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Encyclopedia > Egypt
جمهورية مصر العربية
Gumhūriyyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyyah
Arab Republic of Egypt
Flag of Egypt
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemBilady, Bilady, Bilady
Capital
(and largest city)
Cairo
30°2′N, 31°13′E
Official languages Arabic1
Demonym Egyptian
Government Semi-presidential republic
 -  President Hosni Mubarak
 -  Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif
Establishment
 -  First Dynasty c.3150 BCE 
 -  Independence from United Kingdom February 28, 1922 
 -  Republic declared June 18, 1953 
Area
 -  Total 1,001,449 km² (30th)
386,660 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.632
Population
 -  2007 estimate 80,335,036 (est.)[1] 
 -  1996 census 59,312,914 
 -  Density 74/km² (120th)
192/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $329.791 billion (29th)
 -  Per capita $4,836 (110th)
Gini? (1999–00) 34.5 (medium
HDI (2006) 0.702 (medium) (111th)
Currency Egyptian pound (EGP)
Internet TLD .eg
Calling code +20
1 Spoken language is Egyptian Arabic.

Egypt (Egyptian: Kemet; Coptic: Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Kīmi; Arabic: مصر Miṣr ; Egyptian Arabic: Máṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in North Africa that includes the Sinai Peninsula, a land bridge to Asia. Covering an area of about 1,001,450 square kilometers (386,560 sq mi), Egypt borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. The northern coast borders the Mediterranean Sea and the island of Cyprus; the eastern coast borders the Red Sea. Egypt is a country in north Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... National flag of Egypt (1984-present) The flag of Egypt in its current form was adopted on October 4, 1984. ... The Egyptian coat of arms is a golden eagle looking towards the left. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Bilady, Bilady, Bilady (My country, my country, my country; Arabic: بلادي بلادي بلادي) has been Egypts national anthem since 1979. ... Image File history File links LocationEgypt. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East and the second-most populous on the African continent. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the elected Head of State of Egypt. ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ... List of Heads of Government of Egypt List of Heads of Government of Southern Region of Egypt Affiliations:- See also:- Egypt Rulers and Heads of State of Egypt Colonial Heads of Egypt Lists of Incumbents Categories: Egypt ... Dr. Ahmed Nazif (Arabic: أحمد نظيف ) (born July 8, 1952 in Alexandria) has served as the Prime Minister of Egypt since 14 July 2004. ... Hathor The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the First Dynasty. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code EGP User(s) Egypt Inflation 6. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .eg is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Egypt. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa. The great majority of its estimated 78 million people (2007) live near the banks of the Nile River in an area of about 40,000 km² (15,000 sq mi) where the only arable agricultural land is found. The large areas of the Sahara Desert are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with the majority spread across the densely populated centers of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... In geography, arable land is a form of agricultural land use, meaning land that can be (and is) used for growing crops. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the world's most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramid complex and the Great Sphinx. The southern city of Luxor contains numerous ancient artifacts, such as the Karnak Temple and the Valley of the Kings. Egypt is widely regarded as an important political and cultural nation of the Middle East.[2][3][4][5] Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... 19th-century tourists in front of the Sphinx - view from South-East, Great Pyramid in background The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. ... The Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt The Great Sphinx of Giza is a large half-human, half-lion Sphinx statue in Egypt, on the Giza Plateau at the west bank of the Nile River, near modern-day Cairo. ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

Contents

Etymology

km.t (Egypt)
in hieroglyphs

One of the ancient Egyptian names of the country, Kemet[6] (kṃt), or "black land" (from kem "black"), is derived from the fertile black soils deposited by the Nile floods, distinct from the deshret, or "red land" (dšṛt), of the desert. The name is realized as kīmi and kīmə in the Coptic stage of the Egyptian language, and appeared in early Greek as Χημία (Kymeía). Another name was t3-mry "land of the riverbank". The names of Upper and Lower Egypt were Ta-Sheme'aw (t3-šmˁw) "sedgeland" and Ta-Mehew (t3 mḥw) "northland", respectively. It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ...


Miṣr, the Arabic and modern official name of Egypt (Egyptian Arabic: Maṣr), is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם (Mitzráyim), literally meaning "the two straits" (a reference to the dynastic separation of upper and lower Egypt).[7] The word originally connoted "metropolis" or "civilization" and also means "country", or "frontier-land". Arabic redirects here. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


The English name "Egypt" came via the Latin word Aegyptus derived from the ancient Greek word Aígyptos (Αίγυπτος). The adjective aigýpti, aigýptios was borrowed into Coptic as gyptios, kyptios, and from there into Arabic as qubṭī, back formed into qubṭ, whence English Copt. The term is derived from Late Egyptian Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hat-ka-Ptah (ḥwt-k3-ptḥ), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Strabo provided a folk etymology according to which Aígyptos (Αίγυπτος ) had evolved as a compound from Aegaeon uptiōs (Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως), meaning "below the Aegean". For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Religions Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism Scriptures Bible Languages Mari, Coptic, Arabic, English, French, German A Copt (Coptic: , literally: Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. ... Old Egyptian is one diachronic part of Egyptian language and Egyptians spoke it from 1300 BC to 700 BC (after Middle Egyptian and before Demotic Egyptian). ... Akh redirects here. ... Ptah also refers to the asteroid 5011 Ptah Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... For other uses, see Memphis. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ...


History

The Nile River in Egypt.
Main articles: History of Egypt, Ancient Egypt, and Egyptians

The Nile has been a site of continuous human habitation since at least the Paleolithic era. Evidence of this appears in the form of artifacts and rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in the desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers replaced a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes and/or overgrazing around 8000 BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society.[8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... Hathor The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Grain redirects here. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ...


By about 6000 BC, organized agriculture and large building construction had appeared in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt. The Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to Dynastic Egyptian civilization. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining somewhat culturally separate, but maintaining frequent contact through trade. The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BC.[9] An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC) is traditionally the period between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the Pharaonic monarchy beginning with King Narmer. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... The Badarian culture provides the earliest direct evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt. ... Naqada or Naquada is a district and town about 30km north of Luxor on the west bank of the Nile in southern Egypt, (Upper Egypt),includes some villages such as Toukh,khatara ,Danfiq and zawayda. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Naqada or Naquada is a district and town about 30km north of Luxor on the west bank of the Nile in southern Egypt, (Upper Egypt),includes some villages such as Toukh,khatara ,Danfiq and zawayda. ...

tAwy ('Two Lands')
in hieroglyphs

A unified kingdom was founded circa 3150 BC by King Menes, giving rise to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia. Egyptians subsequently referred to their unified country as tawy, meaning "two lands", and later kemet (Coptic: kīmi), the "black land", a reference to the fertile black soil deposited by the Nile river. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion, arts, language and customs. The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period, c.2700−2200 BC., famous for its many pyramids, most notably the Third Dynasty pyramid of Djoser and the Fourth Dynasty Giza Pyramids. It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... This article is about the Pharaoh. ... This page lists articles on dynasties of Ancient Egypt. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history. ... This article has been tagged since January 2007. ... The Protodynastic Period of Egypt refers to the period of time at the very end of the Predynastic Period. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Third Dynasty. ... The Pyramid of Djoser, or step pyramid or kbhw-ntrw, was built for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser-Netjerikhet by his Vizier Imhotep. ... The Fourth dynasty of Egypt was the second of the four dynasties considered forming the Old Kingdom. ... 19th-century tourists in front of the Sphinx - view from South-East, Great Pyramid in background The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. ...

The Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza, built during the Old Kingdom, are modern national icons that are at the heart of Egypt's thriving tourism industry.
The Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza, built during the Old Kingdom, are modern national icons that are at the heart of Egypt's thriving tourism industry.

The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about 150 years. Stronger Nile floods and stabilization of government, however, brought back renewed prosperity for the country in the Middle Kingdom c. 2040 BC, reaching a peak during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic Hyksos. The Hyksos invaders took over much of Lower Egypt around 1650 BC and founded a new capital at Avaris. They were driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to Thebes. Image File history File linksMetadata SphinxGiza. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SphinxGiza. ... The Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt The Great Sphinx of Giza is a large half-human, half-lion Sphinx statue in Egypt, on the Giza Plateau at the west bank of the Nile River, near modern-day Cairo. ... 19th-century tourists in front of the Sphinx - view from South-East, Great Pyramid in background The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile... The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ... The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... ny m3ˁt rˁ (Nimaatre)[1] Belonging to the truth of Re Nomen Amenemhat[1] Amun is in front Horus name Wahankh[1] Long of life Nebty name Itjijautawy[1] Who comes to the inheritance of the two lands Golden Horus ˁ3 ba(u) (Aabaw)[1] Great of power Issues... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ... Avaris Avaris (Egyptian: , Hatwaret, Greek: αυαρις, Auaris), thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... Nebpehtire[4] The Lord of Strength is Re Nomen Ahmose[3] The Moon is Born Horus name Aakheperu[5] Great of Developments[6] Nebty name Tutmesut[5] Perfect of Birth[6] Golden Horus Tjestawy[5] He who Knots Together the Two Lands[6] Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari Gods Wife... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Memphis. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome...


The New Kingdom (c.1550−1070 BC) began with the Eighteenth Dynasty, marking the rise of Egypt as an international power that expanded during its greatest extension to an empire as far south as Jebel Barkal in Nubia, and included parts of the Levant in the east. This period is noted for some of the most well-known Pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II. The first known self-conscious expression of monotheism came during this period in the form of Atenism. Frequent contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom. The country was later invaded by Libyans, Nubians and Assyrians, but native Egyptians drove them out and regained control of their country. The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Jebel Barkal or Gebel Barkal is a small mountain located some 400 km north of Khartoum, in Sudan, on a large bend of the Nile River, in the region called Nubia. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau[1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... King Tut redirects here. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... Aten Atenism (or the Amarna heresy) is one of the earliest monotheistic religions, associated above all with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under the name he later adopted, Akhenaten. ... This article is about the Nubian civilization. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ...

First built in the third or fourth century AD, the Hanging Church is Cairo's most famous Coptic church.
First built in the third or fourth century AD, the Hanging Church is Cairo's most famous Coptic church.

The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch. It fell to the Persians in 343 BC after the last native Pharaoh, King Nectanebo II, was defeated in battle. Later, Egypt fell to the Greeks and Romans, beginning over two thousand years of foreign rule. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (853x1280, 589 KB) Hanging Church inside Old Cairo, Cairo, Egypt. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (853x1280, 589 KB) Hanging Church inside Old Cairo, Cairo, Egypt. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... The Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt followed Nectanebo Is deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor. ... The period of history in which Achaemenid Persia ruled over Egypt is divided into three parts: the first Persian domination, an interval of independence, and the second Persian domination. ... Nectanebo II (ruled 360 - 343 BC), also known by the name Nakhthoreb, was the third and last king of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt and the last native ruler of the country. ... The Roman Empire ca. ...


Before Egypt became part of the Byzantine realm, Christianity had been brought by Saint Mark the Evangelist in the AD first century. Diocletian's reign marked the transition from the Roman to the Byzantine era in Egypt, when a great number of Egyptian Christians were persecuted. The New Testament had by then been translated into Egyptian. After the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, a distinct Egyptian Coptic Church was firmly established.[10] The Roman Empire ca. ... Mark the Evangelist (Greek: Markos) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ...


