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Encyclopedia > Egovernment

e-Government (from electronic government, also known as e-gov, digital government, online government or in a certain context transformational government) refers to government’s use of information and communication technology (ICT) to exchange information and services with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. e-Government may be applied by legislature, judiciary, or administration, in order to improve internal efficiency, the delivery of public services, or processes of democratic governance. The primary delivery models are Government-to-Citizen or Government-to-Customer (G2C), Government-to-Business (G2B) and Government-to-Government (G2G). The most important anticipated benefits of e-government include improved efficiency, convenience, and better accessibility of public services. The field of electronics comprises the study and use of systems that operate by controlling the flow of electrons (or other charge carriers) in devices such as thermionic valves (vacuum tubes) and semiconductors. ... Information technology (IT) or information and communication technology (ICT) is the technology required for information processing. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... In law, the judiciary or judicature is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, and provide a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Look up Administration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Government-to-Consumer (abbreviated G2C) is the online non-commercial interaction between local and central Government and private individuals, rather than the commercial business sector G2B. For example Government sectors become visibly open to the public domain via a Web Portal. ... Government-to-Business (abbreviated G2B) is the online non-commercial interaction between local and central government and the commercial business sector, rather than private individuals G2C. For example [http://www. ... Government to Government systems, are types of e-government systems that support relation between different structures of government. ...

While e-government is often thought of as "online government" or "Internet-based government"—many non-Internet based "electronic government" technologies can be used in this context, including telephone, fax, PDA, SMS text messaging, MMS, and 3G, GPRS, WiFi, WiMAX and Bluetooth. Other technologies can include CCTV, tracking systems, RFID, biometric identification, road traffic management and regulatory enforcement, identity cards, smart cards and other NFC applications; polling station technology (where non-online e-voting is being considered), TV and radio-based delivery of government services, email, online community facilities, newsgroups and electronic mailing lists, online chat, and instant messaging technologies. There are also some technology-specific sub-categories of e-government, such as m-government (mobile government), u-government (ubiquitous government), and g-government (GIS/GPS applications for e-government). palmOne Tungsten T5 (CDAs) are handheld devices that were originally designed as personal organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. ... SMS arrival notification on a Siemens phone Received and displayed SMS message on a Motorola RAZR handset. ... Multimedia Messaging System (MMS) is a system of transmitting not only text messages, but also various kinds of multimedia contents (e. ... 3G (or 3-G) is short for third-generation technology. ... General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM mobile phones. ... Wi-Fi (or Wi-fi, WiFi, Wifi, wifi), short for Wireless Fidelity, is a set of standards for wireless local area networks (WLAN) currently based on the IEEE 802. ... WiMAX is defined as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access by the WiMAX Forum, formed in June 2001 to promote conformance and interoperability of the IEEE 802. ... Bluetooth logo Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs). ... Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, in the Columbine High School Massacre. ... An EPC RFID tag used for Wal-Mart Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. ... At Disney World, biometric measurements are taken of the fingers of multi-day pass users to ensure that the pass is used by the same person from day to day. ... A smartcard or smart card is a tiny secure cryptoprocessor embedded within a credit card-sized or smaller (like the GSM SIM) card. ... NFC may refer to any of the following things: The National Football Conference, one of the two constituent conferences of the U.S. National Football League (NFL). ... Electronic voting (a. ... A virtual community is a group whose members are connected by means of information technologies, typically the Internet. ... A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations. ... Electronic mailing lists are a special usage of e-mail that allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chat room. ... A screenshot of PowWow, one of the first instant messengers with a graphical user interface An instant messenger is a client which allows instant text communication between two or more people through a network such as the Internet. ... A geographic information system (GIS) is a system for managing data that has a spatial specialized form of an information system. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ...

There are many considerations and potential implications of implementing and designing e-government, including disintermediation of the government and its citizens, impacts on economic, social, and political factors, and disturbances to the status quo in these areas. In economics, disintermediation is the removal of intermediaries in a supply chain: cutting out the middleman. Instead of going through traditional distribution channels, which had some type of intermediate (such as a distributor, wholesaler, broker, or agent), companies may now deal with every customer directly, for example via the Internet. ...

