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Encyclopedia > Egg (food)
Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food

An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. Most edible eggs, including bird eggs and turtle eggs, consist of a protective, oval eggshell, the albumen (egg white), the vitellus (egg yolk), and various thin membranes. Every part is edible, although the eggshell is generally discarded. Nutritionally, eggs are considered a good source of protein and choline. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2120 KB) Eggs of the Common Quail (Coturnix coturnix), in comparison to a chickens egg. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2120 KB) Eggs of the Common Quail (Coturnix coturnix), in comparison to a chickens egg. ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... It has been suggested that Net flux be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... The intact white shell of a chicken egg. ... Albumen redirects here. ... An egg yolk surrounded by the egg white An egg yolk is the part of an egg which serves as the food source for the developing embryo inside. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ...


Roe and caviar are edible eggs produced by fish. This article is about fish eggs. ... For the band of the same name, see Caviar (band). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Uses as food

Ostrich egg (right), compared to chicken egg and quail eggs
Ostrich egg (right), compared to chicken egg and quail eggs

Bird eggs are a common food source. The most commonly used bird eggs are those from the chicken, duck, and goose, but smaller eggs such as quail eggs are occasionally used as a gourmet ingredient, as are the largest bird eggs, from ostriches. Most commercially produced chicken eggs intended for human consumption are unfertilized, since the laying hens are kept without any roosters. Fertile eggs can be purchased and eaten as well, with little nutritional difference. Fertile eggs will not contain a developed embryo, as refrigeration prohibits cellular growth for an extended amount of time. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,900 × 1,520 pixels, file size: 482 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,900 × 1,520 pixels, file size: 482 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Geese redirects here. ... Genera Coturnix Anurophasis Perdicula Ophrysia † See also Pheasant, Partridge, Grouse Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds in the pheasant family Phasianidae, or in the family Odontophoridae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ...


Chicken eggs are widely used in many types of cooking. Dishes that use eggs range from both sweet to savoury dishes. Eggs may be pickled; hard-boiled, scrambled, fried and refrigerated; or eaten raw, though the latter is not recommended for people who may be susceptible to salmonella, such as the elderly, the infirm, or pregnant women. In addition, the protein in raw eggs are only 51% bio-available, whereas a cooked egg is nearer 91% bio-available, meaning the protein of cooked eggs is nearly twice as absorbable as the protein from raw eggs.[1] As an ingredient egg yolks are important emulsifier in the kitchen, and the proteins in eggs white makes all kinds of foams and aerated dishes possible. For other uses, see Pickle. ... Species S. enterica This article is about the bacteria. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ...

Quail eggs, with potato galettes

The quail eggs are considered a delicacy in many countries. They are used raw in sushi. In Colombia, quail eggs are considered less exotic than in other countries, and a single hard-boiled quail egg is a common topping on hot dogs and hamburgers, often fixed into place with a toothpick. Quail eggs are often very high in cholesterol. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 99 KB)Potato galettes with quail eggs. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 99 KB)Potato galettes with quail eggs. ... This article is about Japanese cuisine. ... Hard Boiled (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally: Hot-Handed God of Cops) is a 1992 action film by director John Woo. ... A large hot dog with ketchup A hot dog is classified as a type of sausage or, alternatively, a sandwich on a suitably shaped bun with the sausage and condiments on it. ... This article is about the sandwich known as a hamburger. ... Wood toothpicks A Toothpick A toothpick is a piece of plastic or other substance such as wood (in this case it may be known as an interdental woodstick) used to remove detritus from the teeth, usually after a meal. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ...


A boiled egg can be distinguished from a raw egg without breaking the shell by spinning it. A hard-boiled egg's contents are solid due to the denaturation of the protein, allowing it to spin freely, while the inertia of the liquid contents of a raw egg causes it to stop spinning within approximately three rotations. Irreversible egg protein denaturation and loss of solubility, caused by the high temperature (while cooking it) Denaturation is the alteration of a protein or nucleic acids shape through some form of external stress (for example, by applying heat, acid or alkali), in such a way that it will no... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about inertia as it applies to local motion. ...