The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Persian invasion early in the seventh century, until in AD 639, Egypt was invaded by the Muslim Arabs. The form of Islam the Arabs brought to Egypt was Sunni. Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with indigenous beliefs and practices that had survived through Coptic Christianity, giving rise to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day.[11] Muslim rulers nominated by the Islamic Caliphate remained in control of Egypt for the next six centuries, including a period for which it was the seat of the Caliphate under the Fatimids. With the end of the Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluks, a Turco-Circassian military caste, took control about AD 1250. They continued to govern even after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. The Roman Empire ca. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... During the initial Islamic invasion in 639 AD, Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus but, in 747, the Ummayads were overthrown and the power of the Arabs slowly began to weaken. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Mamluk Sultanate, 1250]] History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman... For other uses of Turkish, see Turk (disambiguation). ... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ...

Mosque of Mohamed Ali built in the early nineteenth century within the Cairo Citadel.

The brief French Invasion of Egypt led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798 had a great social impact on the country and its culture. Native Egyptians became exposed to the principles of the French Revolution and had a chance to exercise self-governance.[12] A series of civil wars took place between the Ottoman Turks, the Mamluks, and Albanian mercenaries following the evacuation of French troops, resulting in the Albanian Muhammad Ali (Kavalali Mehmed Ali Pasha) taking control of Egypt. He was appointed as the Ottoman viceroy in 1805. He led a modernization campaign of public works, including irrigation projects, agricultural reforms and increased industrialization, which were then taken up and further expanded by his grandson and successor Isma'il Pasha. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the leader of Egypt. ... The Saladin Citadel of Cairo (Arabic: قلعة صلاح الدين) is one of the most popular tourist attractions of Cairo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... This article is about the leader of Egypt. ... The process of Muhammad Alis seizure of power in Egypt was a long three way civil war between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamelukes, and Albanian mercenaries. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Ismail Pasha Ismail Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent (December 31, 1830–March 2, 1895) (Arabic: إسماعيل باشا), was khedive of Egypt from 1863 until he was removed at the behest of the British in 1879. ...


Following the completion of the Suez Canal by Ismail in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation and trading hub. In 1866, the Assembly of Delegates was founded to serve as an advisory body for the government. Its members were elected from across Egypt. They came to have an important influence on governmental affairs.[13] The country fell heavily into debt to European powers. Ostensibly to protect its investments, the United Kingdom seized control of Egypt's government in 1882. Egypt gave nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire until 1914. As a result of the declaration of war with the Ottoman Empire, Britain declared a protectorate over Egypt and deposed the Khedive Abbas II, replacing him with his uncle, Husayn Kamil, who was appointed Sultan. For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... For the HMS Khedive, see USS Cordova. ... Some of the comments on the British Empire below might need improvements to reach a neutral point of view. ... Husayn Kamil, Sultan of Egypt from 1914 to 1917 His Highness Sultan Husayn Kamil (November 21, 1853 - October 9, 1917) (Arabic: سلطان حسين كامل) was the Sultan of Egypt and King of The Sudan from December 19, 1914 - October 9, 1917, during the British occupation which lasted from 1882-1922. ... Sultan of Egypt was the title used for the leader of a number of Muslim dynasties that ruled over Egypt. ...

Public riot during the 1919 Revolution sparked by the British exile of nationalist leader Saad Zaghlul.

Between 1882 and 1906, a local nationalist movement for independence was taking shape. The Dinshaway Incident prompted Egyptian opposition to take a stronger stand against British occupation. The first political parties were founded. After the First World War, Saad Zaghlul and the Wafd Party led the Egyptian nationalist movement, gaining a majority at the local Legislative Assembly. When the British exiled Zaghlul and his associates to Malta on March 8, 1919, the country arose in its first modern revolution. Constant revolting by the Egyptian people throughout the country led Great Britain to issue a unilateral declaration of Egypt's independence on February 22, 1922.[14] Image File history File links 1919revolution. ... Image File history File links 1919revolution. ... Public riot during the 1919 Revolution. ... Saad Zaghlul (also: Saad Zaglul, Sad Zaghlul Pasha ibn Ibrahim, etc. ... The Dinshawai Incident occurred in Egypt in June 1906. ... Saad Zaghlul (also: Saad Zaglul, Sad Zaghlul Pasha ibn Ibrahim, etc. ... In post-World War I Egypt, the term wafd refers to a delegation, and more specifically the one that had the direct goal of achieving the complete and total independence of Egypt. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Public riot during the 1919 Revolution. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The new Egyptian government drafted and implemented a new constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary representative system. Saad Zaghlul was popularly-elected as Prime Minister of Egypt in 1924. In 1936 the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty was concluded. States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... List of Heads of Government of Egypt List of Heads of Government of Southern Region of Egypt Affiliations:- See also:- Egypt Rulers and Heads of State of Egypt Colonial Heads of Egypt Lists of Incumbents Categories: Egypt ... In 1936 a treaty between Britain and Egypt was signed which became known as the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. ...


Continued instability in the government due to remaining British control and increasing political involvement by the king led to the ouster of the monarchy and the dissolution of the parliament in a military coup d'état known as the 1952 Revolution. The officers, known as the Free Officers Movement, forced King Farouk to abdicate in support of his son Fuad. Coup redirects here. ... The 1952 Revolution (Arabic:ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), in Egypt also known as the July 23 Revolution, began with a military coup détat that took place on July 23, 1952 by a group of young army officers who named themselves The Free Officers Movement. The revolution was initially aimed at overthrowing... In Egypt, the clandestine revolutionary Free Officers Movement was founded by Colonel Gamal Abdul Nasser in the aftermath of Egypts sense of national disgrace from the War of 1948. ... Farouk I of Egypt (Arabic: فاروق الأول FārÅ«q al-Awwal) ‎ (February 11, 1920 – March 18, 1965), was the tenth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936. ... King Fuad II of Egypt and the Sudan (Ahmed Fuad) (Arabic: الملك أحمد فؤاد الثاني) was born on 16 January 1952. ...

View of Cairo, the largest city in Africa and the Middle East. The Cairo Opera House (bottom-right) is the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital.

On 18 June 1953, the Egyptian Republic was declared, with General Muhammad Naguib as the first President of the Republic. Naguib was forced to resign in 1954 by Gamal Abdel Nasser – the real architect of the 1952 movement – and was later put under house arrest. Nasser assumed power as President and declared the full independence of Egypt from the United Kingdom on June 18, 1956. His nationalization of the Suez Canal on July 26, 1956 prompted the 1956 Suez Crisis. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Cairo Opera House one of six in Africa (three in Egypt and three in South Africa). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Template:Infobox President Muhammad Naguib (محمد نجيب in Arabic; 20 February 1901 – 29 August 1984) was the first President of the Republic of Egypt. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1...


Three years after the 1967 Six Day War, during which Israel had invaded and occupied Sinai, Nasser died and was succeeded by Anwar Sadat. Sadat switched Egypt's Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States, expelling Soviet advisors in 1972. He launched the Infitah economic reform policy, while violently clamping down on religious and secular opposition alike. The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Infitah is an Arabic word meaning open door and refers to Egyptian President Anwar Sadat opening the door to private investment in Egypt. ...


In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the October War, a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights. It was an attempt to liberate the territory Israel had captured 6 years earlier. Both the US and the USSR intervened and a cease-fire was reached. Despite not being a complete military success, most historians agree that the October War presented Sadat with a political victory that later allowed him to pursue peace with Israel. Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim...


In 1977, Sadat made a historic visit to Israel, which led to the 1979 peace treaty in exchange for the complete Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Sadat's initiative sparked enormous controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypt's expulsion from the Arab League, but it was supported by the vast majority of Egyptians.[15] A fundamentalist military soldier assassinated Sadat in Cairo in 1981. He was succeeded by the incumbent Hosni Mubarak. In 2003, the Egyptian Movement for Change, popularly known as Kifaya, was launched to seek a return to democracy and greater civil liberties. The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad Ḥusnī Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك Ḥusnī Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ... Kifayas logo. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...


Identity

Mahmoud Mokhtar's Egypt's Renaissance 1919-1928, Cairo University.
Mahmoud Mokhtar's Egypt's Renaissance 1919-1928, Cairo University.

The Egyptian Nile Valley was home to one of the oldest cultures in the world, spanning three thousand years of continuous history. When Egypt fell under a series of foreign occupations after 343 BC, each left an indelible mark on the country's cultural landscape. Egyptian identity evolved in the span of this long period of occupation to accommodate, in principle, two new religions, Christianity and Islam; and a new language, Arabic, and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic. The degree to which different groups in Egypt identify with these factors in articulating a sense of collective identity can vary greatly. Identity is a source of frequent debate. Image File history File links Egypt's_Awakening. ... Image File history File links Egypt's_Awakening. ... Mahmoud Mokhtar (1891 - March 28, 1934) was an Egyptian sculptor. ... Cairo University, the biggest in Africa Cairo University (formerly Fouad the First University) is an institute of higher education located in Giza, Egypt. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Hathor The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. ... The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history. ... This article is about the Egyptians, a North African ethnic group. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Arabic redirects here. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ...


Questions of identity came to fore in the last century as Egypt sought to free itself from foreign occupation for the first time in two thousand years. Three chief ideologies came to head: ethno-territorial Egyptian nationalism and by extension Pharaonism, secular Arab nationalism and pan-Arabism, and Islamism. Egyptian nationalism predates its Arab counterpart by many decades, having roots in the nineteenth century and becoming the dominant mode of expression of Egyptian anti-colonial activists of the pre- and inter-war periods. It was nearly always articulated in exclusively Egyptian terms: Pharaonism is an ideology that rose to prominence in Egypt in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ...

What is most significant [about Egypt in this period] is the absence of an Arab component in early Egyptian nationalism. The thrust of Egyptian political, economic, and cultural development throughout the nineteenth century worked against, rather than for, an "Arab" orientation... This situation—that of divergent political trajectories for Egyptians and Arabs—if anything increased after 1900.[16]

In 1931 following a visit to Egypt, Syrian Arab nationalist Sati' al-Husri remarked that "[Egyptians] did not possess an Arab nationalist sentiment; did not accept that Egypt was a part of the Arab lands, and would not acknowledge that the Egyptian people were part of the Arab nation."[17] The later 1930s would become a formative period for Arab nationalism in Egypt, in large part due to efforts by Syrian/Palestinian/Lebanese intellectuals.[18] A year after the establishment of the League of Arab States in 1945, to be headquartered in Cairo, Oxford University historian H. S. Deighton was still writing: For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Sati al-Husri was a Syrian writer and intellectual whose ideas are widely considered to have played a fundamental role in the development of Arab Nationalism. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...