In countries such as the United Kingdom, there is interest in using electronic government to re-engage citizens with the political process. In particular, this has taken the form of experiments with electronic voting, aiming to increase voter turnout by making voting easy. The UK Electoral Commission has undertaken several pilots, though concern has been expressed about the potential for fraud with some electronic voting methods[1]. Men of the Colony of Queensland turning out to vote in the Australian 1899 Federation referendum. ... The Electoral Commission is a non-ministerial government department with powers in the United Kingdom, which was created by an Act of Parliament, the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 (2000 c. ...


Development and implementation issues

The development and implementation of e-government involves consideration of its effects including environmental, social, cultural, educational, and consumer issues, among others.

Governments may need to consider the impact by gender, age, language skills, and cultural diversity, as well as the effect on literacy, numeracy, education standards and IT literacy. Economic concerns include the "Digital divide," or the effect of non-use, non-availability or inaccessibility of e-government, or of other digital resources, upon the structure of society, and the potential impact on income and economics. Cultural diversity is the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. ... The digital divide is the gap between those with regular, effective access to digital technologies and those without. ...

Economic and revenue-related concerns include e-government's effect on taxation, debt, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), commerce and trade, corporate governance, and its effect on non-e-government business practices, industry and trade, especially Internet Service Providers and Internet infrastructure. Corporate governance is the set of processes, customs, policies, laws and institutions affecting the way a corporation is directed, administered or controlled. ... An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a business or organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services. ...

From a technological standpoint, the implementation of e-government has effects on e-enablement, interoperability (e.g., e-GIF) and semantic web issues, "legacy technology" (making "pre-eGovernment IT" work together with or be replaced by e-government systems), and implications for software choices (between open source and proprietary software, and between programming languages) as well as political blogging especially by legislators. E-enablement is the transformation of a business system or process to make it streamlined and render it accessible via the Internet. ... Interoperability is connecting people, data and diverse systems. ... e-GIF is the UK eGovernment Interoperability Framework. ... The Semantic Web is a project to create a universal medium for information exchange by putting documents with computer-processable meaning (semantics) on the World Wide Web. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... Other listings of programming languages are: Categorical list of programming languages Generational list of programming languages Chronological list of programming languages Note: Esoteric programming languages have been moved to the separate List of esoteric programming languages. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

There are also management issues related to service integration, local e-government, and Internet governance including ICANN, IETF and W3C, and financial considerations, such as the cost of implementation / effect on existing budgets, effect on government procurement, and funding. ICANN (pronounced I can) is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ... The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is a consortium that produces standards—recommendations, as they call them—for the World Wide Web. ...

Legal implications include freedom of information and privacy (e.g. UK Data Protection Act) concerns. A sunshine law requires that a government makes its information and procedures available for inspection by the public, metaphorically letting the sun shine on the activities of government. ... The Data Protection Act (DPA) is a British Act of Parliament that provides a legal basis and allowing for the privacy and protection of data of individuals in the UK. The act places restrictions on organisations which collect or hold data which can identify a living person. ...

See also

E-democracy (a neologism and contraction of electronic democracy) is the utilization of electronic communications technologies, such as the Internet, in enhancing democratic processes within a democratic republic or representative democracy. ... e-Government Unit The e-Government Unit (eGU)’s mission is: ‘ensuring that IT supports the business transformation of Government itself so that we can provide better, more efficient, public services. ... Electronic services delivery or ESD is the form of providing government services through the Internet. ... Online consultations or e-consultations refer to an exchange between government and citizens using the Internet. ... Transformational Government is an initiative of the UK government. ...


  1. ^ "Online voting fraud warning", BBC, February 5, 2002.
  • Encyclopedia of Digital Government. Edited by Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko and Matti Mälkiä. Idea Group Reference. (http://www.idea-group.com/reference/details.asp?ID=5066)
  • I. Kushchu and M. H. Kuscu (2003). "From e-Government to m-Government: Facing the Inevitable". The 3rd European Conference on e-Government, 253-260.