White

The albumen, or egg white contains protein but little or no fat. It is used in cooking separately from the yolk, and can be aerated or whipped to a light, fluffy consistency. The albumen is the healthiest bit of the egg. Beaten egg whites are used in desserts such as meringues and mousse. Lemon meringue muffins For the Dominican folk dance and the music it is performed to, see merengue. ... Mousse is a form of creamy dessert typically made from egg, sugar, and cream usually with other flavors such as chocolate or fruit. ...


Eggshell

Ground egg shells are sometimes used as a food additive to deliver calcium. Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ...


Boiled eggs that are difficult to peel are usually too fresh. Fresh eggs have a lower pH, and this does not allow the shell to separate easily from the underlying albumen. Boiled eggs are cooked by immersing eggs (typically chickens eggs) in boiling water with their shells unbroken. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Albumen redirects here. ...


When put into vinegar the shell will disintegrate slowly.


Problems when cooking eggs

If a boiled egg is overcooked, a greenish ring sometimes appears around egg yolk. This is a manifestation of the iron and sulfur compounds in the egg. It can also occur when there is an abundance of iron in the cooking water. The green ring does not affect the egg's taste; overcooking, however, harms the quality of the protein (chilling the egg for a few minutes in cold water until the egg is completely cooled prevents the greenish "ring” from forming on the surface of the yolk).[2] For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Cooking also increases the risk of atherosclerosis due to increased oxidization of the cholesterol contained in the egg yolk.[3] Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... An egg yolk surrounded by the egg white An egg yolk is the part of an egg which serves as the food source for the developing embryo inside. ...


Egg substitutes for baking

For those who do not consume eggs, alternatives used in baking include other rising agents or binding materials, such as ground flax seeds or potato flour. Tofu can also act as a partial binding agent, since it is high in lecithin due to its soy content. Applesauce can be used as well as arrowroot. Extracted soybean lecithin, in turn, is often used in packaged foods as an inexpensive substitute for egg-derived lecithin. Binomial name Linum usitatissimum L. Linnaeus, 17?? Common flax (also known as linseed) is a member of the Linaceae family, which includes about 150 plant species widely distributed around the world. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... A bowl of applesauce Applesauce (or apple sauce) is a purée that is made from stewed and mashed apples. ... Binomial name Maranta arundinacea L. Arrowroot, or obedience plant, (Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial herb of genus Maranta found in rainforest habitats. ... Lecithin is mostly a mixture of glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids (e. ...


Other egg substitutes are made from just the white of the egg for those who worry about the high cholesterol and fat content in eggs. These products usually have added vitamins and minerals as well as vegetable-based emulsifiers and thickeners such as xantham gum or guar gum. These allow the product to maintain the nutrition found in an egg as well as several culinary properties of real eggs. This makes it possible for food like Hollandaise sauce, custard, mayonnaise, as well as most baked goods to be prepared using these substitutes. Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide used as a food additive and rheology modifier. ... Guar gum, also called guaran, is primarily the ground endosperm of guar beans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article focuses on egg-thickened custards. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see Mayonaise (song). ...


Egg characteristics

Schematic of a chicken egg: 1. Eggshell 2. Outer membrane 3. Inner membrane 4. Chalaza 5. Exterior albumen 6. Middle albumen 7. Vitelline membrane 8. Nucleus of pander 9. Germinal disk 10. Yellow yolk 11. White yolk 12. Internal albumen 13. Chalaza 14. Air cell 15. Cuticula
Schematic of a chicken egg:
1. Eggshell
2. Outer membrane
3. Inner membrane
4. Chalaza
5. Exterior albumen
6. Middle albumen
7. Vitelline membrane
8. Nucleus of pander
9. Germinal disk
10. Yellow yolk
11. White yolk
12. Internal albumen
13. Chalaza
14. Air cell
15. Cuticula

The shape of an egg is an oval with one end larger than the other end. The egg has cylindrical symmetry along the long axis. Image File history File links Anatomy_of_an_egg. ... Image File history File links Anatomy_of_an_egg. ... In geometry, an oval or ovoid (from Latin ovum, egg) is any curve resembling an egg or an ellipse. ...