The Egyptians are not Arabs, and both they and the Arabs are aware of this fact. They are Arabic-speaking, and they are Muslim —indeed religion plays a greater part in their lives than it does in those either of the Syrians or the Iraqi. But the Egyptian, during the first thirty years of the [twentieth] century, was not aware of any particular bond with the Arab East... Egypt sees in the Arab cause a worthy object of real and active sympathy and, at the same time, a great and proper opportunity for the exercise of leadership, as well as for the enjoyment of its fruits. But she is still Egyptian first and Arab only in consequence, and her main interests are still domestic. [19]

It was not until the Nasser era more than a decade later that Arab nationalism became a state policy and a means with which to define Egypt's position in the Middle East and the world.[20] usually articulated vis-à-vis Zionism in the neighboring Jewish state. Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


For a while Egypt and Syria formed the United Arab Republic. When the union was dissolved, the current official name of Egypt was adopted, the Arab Republic of Egypt. Egypt's attachment to Arabism, however, was particularly questioned after its defeat in the 1967 Six-Day War. Thousands of Egyptians lost their lives and the country become disillusioned with Arab politics.[21] Nasser's successor Sadat, both by policy and through his peace initiative with Israel, revived an uncontested Egyptian orientation, unequivocally asserting that only Egypt was his responsibility. The terms "Arab", "Arabism" and "Arab unity", save for the new official name, became conspicuously absent.[22] Indeed, as professor of Egyptian history P. J. Vatikiotis explains: Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... “Sadat” redirects here. ...

...the impact of the October 1973 War (also known as the Ramadan or Yom Kippur War) found Egyptians reverting to an earlier sense of national identity, that of Egyptianism. Egypt became their foremost consideration and top priority in contrast to the earlier one, preferred by the Nasser régime, of Egypt's role and primacy in the Arab world. This kind of national 'restoration' was led by the Old Man of Egyptian Nationalism, Tawfiq el-Hakim, who in the 1920s and 1930s was associated with the Pharaonist movement.[23]
Egyptian Flag Until 1958.
Egyptian Flag Until 1958.

The question of identity continues to be debated today. Many Egyptians feel that Egyptian and Arab identities are linked and not necessarily incompatible. Many others continue to believe that Egypt and Egyptians are simply not Arab. They emphasize indigenous Egyptian heritage, culture and independent polity; point to the failures of Arab nationalist policies; and publicly voice objection to the present official name of the country. Ordinary Egyptians frequently express this sentiment. For example, a foreign tourist said after visiting Egypt,"Although an avowedly Islamic country and now part and parcel of the Arab world, Egyptians are very proud of their distinctiveness and their glorious Pharaonic past dating back to 3500 BC... 'We are not Arabs, we are Egyptians,' said tour guide Shayma, who is a devout Muslim."[24] Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt_1922. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt_1922. ... Jan. ...


In late 2007, el-Masri el-Yom daily newspaper conducted an interview at a bus stop in the working-class district of Imbaba to ask citizens what Arab nationalism (el-qawmeyya el-'arabeyya) represented for them. One Egyptian Muslim youth responded, "Arab nationalism means that the Egyptian Foreign Minister in Jerusalem gets humiliated by the Palestinians, that Arab leaders dance on hearing of Sadat's death, that Egyptians get humiliated in the Arab Gulf States, and of course that Arab countries get to fight Israel until the last Egyptian soldier."[25] Another felt that,"Arab countries hate Egyptians," and that unity with Israel may even be more of a possibility than Arab nationalism, because he believes that Israelis at least respect Egyptians.[25] Imbaba is a city in northern Egypt, it is the part of Cairo conurbation. ...


Some contemporary prominent Egyptians who oppose Arab nationalism or the idea that Egyptians are Arabs include Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities Zahi Hawass.[26], popular writer Osama Anwar Okasha, Egyptian-born Harvard University Professor Leila Ahmed, Member of Parliament Suzie Greiss[27], in addition to different local groups and intellectuals.[28][29][30][31][32] This understanding is also expressed in other contexts,[33][34] such as Neil DeRosa's novel Joseph's Seed in his depiction of an Egyptian character "who declares that Egyptians are not Arabs and never will be."[35] Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ... Osama Anwar Okasha is an Egyptian screenwriter and journalist, who writes weekly for El-Ahram newspaper. ... Leila Ahmed is an Egyptian American professor of Womens Studies and Religion at the Harvard Divinity School. ...


Egyptian critics of Arab nationalism contend that it has worked to erode and/or relegate native Egyptian identity by superimposing only one aspect of Egypt's culture. These views and sources for collective identification in the Egyptian state are captured in the words of a linguistic anthropologist who conducted fieldwork in Cairo:

Historically, Egyptians have considered themselves as distinct from 'Arabs' and even at present rarely do they make that identification in casual contexts; il-'arab [the Arabs] as used by Egyptians refers mainly to the inhabitants of the Gulf states... Egypt has been both a leader of pan-Arabism and a site of intense resentment towards that ideology. Egyptians had to be made, often forcefully, into "Arabs" [during the Nasser era] because they did not historically identify themselves as such. Egypt was self-consciously a nation not only before pan-Arabism but also before becoming a colony of the British Empire. Its territorial continuity since ancient times, its unique history as exemplified in its pharaonic past and later on its Coptic language and culture, had already made Egypt into a nation for centuries. Egyptians saw themselves, their history, culture and language as specifically Egyptian and not "Arab."[36]

Politics

Main article: Politics of Egypt

Politics of Egypt takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential republic, whereby the President of Egypt is de facto both head of state and head of government, and of a party system dominated by the National Democratic Party. ...

National

Egypt has been a republic since 18 June 1953. President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak has been the President of the Republic since October 14, 1981, following the assassination of former-President Mohammed Anwar El-Sadat. Mubarak is currently serving his fifth term in office. He is the leader of the ruling National Democratic Party. Prime Minister Dr. Ahmed Nazif was sworn in as Prime Minister on 9 July 2004, following the resignation of Dr. Atef Ebeid from his office. is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad Ḥusnī Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك Ḥusnī Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ... The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the elected Head of State of Egypt. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... List of Heads of Government of Egypt List of Heads of Government of Southern Region of Egypt Affiliations:- See also:- Egypt Rulers and Heads of State of Egypt Colonial Heads of Egypt Lists of Incumbents Categories: Egypt ... Dr. Ahmed Nazif (Arabic: أحمد نظيف ) (born July 8, 1952 in Alexandria) has served as the Prime Minister of Egypt since 14 July 2004. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Atef Muhammad Ebeid (born 14 April 1932) was the Prime Minister of Egypt from October 1999 to July 2004. ...


Although power is ostensibly organized under a multi-party semi-presidential system, whereby the executive power is theoretically divided between the President and the Prime Minister, in practice it rests almost solely with the President who traditionally has been elected in single-candidate elections for more than fifty years. Egypt also holds regular multi-party parliamentary elections. The last presidential election, in which Mubarak won a fifth consecutive term, was held in September 2005. A multi-party system is a type of party system. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... List of Heads of Government of Egypt List of Heads of Government of Southern Region of Egypt Affiliations:- See also:- Egypt Rulers and Heads of State of Egypt Colonial Heads of Egypt Lists of Incumbents Categories: Egypt ... The Egyptian presidential election of 2005, held on September 7, 2005, was the first contested presidential election in Egypts history. ...


In late February 2005, President Mubarak announced in a surprise television broadcast that he had ordered the reform of the country's presidential election law, paving the way for multi-candidate polls in the upcoming presidential election. For the first time since the 1952 movement, the Egyptian people had an apparent chance to elect a leader from a list of various candidates. The President said his initiative came "out of my full conviction of the need to consolidate efforts for more freedom and democracy."[37] However, the new law placed draconian restrictions on the filing for presidential candidacies, designed to prevent well-known candidates such as Ayman Nour from standing against Mubarak, and paved the road for his easy re-election victory.[38] Concerns were once again expressed after the 2005 presidential elections about government interference in the election process through fraud and vote-rigging, in addition to police brutality and violence by pro-Mubarak supporters against opposition demonstrators.[39] After the election, Egypt imprisoned Nour, and the U.S. Government stated the “conviction of Mr. Nour, the runner-up in Egypt's 2005 presidential elections, calls into question Egypt's commitment to democracy, freedom, and the rule of law.”[40] In Egypt, the clandestine revolutionary Free Officers Movement was founded by Colonel Gamal Abdul Nasser in the aftermath of Egypts sense of national disgrace from the War of 1948. ... Ayman Abd El-Aziz Nour (Arabic: ) is an Egyptian politician, a former member of that countrys Parliament and chairman of the al-Ghad party (Tomorrow Party). He became famous around the world following his January 2005 imprisonment by the government of President Hosni Mubarak, which was widely understood as...


As a result, most Egyptians are skeptical about the process of democratization and the role of the elections. Less than 25 percent of the country's 32 million registered voters (out of a population of more than 78 million) turned out for the 2005 elections.[41] A proposed change to the constitution would limit the president to two seven-year terms in office.[42] Democratization (British English: Democratisation) is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ...


Thirty-four constitutional changes voted on by parliament on March 19, 2007 prohibit parties from using religion as a basis for political activity; allow the drafting of a new anti-terrorism law to replace the emergency legislation in place since 1981, giving police wide powers of arrest and surveillance; give the president power to dissolve parliament; and end judicial monitoring of election. [43] As opposition members of parliament withdrew from voting on the proposed changes, it was expected that the referendum will be boycotted by a great number of Egyptians in protest of what has been considered a breach of democratic practices. Eventually it was reported that only 27% of the registered voters went to the polling stations under heavy police presence and tight political control of the ruling National Democratic Party. It was officially announced on March 27,2007 that 75.9% of those who participated in the referendum approved of the constitutional amendments introduced by President Mubarak and was endorsed by opposition free parliament, thus allowing the introduction of laws that curbs the activity of certain opposition elements particularly Islamists. is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Human rights

Main article: Human rights in Egypt
Members of the Kifaya democracy movement protesting a fifth term for President Hosni Mubarak. See also video.
Members of the Kifaya democracy movement protesting a fifth term for President Hosni Mubarak. See also video.

Several local and international human rights organizations, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, have for many years criticized Egypt's human rights record as poor. In 2005, President Hosni Mubarak faced unprecedented public criticism when he clamped down on democracy activists challenging his rule. Some of the most serious human rights violations according to HRW's 2006 report on Egypt are routine torture, arbitrary detentions and trials before military and state security courts.[44] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Kefaya_demo. ... Image File history File links Kefaya_demo. ... Kifayas logo. ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad Ḥusnī Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك Ḥusnī Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad Ḥusnī Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك Ḥusnī Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ... Kifayas logo. ...


Discriminatory personal status laws governing marriage, divorce, custody and inheritance which put women at a disadvantage have also been cited. Laws concerning Christians which place restrictions on church building and open worship have been recently eased, but major constructions still require governmental approval and persecution of Christianity by underground radical groups remains a problem.[45] In addition, intolerance of Baha'is and unorthodox Muslim sects remains a problem.[44] For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


In 2005, the Freedom House rated political rights in Egypt as "6" (1 representing the most free and 7 the least free rating), civil liberties as "5" and gave it the freedom rating of "Not Free."[46] It however noted that "Egypt witnessed its most transparent and competitive presidential and legislative elections in more than half a century and an increasingly unbridled public debate on the country's political future in 2005."[47] Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ... ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...


In 2007, human rights group Amnesty International released a report criticizing Egypt for torture and illegal detention. The report alleges that Egypt has become an international center for torture, where other nations send suspects for interrogation, often as part of the War on Terror. The report calls on Egypt to bring its anti-terrorism laws into accordance with international human rights statutes and on other nations to stop sending their detainees to Egypt.[48] Egypt's foreign ministry quickly issued a rebuttal to this report, claiming that it was inaccurate and unfair, as well as causing deep offense to the Egyptian government.[49] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ...


