speculation

Long before the NTSB had issued their final report, western media began to speculate about the meaning of the taped cockpit conversations, and about possible motives (including suicide and terrorism) behind Al-Batouti's actions on the flight. The speculation, in part, was based on leaks from an unnamed federal law enforcement official that the crew member in the co-pilot's seat was recorded as saying, "I made my decision now. I put my faith in God's hands."[13] On 20 November 1999 however, the Associated Press quoted senior American officials as saying that this quote was not actually on the tape.[14] It is believed that the speculation arose from a mistranslation of an Egyptian Arabic phrase meaning "I rely in God".[13] is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


During a press conference held on November 19, 1999, the NTSB's Jim Hall denounced such speculation and said that such speculation had "done a disservice to the long-standing friendship between the people of the United States of America and Egypt."[14] is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...


London's Sunday Times, quoting unnamed sources, speculated that Al-Batouti had been "traumatized by war", and was depressed because much of his fighter squadron in the 1973 war had been killed.[15]


Egyptian media reaction and speculation

The Egyptian media reacted in outrage to the speculations in the western press. The state-owned Al Ahram Al Misai called Al-Batouti a "martyr", and the Islamist Al Shaab covered the story under a headline that stated, "America's goal is to hide the truth by blaming the EgyptAir pilot.[14]


At least two Egyptian newspapers, Al Gomhuriya and Al Musawwar offered theories that the aircraft was accidentally shot down by the U.S.[14] Other theories were advanced by the Egyptian press as well, including the Islamist Al Shaab which speculated that a Mossad/CIA conspiracy was to blame (since, supposedly, EgyptAir and El Al crews stay at the same hotel in New York). Al Shaab also accused U.S. officials of secretly recovering the FDR, reprogrammiing it and throwing it back into the water to be publicly recovered.[14]   (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations), often referred to as The Mossad (meaning The Institute), is Israels intelligence agency and is responsible for intelligence collection, counter-terrorism, covert operations such as paramilitary activities, and the facilitation of aliyah where it is banned. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Categories: Airline stubs | Companies of Israel | Transportation in Israel | Airlines of Israel ...


Unifying all the Egyptian press was a stridently held belief that it "is inconceivable that a pilot would kill himself by crashing a jet with 217 people aboard. 'It is not possible that anyone who would commit suicide would also kill so many innocent people alongside him,' said Ehab William, a surgeon at Cairo's Anglo-American Hospital," reported the Cairo Times.[14]


The Egyptian media also reacted against western speculation of terrorist connections. The Cairo Times reported, "The deceased pilot's nephew, Walid Al Batouti, has lashed out in particular against speculation that his uncle could have been a religious extremist. 'He loved the United States,' the nephew said. 'If you wanted to go shopping in New York, he was the man to speak to, because he knew all the stores.' The family adopted Donald Duck (Batout in Arabic, from batt, or duck) as its emblem, and toy Donalds are scattered throughout the nephew's and the uncle's houses."[14]


Documentaries

The story of the flight has been featured in the National Geographic television show Air Crash Investigation. In the show, the flight is dramatized based on ATC tapes as well as the CVR recordings. In interviews conducted for the program, Al-Batouti's family members continue to vehemently dispute the suicide/deliberate crash theories, and dismiss them as biased. The program implies he crashed the plane for personal reasons, among them the risk of defamation of his character due to misconduct outside of work. The dramatization of the crash also depicts Al-Batouti forcing the plane down with the pilot attempting to pull the plane up. Despite this, upon conclusion the program stresses the official NTSB conclusion which makes no mention of a suicide mission or a deliberate crash. Rather, it simply states that the crash was a direct result of actions made by the co-pilot. [13] The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Air Crash Investigation is a science television program on National Geographic Channel. ...