An egg is surrounded by a thin, hard shell. Inside, the egg yolk is suspended in the egg white by one or two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae (from the Greek word khalazi, meaning hailstone or hard lump.) A greek word - from khalaze - meaning hailstone. It is composed of one or two spiral bands of tissue that suspends the yolk in the center of the white. ...


Air cell

The larger end of the egg contains the air cell that forms when the contents of the egg cool down and contract after it is laid. Chicken eggs are graded according to the size of this air cell, measured during candling. A very fresh egg has a small air cell and receives a grade of AA. As the size of the air cell increases, and the quality of the egg decreases, the grade moves from AA to A to B. This provides a way of testing the age of an egg: as the air cell increases in size, the egg becomes less dense and the larger end of the egg will rise to increasingly shallower depths when the egg is placed in a bowl of water. A very old egg will actually float in the water and should not be eaten.[4] Candling is a method used in embryology to study the growth and development of an embryo inside an egg. ...


Shell

Main article: Eggshell

Egg shell color is caused by pigment deposition during egg formation in the oviduct and can vary according to species and breed, from the more common white or brown to pink or speckled blue-green. In general, chicken breeds with white ear lobes lay white eggs, whereas chickens with red ear lobes lay brown eggs.[5] Although there is no significant link between shell color and nutritional value, there is often a cultural preference for one color over another. For example, in most regions of the United States, chicken eggs are generally white; while in the northeast of that country and in the United Kingdom, they are generally light-brown. In Brazil and Poland, white chicken eggs are generally regarded as industrial, and brown or reddish ones are preferred. The intact white shell of a chicken egg. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... In oviparous animals (those that lay eggs), the passage from the ovaries to the outside of the body is known as the oviduct. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... A breed is a domesticated subspecies or infrasubspecies of an animal. ... This is an incomplete list of chicken breeds. ...


White (Albumen)

Main article: Egg white

Albumen redirects here. ...

Yolk

Main article: Egg yolk

The yolk in a newly laid egg is round and firm. As the yolk ages it absorbs water from the albumen which increases its size and causes it to stretch and weaken the vitelline membrane (the clear casing enclosing the yolk). The resulting effect is a flattened and enlarged yolk shape. An egg yolk surrounded by the egg white An egg yolk is the part of an egg which serves as the food source for the developing embryo inside. ... An egg yolk surrounded by the egg white An egg yolk is the part of an egg which serves as the food source for the developing embryo inside. ... As soon as the spermatozoön has entered the yolk, the peripheral portion of the latter is transformed into a membrane, the vitelline membrane which prevents the passage of additional spermatozoa. ...


Yolk color is dependent on the diet of the hen; if the diet contains yellow/orange plant pigments known as xanthophylls, then they are deposited in the yolk, coloring it. A colorless diet can produce an almost colorless yolk. Farmers may enhance yolk color with artificial pigments, or with natural supplements rich in lutein (marigold petals are a popular choice), but in most locations, this activity is forbidden. In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lutein (LOO-teen) (from Latin lutea meaning yellow) is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. ... Marigold can mean: Flowering plants in the family Asteraceae in the following genera: Calendula (Marigold or Pot Marigold) Tagetes (Mexican marigold, African marigold or French marigold) Glebionis segetum (syn. ...


Abnormalities

A hardboiled double-yolked egg, cut in half

Some hens will lay double-yolked eggs as the result of unsynchronized production cycles. Although heredity causes some hens to have a higher propensity to lay double-yolked eggs, these occur more frequently as occasional abnormalities in young hens beginning to lay.[citation needed] Usually a double-yolked egg will be longer and thinner than an ordinary single-yolk egg. Double-yolked eggs occur rarely, only leading to observed successful hatchings under human intervention, as the unborn chickens would otherwise fight each other and die. [6] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 376 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 376 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


It is also possible for a young hen to produce an egg with no yolk at all. Yolkless eggs are usually formed about a bit of tissue that is sloughed off the ovary or oviduct. This tissue stimulates the secreting glands of the oviduct and a yolkless egg results.