The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights (EOHR) is one of the longest-standing bodies for the defence of human rights in Egypt.[50] In 2003, the government established the National Council for Human Rights, headquartered in Cairo and headed by former UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali who directly reports to the president.[51] The council has come under heavy criticism by local NGO activists, who contend it undermines human rights work in Egypt by serving as a propaganda tool for the government to excuse its violations[52] and to provide legitimacy to repressive laws such as the recently renewed Emergency Law.[53] Egypt has recently announced that it is in the process of abolishing the Emergency Law.[54] However, in March 2007 President Mubarak approved several constitutional amendments to include "an anti-terrorism clause that appears to enshrine sweeping police powers of arrest and surveillance", suggesting that the Emergency Law is here to stay for the long haul.[55] Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي Coptic: BOYTPOC BOYTPOC ΓΑΛΗ) (born November 14, 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ...


The high court of Egypt has outlawed all religions and belief except Islam, Christianity and Judaism. (For more information see Egyptian Identification Card Controversy.) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Foreign relations

Egypt's foreign policy operates along moderate lines. Factors such as population size, historical events, military strength, diplomatic expertise and a strategic geographical position give Egypt extensive political influence in Africa and the Middle East. Cairo has been a crossroads of regional commerce and culture for centuries, and its intellectual and Islamic institutions are at the center of the region's social and cultural development. Egypts foreign policy operates along a non-aligned level. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


The permanent Headquarters of the Arab League are located in Cairo and the Secretary General of the Arab League has traditionally been an Egyptian. Former Egyptian Foreign Minister Amr Moussa is the current Secretary General. The Arab League briefly moved from Egypt to Tunis in 1978, as a protest to the signing by Egypt of a peace treaty with Israel, but returned in 1989. The headquarters of the Arab League are located near the central business district of Cairo, Egypt. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Amr Moussa (Arabic: عمرو موسى), (born 1936) has been the current Secretary-General of the League of Arab States since his election to the position in May 2001. ...


Egypt was the first Arab state to establish diplomatic relations with Israel, with the signing of the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty in 1979. Egypt has a major influence amongst other Arab states, and has historically played an important role as a mediator in resolving disputes between various Arab states, and in the Israeli-Palestinian dispute. Most Arab states still give credence to Egypt playing that role, though its effects are often limited and recently challenged by Saudi Arabia and oil rich Gulf States. It is also reported that due to Egypt's indulgence in internal problems and its reluctance to play a positive role in regional matters had lost the country great influence in Africa and the neighbouring countries. The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... It has been suggested that Arab states of the Persian Gulf be merged into this article or section. ...


Former Egyptian Deputy Prime Minister Boutros Boutros-Ghali served as Secretary General of the United Nations from 1991 to 1996. Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي Coptic: BOYTPOC BOYTPOC ΓΑΛΗ) (born November 14, 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Governorates

Main articles: Governorates of Egypt and Markazes of Egypt
Map of Egypt, showing the 26 capitals of governorates, in addition to the self-governing city of Luxor

Egypt is divided into twenty-six governorates (muhafazat, singular muhafazah). The governorates are further divided into regions (markazes). Egypt is divided into 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah): Ad Daqahliyah Al Bahr al Ahmar Al Buhayrah Al Fayyum Al Gharbiyah Al Iskandariyah Al Ismailiyah Al Jizah Al Minufiyah Al Minya Al Qahirah Al Qalyubiyah Al Wadi al Jadid Ash Sharqiyah As Suways Aswan Asyut Bani Suwayf Bur Sa... The governorates of Egypt are divided into regions (markazes). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... A governorate is a country subdivision. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Governorate. ... Markaz may refer to: A term synonymous with Kharjah Jamia Markazu Ssaqafathi Ssunniyya, an academic and cultural centre in Kerala Markaz, a village in Hungary This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...

Governorate Capital Location
Alexandria Alexandria Northern
Aswan Aswan Upper
Asyut Asyut Upper
Beheira Damanhur Lower
Beni Suef Beni Suef Upper
Cairo Cairo Middle
Dakahlia Mansura Lower
Damietta Damietta Lower
Faiyum Faiyum Upper
Gharbia Tanta Lower
Giza Giza Upper
Ismailia Ismailia Canal
Kafr el-Sheikh Kafr el-Sheikh Lower
Governorate Capital Location
Matruh Mersa Matruh Western
Minya Minya Upper
Monufia Shibin el-Kom Lower
New Valley Kharga Western
North Sinai Arish Sinai
Port Said Port Said Canal
Qalyubia Banha Lower
Qena Qena Upper
Red Sea Hurghada Eastern
Sharqia Zagazig Lower
Sohag Sohag Upper
South Sinai el-Tor Sinai
Suez Suez Canal

Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria) (Arabic: الإسكندرية) is one of the governorates of Egypt, located in the north of the country, lying directly on the Mediterranean Sea which makes it one of the most important harbours in Egypt. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Aswan Governorate (Arabic: أسوان) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... Asyut (Arabic: اسيوط ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Location of Asyut on the map of Egypt. ... Al Buhayrah (Arabic: البحيره ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Damanhur (Arabic: دمنهور ) or Hermopolis Mikra (Greek: ) or Latin: Hermopolis Parva is a city in Lower Egypt, and the capital of al-Buhayrah (Beheira or Behera) governorate. ... Bani Suwayf (Arabic: بني سويف ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Egypt: Site of Beni Suef Beni Suef (Coptic: panisuf; Arabic: بني سويف) is the capital city of the Beni Suef Governorate, Egypt. ... Al Qahirah (Arabic: القاهرة) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Ad Daqahliyah (Arabic: الدقهليه ) is an Egyptian governorate lying northeast of Cairo. ... Mansura was the capital of the Arab empire in Pakistan. ... Map of Egypt showing Dimyat Governorate. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... Al Fayyum (Arabic: ألفيوم ) is one of the governorates of Egypt located in the centre of the country. ... Egypt: Site of Al Fayyum oasis (top center). ... Al-Gharbiyah (Arabic: الغربية) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Tanta Tanta (Arabic: طنطا ) is an Egyptian town, with an estimated 430,000 inhabitants. ... Al Jizah (Arabic: الجيزة) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Gizeh is also a popular brand in Germany of cigarette rolling papers; see Mascotte (rolling papers). ... Al Ismailiyah (Arabic: الإسماعيليه ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Ismailia is the capital of the governorate of Al Ismailiyah, and one of the newest cities in Egypt. ... Kafr ash Shaykh (Arabic: كفر الشيخ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Kafr el-Sheikh (Arabic: ) is the capital of Kafr el-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. ... Matruh ( Arabic: مطروح ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Mersa Matruh is a seaport in Egypt, Africa. ... Map of Egypt showing Al Minya Governorate. ... Location of Minya on the map of Egypt. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Governorates of Egypt ... Shibin el-Kom (Arabic: شبين الكوم) is a city in northern Egypt. ... Al Wadi al Jadid (Arabic: الوادى الجديد ) (English: New Valley; see New Valley Project) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Kharga Oasis (Arabic الخارجة, Standard Arabic pronunciation al-Khārija, Egyptian spoken Arabic al-Khārga) is the southernmost of Egypts five Western oases. ... Shamal Sina (Arabic: شمال سيناء ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Al Arish Arish or el-Arīsh (Arabic: العريش ) is the capital and largest city (with 114,900 inhabitants as of 2002) of the Egyptian governorate of Shamal Sina, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, 344 kilometers (214 miles) northeast of Cairo. ... Bur Said (Arabic: محافظة بور سعيد ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Port Said (postcard around 1915) Port Said (31. ... Al Qalyubiyah (Arabic: ألقليوبيه ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Banha Banha (also spelled Benha) (Arabic: بنها) is a city in northeastern Egypt, also the capital of the Al Qalyubiyah Governorate. ... Qina (Arabic: قنا ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Location of Qena on the map of Egypt. ... Al Bahr al Ahmar0 is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Al-Mahmya: a tourist facility on the protected Giftun island off the coast near Hurghada. ... Ash Sharqiyah (Arabic: , Eastern Governorate) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Zagazig (Zakazik, Arabic, Az-Zaqāzīq الزقازيق), is a town of Lower Egypt, in the eastern part of the Nile delta, and is the capital of the province of Ash Sharqiyah. ... Suhaj or Sohag (Arabic: سوهاج) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Sohag is an Egyptian governorate that is located in the Upper_Egypt. ... Janub Sina (Arabic: جنوب سيناء ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... El Tor is the name given to a particular strain of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. ... As Suways (Arabic: محافظة السويس ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Egypt
The Nile River at the ancient city of Aswan, a popular destination for vacationers
The Nile River at the ancient city of Aswan, a popular destination for vacationers

Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum exports, and tourism; there are also more than three million Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Saudi Arabia, the Persian Gulf and Europe. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly-growing population, limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress the economy. A series of International Monetary Fund arrangements, coupled with massive external debt relief resulting from Egypts participation in the Gulf War coalition, helped Egypt improve its macroeconomic performance during the 1990s. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 524 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,256 × 1,478 pixels, file size: 597 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 524 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,256 × 1,478 pixels, file size: 597 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Egypt showing the location of Aswan and Lake Nasser. ... View of Lake Nasser from Abu Simbel Map showing the location of Lake Nasser Lake Nasser (Arabic: Buhayrat Nasir) is a vast artificial lake in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. ...


The government has struggled to prepare the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investments in communications and physical infrastructure. Egypt has been receiving U.S. foreign aid (since 1979, an average of $2.2 billion per year) and is the third-largest recipient of such funds from the United States following the Iraq war. Its main revenues however come from tourism as well as traffic that goes through the Suez Canal. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Development aid. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ...


Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas, and hydro power. Substantial coal deposits are in the north-east Sinai, and are mined at the rate of about 600,000t per year. Oil and gas are produced in the western desert regions, the Gulf of Suez, and the Nile Delta. Egypt has huge reserves of gas, estimated at over 1.1 million cubic meters in the 1990s, and LNG is exported to many countries.


Economic conditions have started to improve considerably after a period of stagnation from the adoption of more liberal economic policies by the government, as well as increased revenues from tourism and a booming stock market. In its annual report, the IMF has rated Egypt as one of the top countries in the world undertaking economic reforms. Some major economic reforms taken by the new government since 2003 include a dramatic slashing of customs and tariffs. A new taxation law implemented in 2005 decreased corporate taxes from 40% to the current 20%, resulting in a stated 100% increase in tax revenue by the year 2006. The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ...


FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) into Egypt has increased considerably in the past few years due to the recent economic liberalization measures taken by minister of investment Mahmoud Mohieddin, exceeding $6 billion in 2006. Egypt is slated to overcome South Africa as the highest earner of FDI on the African continent in 2007.


Although one of the main obstacles still facing the Egyptian economy is the trickle down of the wealth to the average population, many Egyptians criticize their government for higher prices of basic goods while their standards of living or purchasing power remains relatively stagnant. Often corruption is blamed by Egyptians as the main impediment to feeling the benefits of the newly attained wealth. Major reconstruction of the country's infrastructure is promised by the government, with a large portion of the sum paid for the newly acquired 3rd mobile license ($3 billion) by Etisalat. This is slated to be pumped into the country's railroad system, in response to public outrage against the government for disasters in 2006 that claimed more than 100 lives.