External links

eGovernment news websites

  • eGov monitor — Daily news covering developments in UK and Europe, plus comprehensive weekly newsletter.
  • UNPAN eGovernment News — news from UN Division for Public Administration on eGovernment worldwide.
  • DigitalGovernance.org Initiative site about electronic governance models applicable for developing countries.
  • eEurope 2005
  • European Commission's IDABC website providing eGovernment news, summarised histories of eGovernment in member states, and further documents and information.

General resources

  • The Failure of E-Government in Developing Countries: A Literature Review. — Danish Dada, London School of Economics and Political Science
  • IPOL - a portal on Internet and politics — Edited by UK academics and hosted by the University of Salford, includes primary and secondary research resources related to e-democracy, e-government and the use of the Internet by parliaments and assemblies.
  • Government Computerization in the Open Directory Project
  • Governments and ICT Multidisciplinairy Research Program in the Netherlands on the field of e-Government
  • The e-Government Imperative OECD e-Government Publications
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of

It has been suggested that Hitting Home be merged into this article or section. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from directory. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is part of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

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Multimedia Super Corridor

MSC Centre: Cyberjaya Situated in Malaysia, the Multimedia Super Corridor is a Government designated zone, designed to leapfrog Malaysia into the information and knowledge age. ... Cyberjaya is a township that forms a key part of the Multimedia Super Corridor in Malaysia. ...

MSC Area: Klang Valley Klang Valley is the area in central Selangor, Malaysia comprising Kuala Lumpur and its surroundings and suburbs naturally delineated by hilly areas and the Port Klang coastline. ...

MSC Major Landmarks: Petronas Twin Towers | Kuala Lumpur Tower | Kuala Lumpur Sentral | Technology Park Malaysia | Putrajaya | Cyberjaya | Kuala Lumpur International Airport The Petronas Twin Towers (also known as the Petronas Towers), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were once the worlds tallest buildings when measured from the level of the main entrance to the structural or architectural top. ... The Kuala Lumpur Tower (officially known as Menara Kuala Lumpur; referred later as KL Tower) is a tall tower located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and was built in 1995. ... KTM Komuter section of KL Sentral. ... The Technology Park Malaysia is Malaysias most advanced and comprehensive centres for research and development for knowledge-based industries. ... Motto: Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari (English : The Garden City, The Smart City ) Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Wilayah Persekutuan Establishment 1995, October 19th Made into Federal Territory 2001, February 1st Administered by Perbadanan Putrajaya Putrajaya Corporation Chairman Samsudin Osman Area    - City 46 km² Population    - City (2004) 45,000 (est... Cyberjaya is a township that forms a key part of the Multimedia Super Corridor in Malaysia. ... Kuala Lumpur International Airport (IATA: KUL, ICAO: WMKK) is Malaysias main international airport and is situated in Sepang district, in the south of the state of Selangor, about 50 km from the capital city, Kuala Lumpur. ...

MSC Prime Applications: EGovernment | MyKad MyKad is the multi-purpose smart identity card introduced by Malaysia. ...

  Results from FactBites:
SCADPlus: eGovernment (1773 words)
To harness the full potential of eGovernment, it is necessary to identify the obstacles which are slowing down the rate at which on-line public services are being made available in the Member States and to propose action to speed up the deployment of eGovernment.
"eGovernment" * means the use of information and communication technologies * (ICT) in public administrations combined with organisational changes and new skills.
Development of eGovernment at regional and local level has also become a priority of the Structural Funds, representing about 30% of Information Society expenditure in Objective 1 regions and 20% in Objective 2 regions.
Worldwide, the average eGovernment maturity rating increased by 5.6 percent in 2004, compared to an average rise of 7.4 percent in 2003 and 11.5 percent in 2002.
Of the 25 "Quicksilver" eGovernment initiatives endorsed by the Bush administration, only two have met all of their aims over the past two years, a US House of Representatives subcommittee heard recently.
Speaking at an eGovernment seminar in Shanghai, Hu Xiaoming, director of the State Information Centre, said that these individuals are badly needed as China must implement eGovernment in order to better communicate with the international community.
  More results at FactBites »



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