Nutritional value

Chicken egg, whole, hard-boiled
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 150 kcal   650 kJ
Carbohydrates     1.12 g
Fat 10.6 g
Protein 12.6 g
Water 75 g
Vitamin A equiv.  140 μg  16%
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.66 mg   51%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.5 mg   33%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  1.4 mg  28%
Folate (Vit. B9)  44 μg  11%
Calcium  50 mg 5%
Iron  1.2 mg 10%
Magnesium  10 mg 3% 
Phosphorus  172 mg 25%
Potassium  126 mg   3%
Zinc  1.0 mg 10%
Choline 225 mg
Cholesterol 424 mg
For edible portion only. Refuse: 12% (Shell)
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Eggs provide a significant amount of protein to one's diet, as well as various nutrients. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... In nutrition, proteins are broken down through digestion that begins in the stomach. ...


Chicken eggs are the most commonly eaten eggs, and are highly nutritious. They supply a large amount of complete, high-quality protein which contains all essential amino acids for humans,[7] and provide significant amounts of several vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, riboflavin, folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, choline, iron, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. They are also one of the least expensive single-food sources of complete protein. One large chicken egg contains approximately 7 grams of protein. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... A complete protein or whole protein is a protein that contains all amino acids, most notably the nine essential amino acids to humans and most animals, in ratios appropriate to the body. ...

3 egg yolks in a glass
3 egg yolks in a glass

All of the egg's vitamin A, D and E is in the egg yolk. The egg is one of the few foods which naturally contain Vitamin D. A large egg yolk contains approximately 60 Calories (250 kilojoules); the egg white contains about 15 Calories (60 kilojoules). A large yolk contains more than two-thirds of the recommended daily intake of 300 mg of cholesterol (although one study indicates that the human body may not absorb much cholesterol from eggs[8]). The yolk makes up about 33% of the liquid weight of the egg. It contains all of the fat in the egg and slightly less than half of the protein and much of the nutrients. It also contains all of the choline, and one yolk contains approximately half of the recommended daily intake. Choline is an important nutrient for development of the brain, and is said to be important for pregnant and nursing women to ensure healthy fetal brain development.[9] 3 egg yolks in a glass!, taken by me Martin Richards File links The following pages link to this file: Egg yolk User:Bluemoose/images Categories: GFDL images ... 3 egg yolks in a glass!, taken by me Martin Richards File links The following pages link to this file: Egg yolk User:Bluemoose/images Categories: GFDL images ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... A kilojoule (abbreviation: kJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Daily values. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... The study of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life. ...


Recently, chicken eggs that are especially high in Omega 3 fatty acids have come on the market. These eggs are made by feeding laying hens a diet containing polyunsaturated fats and kelp meal. Nutrition information on the packaging is different for each of the brands. Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in certain fish tissues, and in vegetable sources such as flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A polyunsaturated organic compound is one in which more than one double bond exists within the representative molecule. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Eggs may have different nutritional content depending on the feed and living conditions of the chickens who lay them. Mother Earth News compared eggs from "battery" chickens and eggs from pastured chickens, and found that when compared to the battery eggs, the pastured eggs contained, on average, four times as many omega-3 fatty acids, twice as much vitamin E, half the cholestrol and between two and six times as much beta carotene.[10] Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ...


Health issues of eating chicken eggs

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Cholesterol and fat

More than half the calories found in eggs come from the fat in the yolk; a 100 gram chicken egg contains approximately 10 grams of fat. People on a low-cholesterol diet may need to reduce egg consumption, although most of the fat in egg is unsaturated fat and may not be harmful. The egg white consists primarily of water (87%) and protein (13%) and contains no cholesterol and little, if any, fat. An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. ... Albumen redirects here. ...


Some people try to avoid eggs in their diet because they are high in cholesterol, which is concentrated in the yolk. This issue is sometimes addressed by eating only some or none of the yolk. People sometimes remove the yolk themselves, or may use prepared egg substitutes made from egg whites such as Egg Beaters. The egg yolk is the yellow inside an egg. ... Egg Beaters is a product sold in the United States by ConAgra Foods as a substitute for whole chicken eggs. ...