The best known examples of Egyptian companies that have expanded regionally and globally are the Orascom Group and Raya. The IT sector has been expanding rapidly in the past few years, with many new start-ups conducting outsourcing business to North America and Europe, operating with companies such as Microsoft, Oracle and other major corporations, as well as numerous SME's. Some of these companies are the Xceed Contact Center, Raya Contact Center, E Group Connections and C3 along with other start ups in that country. The sector has been stimulated by new Egyptian entrepreneurs trying to capitalize on their country's huge potential in the sector, as well as constant government encouragement. Orascom is an Egyptian business group. ... A Raja (sometimes spelled Rajah) is a king, or princely ruler. ...


Demographics

Egyptian farm.
Main articles: Demographics of Egypt and Egyptians

Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East and the second-most populous on the African continent, with an estimated 78 million people. Almost all the population is concentrated along the banks of the Nile (notably Cairo and Alexandria), in the Delta and near the Suez Canal. Approximately 90% of the population adheres to Islam and most of the remainder to Christianity (primarily the Coptic Orthodox denomination).[56] Apart from religious affiliation, Egyptians can be divided demographically into those who live in the major urban centers and the fellahin or farmers of rural villages. The last 40 years have seen a rapid increase in population due to medical advances and massive increase in agricultural productivity.[57] made by the Green Revolution.[58] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (720x915, 273 KB) Galen R Frysinger) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (720x915, 273 KB) Galen R Frysinger) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East and the second-most populous on the African continent. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo Egypt, connected to a mosque built around 971, is the oldest continuously operating university in the world. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... For the Arabic word for success in the context of Islam, see Falah. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ...


Egyptians are by far the largest ethnic group in Egypt at 94% (about 72.5 million) of the total population.[56] Ethnic minorities include the Bedouin Arab tribes living in the eastern deserts and the Sinai Peninsula, the Berber-speaking Siwis (Amazigh) of the Siwa Oasis, and the ancient Nubian communities clustered along the Nile. There are also interspersed communities of Beja concentrated in the south-eastern-most corner of the country, and a number of Dom clans mostly in the Nile Delta and Faiyum who are progressively becoming assimilated as urbanization increases. A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), is a desert-dwelling Arab nomadic pastoralist, found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the Arabian Desert. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The Siwis are a Berber ethnic group living in the Siwa Oasis. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... The Siwa Oasis is an oasis in Egypt, located between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea in the Libyan Desert. ... For the Star Wars planet, see Nubia (Star Wars). ... The Beja people are an ethnic group dwelling parts of North-Eastern and Eastern Africa including the area of the Horn of Africa. ... The Dom (or Domi) (Arabic,دومي or دومري) of the Middle East are a South Asian (Desi) ethnic group. ... Egypt: Site of Al Fayyum oasis (top center). ...


Egypt also hosts an unknown number of refugees and asylum seekers. According to the UNDP's 2004 Human Development Report, there were 89,000 refugees in the country,[59] though this number may be an underestimate. There are some 70,000 Palestinian refugees,[59] and about 150,000 recently arrived Iraqi refugees,[60] but the number of the largest group, the Sudanese, is contested.[61] The once-vibrant Jewish community in Egypt has virtually disappeared, with only a small number remaining in the country, but many Egyptian Jews visit on religious occasions and for tourism. Several important Jewish archaeological and historical sites are found in Cairo, Alexandria and other cities. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinian Arabs call the Nakba (Arabic: , meaning disaster or catastrophe). The United Nations definition of a Palestinian refugee is a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine between June 1946... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Egyptian Jews constitute perhaps the oldest Jewish community outside Israel in the world. ... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion and emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


Religion

Cairo's unique cityscape with its ancient mosques
Main article: Religion in Egypt

Religion plays a central role in most Egyptians' lives. The rolling calls to prayer that are heard five times a day have the informal effect of regulating the pace of everything from business to entertainment. Cairo is famous for its numerous mosque minarets and church towers. This religious landscape has been marred by a record of religious extremism.[62] Most recently, a 16 December 2006 judgment of the Supreme Administrative Court of Egypt insisted on a clear demarcation between "recognized religions"—Islam, Christianity and Judaism—and all other religious beliefs—thus effectively delegitimatizing and forbidding practice of all but these aforementioned religions.[63] This judgment has led to the requirement for communities to either commit perjury or be subjected to denial of identification cards. Image File history File linksMetadata Cairo-Mosques. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Cairo-Mosques. ... Religion in Egypt permeates many aspects of social life and is endorsed by law. ... Adhan (Azaan) (أَذَان) is the Islamic call to prayer, recited by the muezzin. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Egyptian Judicial System (or judicial branch) in Egypt, is an independent branch of the government which includes both secular and religious courts. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Egypt is predominantly Muslim, at 80-90% of the population, with the majority being adherents of the Sunni branch of Islam[56] A significant number of Muslim Egyptians also follow native Sufi orders,[64] and a minority of Shi'a. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Tariqah ( transliteration: ; pl. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


Christians represent 10-20% of the population, more than 95% of whom belong to the native Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Other native Egyptian Christians are adherents of the Coptic Catholic Church, the Coptic Evangelical Church and various Coptic Protestant denominations. Non-native Christian communities are largely found in the urban regions of Alexandria and Cairo, and are members of the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Roman Catholic Church, the Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East, the Maronite Church, the Armenian Catholic Church, the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Syriac Catholic Church, or the Syriac Orthodox Church. Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Evangelical Church of Egypt (Synod of the Nile), (in arabic El-Kanisah El-Injiliyah) and sometimes referred as the Coptic Evangelical Church of Egypt, started as a mission of the United Presbyterian Church of North America among Muslim and coptic Egyptians in the late Nineteenth century. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... The Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Greek: ) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... The Melkite Greek Catholic Church (Arabic: , ) is an Eastern Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church in communion with the Pope. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East is a province of the Anglican Communion stretching from Iran in the east to Algeria in the west, and Cyprus in the north to Somalia in the south. ... Maronites (Arabic: , transliteration: , Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ,Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, with a heritage reaching back to Maroun in the early 5th century. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy, formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church (Rome). ... These are the only peoples in this region that were fully and originally Semitic. ... The Syriac Catholic Church or Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant having practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ...


According to the Constitution of Egypt, any new legislation must at least implicitly agree with Islamic laws. The mainstream Hanafi school of Sunni Islam is largely organised by the state, through Wizaret Al-Awkaf (Ministry of Religious Affairs). Al-Awkaf controls all mosques and overviews Muslim clerics. Imams are trained in Imam vocational schools and at Al-Azhar University. The department supports Sunni Islam and has commissions authorised to give Fatwa judgements on Islamic issues. The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the supreme law of Egypt. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Imam is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University (Arabic: الأزهر الشريف; al-Azhar al-Shareef, the Noble Azhar), is a premier Egyptian institution of higher learning, world-renowned for its position as a center of Islamic scholarship and education. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ...


Egypt hosts two major religious institutions. Al-Azhar University (Arabic: جامعة الأزهر) is the oldest Islamic institution of higher studies (founded around 970 A.D) and considered by many to be the oldest extant university. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, headed by the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, attests to Egypt's strong Christian heritage. It has a following of approximately 15 million Christians worldwide; affiliated sister churches are located in Armenia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, India, Lebanon and Syria. Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University (Arabic: الأزهر الشريف; al-Azhar al-Shareef, the Noble Azhar), is a premier Egyptian institution of higher learning, world-renowned for its position as a center of Islamic scholarship and education. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section should include material from AD converters In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D, or A to D) is a device that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Patriarch of Alexandria. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


Religious freedom in Egypt is hampered to varying degrees by extremist Islamist groups and by discriminatory and restrictive government policies. Being the largest religious minority in Egypt, Coptic Christians are the most negatively affected community. Copts have faced increasing marginalization after the 1952 coup d'état led by Gamal Abdel Nasser. Until recently, Christians were required to obtain presidential approval for even minor repairs in churches. Although the law was eased in 2005 by handing down the authority of approval to the governors, Copts continue to face many obstacles in building new or repairing existing churches. These obstacles are not found in building mosques.[65][66] This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Religions Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism Scriptures Bible Languages Mari, Coptic, Arabic, English, French, German A Copt (Coptic: , literally: Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. ... Coup redirects here. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


In addition, Copts complain of being minimally represented in law enforcement, state security and public office, and of being discriminated against in the workforce on the basis of their religion.[67] The Coptic community, as well as several human rights activists and intellectuals (such as Saad Eddin Ibrahim and Tarek Heggy), maintain that the number of Christians occupying government posts is not proportional to the number of Copts in Egypt, who constitute between 10 and 15% of the population in Egypt. Of the 32 cabinet ministers, two are Copts: Finance Minister Youssef Boutros Ghali and Minister of Environment Magued George; and of the 25 local governors, only one is a Copt (in the Upper Egyptian governorate of Qena). However, Copts have demonstrated great success in Egypt's private business sector; Naguib Sawiris, an extremely successful businessman and one of the world's wealthiest 100 people is a Copt. In 2002, under the Mubarak government, Coptic Christmas (January 7) was recognized as an official holiday.[68] Nevertheless, the Coptic community has occasionally been the target of hate crimes and physical assaults. The most significant was the 2000-2001 El Kosheh attacks , in which 21 Copts and one Muslim were killed. A 2006 attack on three churches in Alexandria left one dead and 17 injured, although the attacker was not linked to any organisation.[69] Saad Eddin Ibrahim (Arabic: سعد الدين ابراهيم) (born in Shubra-el-Khema in 1938) is an Egyptian American sociologist and human rights activist who was imprisoned in 2000 under suspicion of espionage and corruption. ... The Cabinet of Egypt (Arabic: Al-Hokouma Al-Misreya) is the chief executive body of the Arabic Republic of Egypt. ... Youssef Boutros Ghali is the Minister of Finance in Egypt since 2004. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Location of Qena on the map of Egypt. ... ... Hosni Mubarak, President of Egypt Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic : محمد حسنى سيد مبارك ) (born May 4, 1928) commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك ) has been the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt for twenty-four years, since 14 October 1981. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


Egypt was once home to one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world. Egyptian Jews, who were mostly Karaites, partook of all aspects of Egypt's social, economic and political life; one of the most ardent Egyptian nationalists, Yaqub Sanu' (Abu Naddara), was a Jew, as were famous musician Dawoud Husni, popular singer Leila Mourad, and prominent filmmaker Togo Mizrahi. For a while, Jews from across the Ottoman Empire and Europe were attracted to Egypt due to the relative harmony that characterized the local religious landscape in the 19th and early 20th centuries. After the 1956 Suez Crisis, a great number of Jews were expelled by Gamal Abdel Nasser, many of whom holding official Egyptian citizenship. Their Egyptian citizenship was revoked and their property was confiscated. A steady stream of migration of Egyptian Jews followed, reaching a peak after the Six-Day War with Israel in 1967. Today, Jews in Egypt number less than 500.[70] This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Egyptian Jews constitute perhaps the oldest Jewish community in the world. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Yaqub Sanu (dates of birth and death needed) was an Italian-born Jew who became an Egyptian nationalist journalist and writer. ... Leila Mourad Leila Mourad (Arabic:ليلى مراد) (February 17, 1918- November 21, 1995) was an Egyptian singer and actress . ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...