References

  1. ^ a b NTSB Summary of EgyptAir Flight 990
  2. ^ a b NTSB press release, March 21, 2002, accessed April 28, 2007
  3. ^ "Search for air crash survivors abandoned", The Guardian, November 2, 1999, accessed April 28, 2007
  4. ^ NTSB Operational Factors Group Chairman's Factual Report, January 18, 2000
  5. ^ a b c d e Group Chairman's Factual Report, Air Traffic Control Group, January 13, 2000, accessed May 2, 2007
  6. ^ The final ,fatal flight of EgyptAir 990 - Official resource from the United States Coast Guard [www.uscg.mil website] - Obtained May 1, 2007.
  7. ^ a b c d "Wings and a Prayer", The Guardian, May 8, 2000, accessed May 8, 2007
  8. ^ Nadia Abou El-Magd, "Rough ride for EgyptAir" Al-Ahram, February 16, 2000, accessed May 8, 2007]]
  9. ^ "EgyptAir denies pilot can explain crash" BBC News, February 6, 2000, accessed May 8, 2007
  10. ^ NTSB Chairman Marion Blakey's statement regarding the release of the final report, March 21, 2002
  11. ^ NTSB Final Report
  12. ^ ECAA final report
  13. ^ a b c Mayday, Season 3, episode 8 (Death and Denial, also simply called EgyptAir 990)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "Suicide speculation under fire", Cairo Times, archived at archive.org, accessed April 29, 2007
  15. ^ "Batouty clan stands united", Cairo Times, archived at archive.org, accessed April 29, 2007

This article contains material that originally came from an NTSB website. According to their site usage guidelines, "Text appearing on NTSB Web pages, in reports, recommendation, and public dockets, unless otherwise noted, was prepared by employees of the United States Government as part of their official duties and, therefore, is not subject to copyright." For more information, please review NTSB's use policies. March 21 is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces and is involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Al-Ahram, founded in 1875, is the oldest daily newspaper in the Arab world. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... This article is about a TV series. ... The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ...


External links

  • NTSB links:
    • Final Report (PDF version)
    • ATC transmission transcript
    • Cockpit voice recorder complete transcript (English) (Arabic)
    • Flight data recorder data summary
    • NTSB debris image links Structural debris, structural debris, engine debris
  • ECAA links:
    • Egyptian Civil Aviation Authority final report
  • Media links:
    • CNN - Statement from Egyptian Amb. Nabil Fahmi
    • Interview with author William Langewiesche
    • CNN - EgyptAir Crash Report
    • The Egyptian State Information Service: Hosni Mubarak receives condolences from Arab and Israeli leaders, as well as the United States (Available Through Archive.Org)
  • Other links:
    • PlaneCrashInfo.Com - Entry on MS990
    • AirDisaster.Com - Entry on MS990
    • Aviation Safety Network - Entry on MS990
    • Image of accident aircraft

See also

  • Flash Airlines Flight 604 - another Egyptian airliner crash over which the Egyptian government and media disagreed with the NTSB's probable-cause conclusions.

Coordinates: 40°20′51″N, 69°45′24″W Flash Airlines Flight 604 was a charter flight operated by Egyptian charter company Flash Airlines. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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EGYPTAIR FLIGHT 990 - PAGE 2 (9445 words)
There are also indications on the flight data recorder that the captain and the co-pilot were in a contest over the controls, with the captain wanting to pull the nose up and the person in the co-pilot's seat commanding the nose to go down.
990 reportedly has steadfastly resisted intense pressure from U.S. government intelligence agents to change his story: that after seeing the jet dive to 17,000 feet level off, climb and dive again it was struck by a missile in the tail section.
The FBI is vigorously investigating the crash of EgyptAir Flight 990 even though the National Transportation Safety Board continues to have the lead role in the probe, according to federal law enforcement officials.
The Enterprise Mission - The REAL Mystery of Egypt Air flight 990 (5046 words)
New developments in the ongoing investigation into the crash of Egypt Air flight 990 show that the Enterprise Mission scenario of some "unexplained" (by conventional standards) event forcing the aircraft down is alive and well.
This means that Flight 990 at that point was essentially "a hundred-ton glider." All its previous downward and horizontal velocity was now directed parallel to the Earth's surface.
Later, graphic pictures of many of the almost intact victims from Flight 655 floating in the Gulf were widely circulated by Iran; Newsweek's Bureau Chief in Paris, Christopher Dickey, would later describe the horrifying results of the Vincennes' missile firing...
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