There is debate over whether egg yolk presents a health risk. Research suggests consuming eggs increases both 'good' and total cholesterol levels,[11] though moderate consumption of eggs, up to one per day, does not appear to increase heart disease risk in healthy individuals.[12] A 2007 study of nearly 10,000 adults demonstrated no correlation between egg consumption and cardiovascular disease or strokes except in the sub-population of diabetic patients which presented an increased risk of coronary heart disease.[13] Other research also supports the idea that a high egg intake by diabetic patients increases cardiovascular risk.[14] Food scientist Harold McGee argues that the cholesterol in the yolk is not what causes a problem as fat (particularly saturated) is much more likely to raise cholesterol levels than the actual consumption of cholesterol.[4] High-density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size (8–11 nm in diameter), that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ... Harold McGee writes about the chemistry, techniques and history of food and cooking and is the author of two books that explain kitchen science in an approachable manner. ...


Contamination

A health issue associated with eggs is contamination by pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella enteritidis. Contamination of eggs exiting a female bird via the cloaca may also occur with other members of the Salmonella group, so care must be taken to avoid the egg shell becoming contaminated with fecal matter. In commercial practice, eggs are quickly washed with a sanitizing solution within minutes of being laid. A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Salmonella enteritidis is a Gram negative rod-shaped bacterium linked to raw or undercooked eggs and poultry, and one of many causative agents of food poisoning. ... In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ... Feces (also spelled faeces in British English, or fæces) are semi-solid waste products from the digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ...


Most health experts advise people to cook their eggs thoroughly before eating them, as the heat is necessary to kill any infectious micro-organisms that may be present. Raw and undercooked eggs have been associated with salmonella infection. As with meat, containers and surfaces that have been used to process raw eggs should not come in contact with ready-to-eat food. Infection is also the title of an episode of the television series Babylon 5; see Infection (Babylon 5). ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... This article is about the food. ...


The risk of infection from raw or undercooked eggs is dependent in part upon the sanitary conditions under which the hens are kept. Some smaller egg producers make a point of keeping their hens in cleaner (and, in some people's view, more humane) conditions, and observe few or no cases of salmonella in the birds themselves.[citation needed]


Recent evidence suggests the problem is not as prevalent as once thought. A study by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2002 (Risk Analysis April 2002 22(2):203-18) showed that of the 69 billion eggs produced annually, only 2.3 million of them are contaminated with salmonella - equivalent to just one in every 30,000 eggs - thus showing that salmonella infection is quite rarely induced by eggs. However, this has not been the case in other countries where Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium infections due to egg consumptions are major concerns [15], [16], [17]. Salmonella enteritidis is a Gram negative rod-shaped bacterium linked to raw or undercooked eggs and poultry, and one of many causative agents of food poisoning. ... Binomial name Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica is a species of Salmonella bacterium. ...


Egg shells act as hermetic seals which guard against bacteria entering, but this seal can be broken through improper handling or if laid by unhealthy chickens. Most forms of contamination enter through such weaknesses in the shell. Fresher eggs often have a more prominent chalazae. A hermetic seal is an airtight seal. ... A greek word - from khalaze - meaning hailstone. It is composed of one or two spiral bands of tissue that suspends the yolk in the center of the white. ...


Food allergy

One of the most common food allergies in infants is eggs.[18] Infants usually have the opportunity to grow out of this allergy during childhood, if exposure is minimized. Generally, physicians will recommend feeding only the yolks to infants because of the higher risk of allergic reaction to the egg white. A food allergy is an immunologic response to a food protein. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ...


The egg allergy is prevalent enough in the United States that food labeling practices now include eggs, egg products and the processing of foods on equipment that also process foods containing eggs in a special allergen alert section of the ingredients on the labels.


Edwina Currie, salmonella, and the UK Lion mark

The Lion mark was introduced to the UK by the British Egg Information Council in 1957, later falling into disuse. British Health Minister Edwina Currie sparked a controversy in 1988 after she issued a warning about salmonella in British eggs that was criticised by the egg-producing industry for being hysterical and over-cautious, despite being substantially true. The Lion mark was revived in 1998 as a means of increasing public trust in eggs. The amount of eggs infected by salmonella was a minority and Currie resigned after the then UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher stated, "I had eggs for breakfast". Edwina Currie Jones née Cohen, (born 13 October 1946) is a former British Member of Parliament. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ...