Over ten million Egyptians follow the Christian faith as members of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
Over ten million Egyptians follow the Christian faith as members of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.

Bahá'ís in Egypt, whose population is estimated to be a couple of thousands, have long been persecuted, having their institutions and community activities banned. Since their faith is not officially recognized by the state, they are also not allowed to use it on their national identity cards (conversely, Islam, Christianity, & Judaism are officially recognized); hence most of them do not hold national identity cards. In April 2006 a court case recognized the Bahá'í Faith, but the government appealed the court decision and succeeded in having it suspended on 15 May.[71] On December 16, 2006, only after one hearing, the Supreme Administrative Council of Egypt ruled against the Bahá'ís, stating that the government may not recognize the Bahá'í Faith in official identification documents.[63] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


There are Egyptians who identify as atheist and agnostic, but their numbers are largely unknown as openly advocating such positions risks legal sanction on the basis of apostasy (if a citizen takes the step of suing the 'apostating' person, though not automatically by the general prosecutor). In 2000, an openly atheist Egyptian writer, who called for the establishment of a local association for atheists, was tried on charges of insulting Islam in four of his books.[72] For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ...


While freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Egyptian constitution, according to Human Rights Watch, "Egyptians are able to convert to Islam generally without difficulty, but Muslims who convert to Christianity face difficulties in getting new identity papers and some have been arrested for allegedly forging such documents.[73] The Coptic community, however, takes pains to prevent conversions from Christianity to Islam due to the ease with which Christians can often become Muslim. [74] Public officials, being conservative themselves, intensify the complexity of the legal procedures required to recognize the religion change as required by law. Security agencies will sometimes claim that such conversions from Islam to Christianity (or occasionally vice versa) may stir social unrest, and thereby justify themselves in wrongfully detaining the subjects, insisting that they are simply taking steps to prevent likely social troubles from happening.[75] Recently, a Cairo administrative court denied 45 citizens the right to obtain identity papers documenting their reversion to Christianity after converting to Islam.[76] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


Culture

Bibliotheca Alexandrina is a commemoration of the ancient Library of Alexandria in Egypt's second largest city.
Main article: Culture of Egypt

Egyptian culture has five thousand years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations and for millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly complex and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, Christianity, and Islamic culture. Today, many aspects of Egypt's ancient culture exist in interaction with newer elements, including the influence of modern Western culture, itself with roots in ancient Egypt. Image File history File linksMetadata LibraryAlexandria1-Omar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata LibraryAlexandria1-Omar. ... Bibliotheca Alexandrina The Bibliotheca Alexandrina is a major library and cultural center located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history. ... The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Central New York City. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...


Egypt's capital city, Cairo, is Africa's largest city and has been renowned for centuries as a center of learning, culture and commerce. Egypt has the highest number of Nobel Laureates in Africa and the Arab World. Some Egyptian born politicians were or are currently at the helm of major international organizations like Boutros Boutros-Ghali of the United Nations and Mohamed ElBaradei of the IAEA. Winners of the Nobel Prize are scientists, writers and peacemakers who have been awarded in their field of endeavour, and who are known collectively as either Nobel laureates or Nobel Prize winners. ... Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي Coptic: BOYTPOC BOYTPOC ΓΑΛΗ) (born November 14, 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


Renaissance

The work of early nineteenth-century scholar Rifa'a et-Tahtawi gave rise to the Egyptian Renaissance, marking the transition from Medieval to Early Modern Egypt. His work renewed interest in Egyptian antiquity and exposed Egyptian society to Enlightenment principles. Tahtawi co-founded with education reformer Ali Mubarak a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars, such as Suyuti and Maqrizi, who themselves studied the history, language and antiquities of Egypt.[77] Egypt's renaissance peaked in the late 19th and early 20th centuries through the work of people like Muhammad Abduh, Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, Qasim Amin, Salama Moussa, Taha Hussein and Mahmoud Mokhtar. They forged a liberal path for Egypt expressed as a commitment to individual freedom, secularism and faith in science to bring progress.[78] Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. ... The History of modern Egypt is generally accepted as beginning in 1882, when Egypt became a de facto British colony. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... The Enlightenment, also known as The Age of Enlightenment French: ; German: ; Spanish: ;Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Ali Pasha Mubarak Ali Pasha Mubarak (1824-1893 CE) was an Egyptian public works and education minister during the second half of the nineteenth century. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... Imam Al-Suyuti (c. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364 - 1442); Arabic: , was an Egyptian historian more commonly known as al-Maqrizi or Makrizi. ... Archaeological evidence indicates that a distinct culture was developing in the Nile valley from before 5000 BC. What is now called the Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3100 BC, when Egypt became a unified state, until its survival as an independent state ceased in 332 BC, with its conquest... For at least ten thousand years, the Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world which developed a vast array of structures known as Ancient Egyptian architecture. ... Mohammed Abduh Muhammad Abduh (or Muhammad Abduh) (Arabic: محمد عبده ) (Nile Delta, 1849 - Alexandria, July 11, 1905, ) was an Egyptian jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer known as the founder of Islamic Modernism. ... Qasim Amin (1863-1908) was an Egyptian jurist, one of the founders of the Egyptian National Movement and Cairo University. ... Salama Moussa (Arabic: سلامه موسى ) (1887 - 1958) was a famous writer and thinker of the Arab world. ... Taha Hussein (November 14, 1889—October 28, 1973) (Arabic: ) (nicknamed the dean of Arabic literature)[2]was one of the most influential Egyptian writers and intellectuals. ... Mahmoud Mokhtar (1891 - March 28, 1934) was an Egyptian sculptor. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article is about secularism. ...


Arts

Eighteenth dynasty painting from the tomb of Theban governor Ramose in Deir el-Madinah.
Eighteenth dynasty painting from the tomb of Theban governor Ramose in Deir el-Madinah.

The Egyptians were one of the first major civilizations to codify design elements in art. The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings. Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scene. The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital. Egypt's media and arts industry has flourished since the late nineteenth century, today with more than thirty satellite channels and over one hundred motion pictures produced each year. Cairo has long been known as the "Hollywood of the Middle East;" its annual film festival, the Cairo International Film Festival, has been rated as one of 11 festivals with a top class rating worldwide by the International Federation of Film Producers' Associations.[79] To bolster its media industry further, especially with the keen competition from the Persian Gulf Arab States and Lebanon, a large media city was built. Some Egyptian actors, like Omar Sharif, have achieved worldwide fame. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1300, 244 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Egypt ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1300, 244 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Egypt ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... Lamenting Women, from the tomb (TT55) of Ramose, c. ... Image:Egypt. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Cairo Opera House one of six in Africa (three in Egypt and three in South Africa). ... The Cairo International Film Festival is an annual film festival held in Cairo, Egypt. ... The Gulf States. ... For the Pakistani actor of the same name, see Umer Sharif. ...


Literature

Literature constitutes an important cultural element in the life of Egypt. Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Arabic literature, and the forms they developed have been widely imitated throughout the Middle East. The first modern Egyptian novel Zaynab by Muhammad Husayn Haykal was published in 1913 in the Egyptian vernacular.[80] Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Egyptian women writers include Nawal El Saadawi, well known for her feminist activism, and Alifa Rifaat who also writes about women and tradition. Vernacular poetry is perhaps the most popular literary genre amongst Egyptians, represented by such luminaries as Ahmed Fuad Nigm (Fagumi), Salah Jaheen and Abdel Rahman el-Abnudi. For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Husayn Haykals Zaynab is the first modern Egyptian novel published in 1914. ... Muhammad Husayn Haykal (Arabic: ) ) was an Egyptian writer, journalist, politician and a former minister of Education in Egypt. ... Egyptian Arabic (Marī مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... This article is about the Egyptian novelist. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Nawal El Saadawi (Arabic: نوال السعداوى) (born October 27, 1931) is an Egyptian feminist writer, activist and physician. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... Alifa Rifaat (June 5, 1930 - 1996) was a controversial Egyptian author, whose short stories reflect on the life of traditional Muslim women in rural Egypt. ... Mohammad Salah eddin Bahgat Helmy, known as Salah Jaheen or Salah Jahin (Arabic: ‎ ) (December 25, 1930 – April 21, 1986) was a leading Egyptian poet, lyricist, playwright and cartoonist. ... Abdel Rahman el Abnudi (b. ...


Music

Upper Egyptian folk musicians from Kom Ombo.
Main article: Music of Egypt

Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, Mediterranean, African and Western elements. In antiquity, Egyptians were playing harps and flutes, including two indigenous instruments: the ney and the oud. Percussion and vocal music also became an important part of the local music tradition ever since. Contemporary Egyptian music traces its beginnings to the creative work of people such as Abdu-l Hamuli, Almaz and Mahmud Osman, who influenced the later work of Egyptian music giants such as Sayed Darwish, Umm Kulthum, Mohammed Abdel Wahab and Abdel Halim Hafez. These prominent artists were followed later by Amr Diab. He is seen by many as the new age "Musical Legend", whose fan base stretches all over the Middle East and Europe. From the 1970s onwards, Egyptian pop music has become increasingly important in Egyptian culture, while Egyptian folk music continues to be played during weddings and other festivities. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (720x853, 195 KB) Galen R Frysinger File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (720x853, 195 KB) Galen R Frysinger File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Kom Ombo (كوم أمبو) is an agricultural town in Egypt famous for its temple. ... Musicians of Amun, Tomb of Nakht, 18th Dyn, Western Thebes. ... Musicians of Amun, Tomb of Nakht, 18th Dyn, Western Thebes. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... For other uses, see Ney (disambiguation). ... Front and rear views of an oud. ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... Sayed Darwish was an Egyptian singer and composer who was considered the father of Arab popular music. ... Umm Kulthum (Arabic: أم كلثوم other English spellings include: Om Kalthoum, Oum Kalsoum, Oum Kalthum, Omm Kolsoum, Umm Kolthoum, Um Kalthoom) (c. ... Mohammed Abdel Wahab, also transliterated Mohammed Abd el-Wahaab (1907 - May, 1991), is a prominent 20th century Arab-Egyptian singer and composer. ... Abdel Halim Ismael Shabana (Arabic: عبدالحليم إسماعيل شبانة) commonly known as Abdel Halim Hafez (Arabic: عبد الحليم حافظ) (June 21, 1929 – March 30, 1977), was one of the most popular Egyptian singers and actors not only in Egypt but throughout the Middle East from the 1950s to the 1970s. ... Amr Abdel Basset Abdel Azeez Diab (Arabic:عمرو عبد الباسط عبد العزيز دياب) (born October 11, 1961) is an Egyptian singer and composer. ...