The Lion Quality Code of Practice includes compulsory vaccination against Salmonella enterica of all pullets destined for Lion egg-producing flocks, independent auditing improved traceability of eggs and a "best-before" date stamped on the shell and pack which shows that they are fresher than required by law, as well as on-farm and packing station hygiene controls. Binomial name (ex Kauffmann & Edwards 1952) Le Minor & Popoff 1987 Salmonella enterica is a rod shaped, flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium, and a member of the genus Salmonella. ...


The Lion Mark was itself well known in the UK from the 1950s, which was one reason why it helped to restore public confidence. The British Egg Industry also brought back the popular advertising strapline from the 1950s, Go To Work On An Egg. The British Egg Marketing Board used the "Go To Work On An Egg" strapline on a series of TV adverts starring Tony Hancock. The Egg Information Service wanted to rerun the adverts in 2007 but were blocked from doing so by the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC), which claimed that the adverts went against the idea of eating a balanced diet. A strapline is an advertising slogan used as a secondary sentence attached to a brand name. ... Biography published in 1978 (1983 paperback reprint shown) Anthony John Hancock (12 May 1924 – 24 June 1968) was a major figure in British television and radio comedy in the 1950s and 1960s, known as Tony Hancock. ... The Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) is a quango which pre-approves most British television advertising. ...


Chicken egg sizes

Chicken eggs are graded by size, for the purpose of sales. The United States Department of Agriculture grades them by weight per dozen. The most common US size of chicken egg is 'Large' and is the egg size commonly referred to for recipes. The following egg masses have been calculated on the basis of the USDA grades: “USDA” redirects here. ...

Modern Sizes (USA)
Size Mass per egg
Jumbo Greater than 2.5 oz. or 71g
Very Large or Extra Large (XL) Greater than 2.25 oz. or 64g
Large (L) Greater than 2 oz. or 57g
Medium (M) Greater than 1.75 oz. or 50g
Small (S) Greater than 1.5 oz. or 43g
Peewee Greater than 1.25 oz. or 35g


In Europe, modern egg sizes are defined as follows: BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...

Modern Sizes (Europe)
Size Mass per egg
Very Large 73g and over
Large 63-73g
Medium 53-63g
Small 53g and under


In Australia, the Australian Egg Corporation defines the following sizes in its labelling guide.[19] The Australian Egg Corporation Limited (Australian Egg Corporation) is the major marketer of eggs in Australia. ...

Modern Sizes (Australia)
Size Mass per egg
Jumbo 68g
Extra Large 60g
Large 52g

In Western Australia, two additional sizes are also standardized by the Golden Eggs Corporation[20] Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person...

Additional Sizes (Western Australia)
Mega or XXXL 72g
Medium 43g



In New Zealand sizes are based on the minimum mass per egg: [21]

Modern Sizes (New Zealand)
Size Minimum mass per egg
8 (Jumbo) 68g
7 (Large) 62g
6 (Standard) 53g
5 (Medium) 44g
4 (Pullet) 35g
Traditional Sizes
Size Mass
Size 0 Greater than 75g
Size 1 70g-75g
Size 2 65g-70g
Size 3 60g-65g
Size 4 55g-60g
Size 5 50g-55g
Size 6 45g-50g
Size 7 less than 45g

BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...

Issues in mass production

Commercial factory farming operations often involve raising the hens in small crowded cages, preventing the chickens from engaging in natural behaviors such as wing-flapping, dust-bathing, scratching, pecking, perching and nest-building. Such restrictions can lead to frustration and cause agitated pacing and escape behavior.[22] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Debeaking, also known as beak trimming, is a process by which parts of the beak of a chicken are removed. ... Induced Molting (or Forced Molting) is the practice by the commercial egg industry of artificially provoking a complete flock of hen to molt simultaneously. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Escape response, escape reaction, or escape behaviour is a possible reaction in response to stimuli indicative of danger, in particular, it initiates an escape motion of an animal. ...


Many hens confined to battery cages, and some raised in cage-free conditions, are de-beaked to prevent cannibalistic pecking. According to critics of the practice, this can cause hens severe pain to the point where some may refuse to eat and prefer to starve to death. Some hens may be force molted to increase egg quality and production level after the molting.[23] Molting can be induced by extended feed withdrawal, water withdrawal or controlled lighting programs. Debeaking, also known as beak trimming, is a process by which parts of the beak of a chicken are removed. ... Induced Molting (or Forced Molting) is the practice by the commercial egg industry of artificially provoking a complete flock of hen to molt simultaneously. ...


Laying hens are often slaughtered between 100 - 130 weeks of age when their egg productivity starts to decline.[24] Due to modern selective breeding, laying hen strains differ from meat production strains. As male birds of the laying strain do not lay eggs and are not suitable for meat production, they are generally culled at the hatchery.[25] Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ...


Free-range eggs are considered by some advocates to be an acceptable substitute to factory farmed eggs. Free range laying hens are given outdoor access instead of being contained in crowded cages. Questions on the actual living conditions of free range hens have been raised as there is no legal definition or regulations for eggs labeled as free range in the US.[26] A free-range egg purchased in the UK. The main difference between free range and factory farmed eggs is that the birds are permitted to roam freely within the farmyard and only kept in sheds or henhouses at night. ... Free range is a method of farming husbandry where the animals are permitted to roam freely instead of being contained in small sheds. ...


In the US, increased public concern for animal welfare has pushed United Egg Producers to establish a new volunteer welfare program known as United Egg Producers Certified(UEP Certified).[27] The program includes guidelines with regard to housing, feed, water, and air, space allowance, beak trimming, molting, and handling and transportation. Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer unnecessarily, including where the animals are used for food, work, companionship, or research. ... This article is about financial assistance paid by government organizations. ...


Culture

Main articles: Egg decorating and Easter egg
Hanácké kraslice, Easter eggs from the Haná region, the Czech Republic
Hanácké kraslice, Easter eggs from the Haná region, the Czech Republic

A popular Easter tradition in some parts of the world is the decoration of hard-boiled eggs (usually by dyeing but often by spray-painting). Adults often hide the eggs for children to find, an activity known as an Easter egg hunt. A similar tradition of egg painting exists in areas of the world influenced by the culture of Persia. Before the spring equinox in the Persian New Year tradition (called Norouz), each family member decorates a hard-boiled egg and sets them together in a bowl. Ukrainian Easter eggs Egg decorating is the easter special. ... For a hidden feature or message, see Easter egg (virtual). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1962 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Easter egg User:Jan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1962 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Easter egg User:Jan. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Ukrainian Easter eggs Egg decorating is the easter special. ... Persia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ... Persepolis all nations stair case. ...


Egging

Although a food item, eggs are sometimes thrown at houses, cars or people generally on Halloween. This act, known commonly as egging in the various English-speaking countries, is a minor form and section 5 of the public order as a minor offense of vandalism and, therefore, usually a criminal offense and is capable of damaging property (egg whites can degrade certain types of vehicle paint) as well as cause serious eye injury[28]. On Halloween, for example, trick or treaters have been known to throw eggs (and sometimes flour) at property or people from whom they received nothing. Eggs are also often thrown in protests, as they are inexpensive and nonlethal, yet at the same time very messy when broken. John Prescott was egged by a rural protestor which sparked controversy when he retaliated. This article is about the holiday. ... The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where English is an official language, in order of population. ... Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ... For other uses, see Crime (disambiguation). ... This article is about the holiday. ... Trick-or-treating, also known as Guising, is an activity for children on Halloween in which they proceed from house to house, asking for treats such as candy with the question, Trick or treat? Trick-or-treating is done in costume and is one of the main traditions of Halloween. ... For other persons named John Prescott, see John Prescott (disambiguation). ...


See also

The following is a list of egg dishes: Coddled egg Egg in bain-marie Fried egg Hard-boiled egg Omelette (plain) Poached egg Scrambled eggs Shirred egg Soft-boiled egg Bacon and eggs (various) Baked egg cheese (Finland) Balut (southeast Asia) Brik (Tunisia) Chawanmushi (Japan) Chinese steamed eggs Chupe (Peruvian...