Festivals

Egypt is famous for its many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulids or Mawlid. They are usually associated with a particular Coptic or Sufi saint, but are often celebrated by all Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion. Ramadan has a special flavor in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights (local lanterns known as fawanees) and much flare that many Muslim tourists from the region flock to Egypt during Ramadan to witness the spectacle. The ancient spring festival of Sham en Nisim (Coptic: Ϭⲱⲙ‘ⲛⲛⲓⲥⲓⲙ shom en nisim) has been celebrated by Egyptians for thousands of years, typically between the Egyptian months of Paremoude (April) and Pashons (May), following Easter Sunday. Milad, Milad an-Nabi or Mawlid un-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... The ancient civil Egyptian Calendar, known as the Annus Vagus or Wandering Year, had a year that was 365 days long, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. ... Paremoude also known as Barmouda is the eighth month of the Coptic calendar. ... Pashons also known as Bashans is the ninth month of the Coptic calendar. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ...


Sports

Football (soccer) is the de facto national sport of Egypt. Egyptian Soccer clubs El Ahly and El Zamalek are the two most popular teams and enjoy the reputation of long-time regional champions. The great rivalries keep the streets of Egypt energized as people fill the streets when their favourite team wins. Egypt is rich in soccer history as soccer has been around for over 100 years. The country is home to many African championships such as the African Cup of Nations. However, Egypt's national team has not been qualified for the FIFA World Cup since 1990. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Cairo International Stadium after renovations Cairo International Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Cairo, Egypt with a capacity of 74,100. ... The 2006 African Cup of Nations was the 25th edition of the African Cup of Nations, the soccer championship of Africa (CAF). ... Soccer redirects here. ... A national sport is a sport or game that is considered to be a popularly intrinsic part of the culture or is the most popular sport of a country or nation. ... Al-Ahly (Arabic: النادى الاهلى للرياضة البدنية ) is an Egyptian football club founded in April, 1907 in Cairo, Egypt. ... Zamalek Sporting Club (Arabic: نادي الزمالك) is an Egyptian sports club. ...


Squash and tennis are other favourite sports. The Egyptian squash team has been known for its fierce competition in international championships since the 1930s. Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation Squash is an indoor racquet sport that was formerly called Squash racquets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ...


Military

Main article: Military of Egypt

The Egyptian Armed forces have a combined troop strength of around 450,000 active personnel.[81] According to the Israeli chair of the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, Yuval Steinitz, the Egyptian Air Force has roughly the same number of modern warplanes as the Israeli Air Force and far more Western tanks, artillery, anti-aircraft batteries and warships than the IDF.[82] The Egyptian military has recently undergone massive military modernization mostly in their Air Force. Other than Israel, Egypt is the first country in the region with a spy satellite, EgyptSat 1, and is planning to launch 3 more spy satellites (DesertSat1, EgyptSat2, DesertSat2) over the next two years.[83] The armed forces of Egypt are the largest on the African continent and one of the biggest in the world (ranked 11th), consisting of the Egyptian Army, Egyptian Navy, Egyptian Air Force and Egyptian Air Defense Command. ... Egyptian troops with other Arab-Joint-Forces during Gulf War The Egyptian Army is the largest service within the Egyptian military establishment. ... Dr Yuval Steinitz (‎, born 10 April 1958), is an Israeli philosopher and politician who has been a Knesset member for the Likud party since 1999. ... The Egyptian Air Force, or EAF (Arabic: , ), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian armed forces. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... KH-4B Corona satellite Lacrosse radar spy satellite under construction A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... EgyptSat-1 is Egypts first Earth remote sounding Satellite. ...


Geography

White Desert, Farafra.
Main article: Geography of Egypt

At 386,636 mi² (1,001,450 km²[84]), Egypt is the world's thirtieth-largest country (after Mauritania). It is comparable in size to Tanzania, twice the size of France, four times the size of the UK, and is more than half the size of the US state of Alaska. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x1200, 262 KB) White desert, Farafra, Egypt - Photographedy by Omar Kamel File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x1200, 262 KB) White desert, Farafra, Egypt - Photographedy by Omar Kamel File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A photo of a rock formation in Egypts White Desert The Farafra Oasis is an isolated oasis located in Western Egypt. ... Satellite image of Egypt, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library Geography of Egypt: coastlines, Nile & national borders. ... This article is about the unit of measure. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


Nevertheless, due to the aridity of Egypt's climate, population centres are concentrated along the narrow Nile Valley and Delta, meaning that approximately 99% of the population uses only about 5.5% of the total land area.[85]


Egypt is bordered by Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. Egypt's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: a transcontinental nation, it possesses a land bridge (the Isthmus of Suez) between Africa and Asia, which in turn is traversed by a navigable waterway (the Suez Canal) that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea. A transcontinental nation is a country belonging to more than one continent. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


Apart from the Nile Valley, the majority of Egypt's landscape is a sandy desert. The winds blowing can create sand dunes over one hundred feet high. Egypt includes parts of the Sahara Desert and of the Libyan Desert. These deserts were referred to as the "red land" in ancient Egypt, and they protected the Kingdom of the Pharaohs from western threats. The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ... Desert landscape in Southern Libya The Libyan Desert (Arabic: الصحراء الليبية) is an African desert that is located in the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert and occupies southwestern Egypt, eastern Libya and northwestern Sudan. ...


Towns and cities include Alexandria, one of the greatest ancient cities, Aswan, Asyut, Cairo, the modern Egyptian capital, El-Mahalla El-Kubra, Giza, the site of the Pyramid of Khufu, Hurghada, Luxor, Kom Ombo, Port Safaga, Port Said, Sharm el Sheikh, Suez, where the Suez Canal is located, Zagazig, and Al-Minya. Oases include Bahariya, el Dakhla, Farafra, el Kharga and Siwa. This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ... Location of Asyut on the map of Egypt. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... El-Mahalla El-Kubra is one of the most important cities in Egypt, famous for its textile industry and located in the middle of a delta. ... Gizeh is also a popular brand in Germany of cigarette rolling papers; see Mascotte (rolling papers). ... Al-Mahmya: a tourist facility on the protected Giftun island off the coast near Hurghada. ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... Kom Ombo (كوم أمبو) is an agricultural town in Egypt famous for its temple. ... Egypt: Site of Safaga on the Red Sea (center). ... Port Said (postcard around 1915) Port Said (31. ... Sharm el-Sheikh is a city situated on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, on the coastal strip between the Red Sea and Mount Sinai. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ... Zagazig (Zakazik, Arabic, Az-ZaqāzÄ«q الزقازيق), is a town of Lower Egypt, in the eastern part of the Nile delta, and is the capital of the province of Ash Sharqiyah. ... Location of Minya on the map of Egypt. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ... El Waha el Bahariya (Arabic: الواحة البحرية), (meaning the sea-oasis) is an oasis in Egypt. ... Dakhla Oasis (Arabic الداخلة al-Dākhla; BGN: Al Wāḩāt ad Dākhilah) is one of the five Western oasis of Egypt. ... A photo of a rock formation in Egypts White Desert The Farafra Oasis is an isolated oasis located in Western Egypt. ... Al-Waha al-Kharga (meaning the outer oasis) is an oasis in Egypt. ... The Siwa Oasis is an oasis in Egypt, located between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea in the Libyan Desert. ...

Satellite image of Egypt, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
Satellite image of Egypt, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library

Protectorates include Ras Mohamed National Park, Zaranik Protectorate and Siwa. See Egyptian Protectorates for more information. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1334x1192, 2502 KB) ECW to TIFF to PNG (compression level 9). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1334x1192, 2502 KB) ECW to TIFF to PNG (compression level 9). ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... Satellite image of Congo, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library. ... Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell See The Protectorate. ... Law 102 of 1983 empowered the Prime Minister to designate certain areas to be declared as protectorates. ...


Climate

Egypt receives the least rainfall in the world. South of Cairo, rainfall averages only around 2 to 5 mm (0.1 to 0.2 in) per year and at intervals of many years. On a very thin strip of the northern coast the rainfall can be as high as 170 mm (7 in), all between November and March. Snow falls on Sinai's mountains and some of the north coastal cities such as Damietta, Baltim, Sidi Barrany...etc. and rarely in Alexandria, frost is also known in mid-Sinai and mid-Egypt. This article is about precipitation. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... A compass rose with South highlighted South is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, an average or central tendency of a set (list) of data refers to a measure of the middle of the data set. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... A coastal image featured on a United States postal stamp. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ...


Temperatures average between 80 and 90 °F (24 - 32 °C) in summer, and up to 109 °F (42 °C) on the Red Sea coast. Temperatures average between 55 and 70 °F (-1 to 19 °C) in winter. A steady wind from the northwest helps hold down the temperature near the Mediterranean coast. The Khamaseen is a wind that blows from the south in Egypt in spring, bringing sand and dust, and sometimes raises the temperature in the desert to more than 100 °F (38 °C). Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... For other uses, see Coast (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Coast (disambiguation). ... Khamaseen is a mini-hurricane type wind that is usually common on Egypt and Sudan towards the end of March and April of each year. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... This article is about arid terrain. ...


See also

Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Ham (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: , IPA: , hot), according to the Genealogies of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. ... The ancient Canal of the Pharaohs dated back to the early Egyptian kingdoms period, was improved significantly by Rameses the Great (Rameses II), was uninterned by Cyrus the Great of Persia when sands swaollowed up a great part of it, and was maintained and improved during Roman times. ... The current capital of Egypt is Cairo. ... Egypt has long been the cultural and informational centre of the Arab world, and Cairo is the regions largest publishing and broadcasting centre. ... Religions Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism Scriptures Bible Languages Mari, Coptic, Arabic, English, French, German A Copt (Coptic: , literally: Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. ... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct by the 17th century Language family: Afro-Asiatic  Egyptian  Writing system: hieroglyphs, cursive hieroglyphs, hieratic, and demotic (later, occasionally Arabic script in government translations) Language codes ISO 639-1: none... Egyptian goddess Isis protecting a mummified pharaoh, a late Ptolemic relief from the Philae Temple, which was first built in the thirtieth dynasty, c. ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... Armenians in Egypt are a community with a long history. ... Hathor The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. ... Italians have lived in Egypt for centuries. ... Egyptian Jews constitute perhaps the oldest Jewish community outside Israel in the world. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Holidays in Egypt have many classifications. ... Nationalpark:.jpg ... The Egyptian Federation for Scouts and Girl Guides (EFSGG) is the national Scouting and Guiding federation of Egypt. ... Transport facilities in Egypt are centered in Cairo and largely follow the pattern of settlement along the Nile. ... Giotto di Bondones The Flight into Egypt Russian icon of the Flight into Egypt; the bottom frame shows the idols of Egypt miraculously falling down before Jesus and being smashed (17th century) The flight into Egypt describes an event in the Gospel of Matthew (), in which Joseph fled to...