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ Evenepoel, P., Geypens, B., Luypaerts, A., Hiele, M., Ghoos, Y., & Rutgeerts, P. (1998). Digestibility of Cooked and Raw Egg Protein in Humans as Assessed by Stable Isotope Techniques. The Journal of Nutrition, 128 (10), 1716-1722. abstract
  2. ^ Rose Acre Farms (United Egg Producer Certified)
  3. ^ The role of eggs, margarines and fish oils in the nutritional management of coronary artery disease and strokes
  4. ^ a b McGee, H. (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. New York: Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 
  5. ^ Information on chicken breeds
  6. ^ Double-yolked eggs and chicken development
  7. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization article on eggs
  8. ^ University Science article on eggs and cholesterol
  9. ^ Eggs and fetal brain development
  10. ^ Long, Cheryl and Umut Newbury, "The Good Egg," Mother Earth News, August/September 2005
  11. ^ Weggemans RM, Zock PL, Katan MB (2001). "Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans: a meta-analysis". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73 (5): 885–91. PMID 11333841. 
  12. ^ Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, et al (1999). "A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women". JAMA 281 (15): 1387–94. PMID 10217054. 
  13. ^ Qureshi AI, Suri FK, Ahmed S, Nasar A, Divani AA, Kirmani JF (2007). "Regular egg consumption does not increase the risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseases". Med. Sci. Monit. 13 (1): CR1–8. PMID 17179903. 
  14. ^ Schärer M, Schulthess G (2005). "[Egg intake and cardiovascular risk]" (in German). Ther Umsch 62 (9): 611–3. PMID 16218496. 
  15. ^ Kimura, Akiko C. et al. (2004). "Chicken Consumption Is a Newly Identified Risk Factor for Sporadic Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Infections in the United States: A Case-Control Study in FoodNet Sites". Clinical Infectious Diseases 38: S244 - S252. doi:10.1086/381576. Retrieved on 20 November 2007. 
  16. ^ Little, C.L et al. (2007). "Public health investigations of Salmonella Enteritidis in catering raw shell eggs, 2002-2004". Letters in Applied Microbiology 44 (6): 595 - 601. Blackwell Publishing. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02131.x. Retrieved on 20 November 2007. 
  17. ^ Stephens, N. et al. (2007). Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135 infections associated with the consumption of products containing raw egg in Tasmania. Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on 20 November 2007.
  18. ^ Egg Allergy Brochure, distributed by Royal Prince Alfred Hospital
  19. ^ Egg Labelling Guide July 2007
  20. ^ Golden Eggs Western Australia Product Range
  21. ^ http://www.eggfarmers.org.nz/egg-quality.asp
  22. ^ Scientists and Experts on Battery Cages and Laying Hen Welfare
  23. ^ Eggs and force-moulting
  24. ^ Commercial Egg Production and Processing
  25. ^ Egg laying and male birds
  26. ^ Free-range eggs
  27. ^ United Egg Producers Certified Program
  28. ^ Stewart RM. Durnian JM. Briggs MC. "Here's egg in your eye": a prospective study of blunt ocular trauma resulting from thrown eggs. Emergency Medicine Journal. 23(10):756-8, 2006 Oct.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Royal Prince Alfred Hospital The Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, commonly RPA, is a major hospital in Sydney, Australia, located on Missenden Road in Camperdown. ...

References

  • Stadelman, W.J. and O.J. Cotterill. (1995). Egg Science and Technology, Fourth Edition. New York: Food Products Press.

External links

Find more information on Egg by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
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Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • Nutritional values of eggs
  • Nutritional value of free range eggs compared with factory eggs
  • Criticism of the validity of the "Animal Care Certified" logo used by United Egg Producers(UEP)
  • British Egg Industry and the Lion Mark
  • 10 Health Benefits of Eggs
  • Fact Sheet on FDA's Proposed Regulation: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production

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Egg (food) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3239 words)
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All of the egg's vitamin A, D and E is in the yolk.
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