Lists

This page lists the rulers and heads of state of Egypt since 1805. ... African Writers (by country): This is a list of prominent and notable literary figures from the African continent, listed by country, including poets, novelists, childrens writers, essayists, and scholars, listed by country. ... This is a list of companies from Egypt. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to Egypt. ... // The following is a list of prominent Egyptians: Adel Adham عادل أدهم Adel Emam عادل إمام Ahmed El Sakka أحمد السقا Ahmed Haroun Ahmad Zaki أحمد زكي Amina Rizq أمينة رزق Anwar Wagdi أنور وجدى Dalia El Behery Emad Hamdy عماد حمدى Farid Shawki فريد شوقى Faten Hamama فاتن حمامة Fuad Al Mohandes فؤاد المهندس George Sidhom جورج سيدهم Hala Sedki هالة صدقى Hanan Tork حنان ترك Hend Rostom هند رستم Hisham Selim هشام سليم Hussein Fahmy حسين فهمي Ismail Yasin إسماعيل ياسين Kamal... This is a list of universities in Egypt: Ain Shams University (established in 1950). ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Egypt" in the CIA World Factbook, 2007.
  2. ^ The Nuclear Tipping Point, P.15
  3. ^ U.S., Egyptian Speakers Say Partnership Must Continue, Expand
  4. ^ Egypt.
  5. ^ Egypt-Trade and Diplomatic Relations with the US
  6. ^ SenenAnep Meritamen. "English to Egyptians Dictionary." posted 29 Aug 2004. Ancient Worlds. AncientWorlds LLC, 2002 <http://www.ancientworlds.net/399761>.
  7. ^ Biblical Hebrew E-Magazine. January, 2005
  8. ^ Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  9. ^ Bard, Kathryn A. Ian Shaw, ed. The Oxford Illustrated History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. p. 69.
  10. ^ Kamil, Jill. Coptic Egypt: History and Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo, 1997. p. 39
  11. ^ El-Daly, Okasha. Egyptology: The Missing Millennium. London: UCL Press, 2005. p. 140
  12. ^ Vatikiotis, P.J. The History of Modern Egypt. 4th edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1992, p. 39
  13. ^ Jankowski, James. Egypt: A Short History. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2000. p. 83
  14. ^ Jankowski, op cit., p. 112
  15. ^ Vatikiotis, p. 443
  16. ^ Jankowski, James. "Egypt and Early Arab Nationalism" in Rashid Khalidi, ed. The Origins of Arab Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990, pp. 244-45
  17. ^ qtd in Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Princeton University Press. 2003, p. 99
  18. ^ Jankowski, "Egypt and Early Arab Nationalism," p. 246
  19. ^ Deighton, H. S. "The Arab Middle East and the Modern World", International Affairs, vol. xxii, no. 4 (October 1946), p. 519.
  20. ^ "Before Nasser, Egypt, which had been ruled by Britain since 1882, was more in favor of territorial, Egyptian nationalism and distant from the pan-Arab ideology. Egyptians generally did not identify themselves as Arabs, and it is revealing that when the Egyptian nationalist leader [Saad Zaghlul] met the Arab delegates at Versailles in 1918, he insisted that their struggles for statehood were not connected, claiming that the problem of Egypt was an Egyptian problem and not an Arab one." Makropoulou, Ifigenia. Pan - Arabism: What Destroyed the Ideology of Arab Nationalism?. Hellenic Center for European Studies. January 15, 2007.
  21. ^ Dawisha, p. 237
  22. ^ Dawisha, pp. 264-65, 267
  23. ^ Vatikiotis, p. 499
  24. ^ In Egypt, India is Big B!. Hindustan Times. December 25, 2006.
  25. ^ a b Ragab, Ahmed. El-Masry el-Yom Newspaper. "What is the definition of 'Arab Nationalism': Question at a bus stop in Imbaba". May 21, 2007.
  26. ^ In an audio interview on Egypt's links with Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arab world, Hawass believes that "even today Egyptians are Egyptians. It really doesn't mean that because we speak Arabic that we can be Arabs. We are...really, I feel personally that we are related even today to the Pharaohs."
  27. ^ An Interculturalist in Cairo. InterCultures Magazine. January 2007.
  28. ^ Kimit Sagi (Arabic)
  29. ^ We are Egyptians, not Arabs. ArabicNews.com. 11/06.2003.
  30. ^ Ghobrial, Kamal. Egypt, the Arabs and Arabism. el-Ahali. August 31-September 6, 2005. (Arabic)
  31. ^ Said Habeeb's Masreyat. (Arabic)
  32. ^ Egyptian national group (Arabic)
  33. ^ Egyptian people section from Arab.Net
  34. ^ Princeton Alumni Weekly
  35. ^ Review by Michelle Fram Cohen. The Atlasphere. Jan. 17, 2005.
  36. ^ Haeri, Niloofar. Sacred language, Ordinary People: Dilemmas of Culture and Politics in Egypt. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2003, pp. 47, 136.
  37. ^ Business TodayEGYPT. Mubarak throws presidential race wide open. March 2005.
  38. ^ Lavin, Abigail. Democracy on the Nile: The story of Ayman Nour and Egypt's problematic attempt at free elections. March 27, 2006.
  39. ^ Murphy, Dan. Egyptian vote marred by violence. Christian Science Monitor. May 26, 2005.
  40. ^ United States "Deeply Troubled" by Sentencing of Egypt's Nour. U.S. Department of State, Published December 24, 2005
  41. ^ Gomez, Edward M. Hosni Mubarak's pretend democratic election. San Francisco Chronicle. September 13, 2005.
  42. ^ Egypt to begin process of lifting emergency laws. December 5, 2006.
  43. ^ Anger over Egypt vote timetable BBC
  44. ^ a b Human Rights Watch. Egypt: Overview of human rights issues in Egypt. 2005
  45. ^ Church Building Regulations Eased
  46. ^ Freedom in the World 2006 (PDF). Freedom House (2005-12-16). Retrieved on 2006-07-27.
    See also Freedom in the World 2006, List of indices of freedom
  47. ^ Freedom House. Freedom in the World - Egypt. 2006
  48. ^ Egypt torture centre, report says. bbc.co.uk. Written 2007-4-11. Accessed 2007-4-11.
  49. ^ Egypt rejects torture criticism. bbc.co.uk. Written 2007-4-13. Accessed 2007-4-13.
  50. ^ Egyptian Organization for Human Rights
  51. ^ Official page of the Egyptian National Council for Human Rights.
  52. ^ Egyptian National Council for Human Rights Against Human Rights NGOs. EOHR. June 3, 2003.
  53. ^ Qenawy, Ahmed. The Egyptian Human Rights Council: The Apple Falls Close to the Tree. ANHRI. 2004
  54. ^ Egypt to begin process of lifting emergency laws. December 5, 2006.
  55. ^ Egypt parliament approves changes in constitution. Reuters. March 20, 2007.
  56. ^ a b c Egyptian people section from the World Factbook. World Fact Book. Retrieved on 2007-01-29.
  57. ^ BBC NEWS | The limits of a Green Revolution?
  58. ^ Food First/Institute for Food and Development Policy
  59. ^ a b UNDP, p. 75.
  60. ^ Iraq: from a Flood to a Trickle: Egypt
  61. ^ See The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants for a lower estimate. The The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights states on its web site that in 2000 the World Council of Churches claimed that "between two and five million Sudanese have come to Egypt in recent years". Most Sudanese refugees come to Egypt in the hope of resettling in Europe or the US.
  62. ^ U.S. Department of State (2004-09-15). Egypt: International Religious Freedom Report. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved on 2006-10-20.
  63. ^ a b Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (2006-12-16). Government Must Find Solution for Baha'i Egyptians. eipr.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-16.
  64. ^ Hoffman, Valerie J. Sufism, Mystics, and Saints in Modern Egypt. University of South Carolina Press, 1995.
  65. ^ WorldWide Religious News. Church Building Regulations Eased. December 13, 2005.
  66. ^ Compass Direct News. Church Building Regulations Eased. December 13, 2005.
  67. ^ Human Rights Watch. Egypt: Overview of human rights issues in Egypt. 2005
  68. ^ ArabicNews.com. Copts welcome Presidential announcement on Eastern Christmas Holiday. December 20, 2002.
  69. ^ BBC. Egypt church attacks spark anger, 15 April 2006.
  70. ^ Jewish Community Council (JCC) of Cairo. Bassatine News. 2006.
  71. ^ "EGYPT: Court suspends ruling recognising Bahai rights", Payvand's Iran News" 5/17/06
  72. ^ Halawi, Jailan. "Limits to expression", Al-Ahram Weekly, 21-27 December 2000. 
  73. ^ Human Rights Watch. World report 2007: Egypt.
  74. ^ EGYPT: NATIONAL UNITY AND THE COPTIC ISSUE. 2004
  75. ^ Egypt: Egypt Arrests 22 Muslim converts to Christianity. 03 November, 2003
  76. ^ Shahine, Gihan. "Fraud, not Freedom". Ahram Weekly, 3 - 9 May 2007
  77. ^ El-Daly, op cit., p. 29
  78. ^ Jankowski, op cit., p. 130
  79. ^ Cairo Film Festival information.
  80. ^ Vatikiotis, op cit.
  81. ^ Egypt Military Strength
  82. ^ Steinitz, Yuval. Not the peace we expected. Haaretz. December 05, 2006.
  83. ^ Katz, Yaacov. "Egypt to launch first spy satellite," Jerusalem Post, January 15, 2007.
  84. ^ World Factbook area rank order
  85. ^ Hamza, Waleed. Land use and Coastal Management in the Third Countries: Egypt as a case. Accessed= 2007-06-10.

General references World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ... There are several non-governmental organizations that publish and maintain assessments of the state of freedom in the world and rank countries as being free, partly free, or unfree using various measures of freedom, including political rights, economic rights, and civil liberties. ... The domain name bbc. ... The domain name bbc. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli newspaper in the English language. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

The World Factbook 2007 (government edition) cover. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Background Notes series is a collection of works by the United States Department of State. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Find more information on Egypt by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • Leonard William King, History of Egypt, Chaldæa, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria in the Light of Recent Discovery, Project Gutenberg.
  • Gaston Camille Charles Maspero, History of Egypt, Chaldæa, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, in 12 volumes, Project Gutenberg.
  • Ancient Egyptian Civilization - Aldokkan
  • Rural poverty in Egypt (IFAD)
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica's Egypt Country Page
  • Egyptian Government Services Portal
  • New Projects in Egypt
  • Egypt State Information Services
  • Egypt Information Portal - available in Arabic and English
  • BBC News Country Profile - Egypt
  • CIA World Factbook - Egypt
  • Amnesty International's 2005 Report on Egypt.
  • US State Department - Egypt includes Background Notes, Country Study and major reports
  • Business Anti-Corruption Portal Egypt Country Profile
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Egypt
  • Egypt at the Open Directory Project
  • Egypt travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Egypt Maps - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection
  • Egyptian History (urdu)
  • By Nile and Tigris, a narrative of journeys in Egypt and Mesopotamia on behalf of the British museum between the years 1886 and 1913, by Sir E. A. Wallis Budge, 1920 (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format)
  • Egypt Online Directory
  • The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights
  • PortSaid Free-zone forums
Geographic locale
International membership


  Results from FactBites:
 
Egypt (03/07) (5870 words)
Egypt's vast and rich literature constitutes an important cultural element in the life of the country and in the Arab world as a whole.
Egypt was readmitted to the Arab League in 1989.
Egypt met the conditions and in September 2005 issued $1.25 billion in 10-year bonds that were fully guaranteed by the United States.
BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | Country profiles | Country profile: Egypt (968 words)
Egypt's ancient past and the fact that it was one of the first Middle Eastern countries to open up to the West following Napoleon's invasion means that it is seen by many as the intellectual and cultural leader in the region.
Egypt's teeming cities - and almost all agricultural activity - are concentrated along the banks of the Nile, and on the river's delta.
Hosni Mubarak is Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali in the early 19th century and one of the longest-serving leaders in the Arab world.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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