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Encyclopedia > Effects of World War II

The bums''Italic text''Bold text effects of World War II had far-reaching implications for the international community. Many millions of lives had been lost as a result of the war. Germany was divided into four quadrants, which were controlled by the Allied Powers — the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The Aftermath of World War II covers a period of history from roughly 1945-1950. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ...


The war can be identified to varying degrees as the catalyst for many continental, national and local phenomena, such as the redrawing of European borders, the birth of the United Kingdom's welfare state, the communist takeover of China and Eastern Europe, the creation of Israel, and the divisions of Germany and Korea. In addition, many organizations have roots in the Second World War; for example, the United Nations, the World Bank, the WTO, and the IMF. Technologies, such as nuclear fission, the computer and the jet engine, also appeared during this period. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Welfare State of the United Kingdom was prefigured in the William Beveridge Report in 1942, which identified five Giant Evils in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The World Bank (the Bank), a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), was formally established on December 27, 1945, following the ratification of the Bretton Woods agreement. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... This article is about the machine. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ...


For the first time in modern history, geopolitical power shifted away from western and central Europe. That multipolar world was replaced by a bipolar one dominated by the two most powerful victors, the United States and Soviet Union, which became known as the superpowers. Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... Bipolar is a term used to define things with two (usually opposing) poles. ... A superpower is a state with the ability to influence events or project power on a wide scale. ...

Contents

Europe in ruins

At the end of the war, millions of refugees were homeless, the European economy had collapsed, and most of the European industrial infrastructure was destroyed. The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ...


Border revisions and population transfers

As a result of the new borders drawn by the victorious nations, large populations suddenly found themselves in hostile territory. Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... The occupation of Baltic states generally refers to the occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) by the Soviet Union or Nazi Germany during World War II, and to the Soviet presence in the Baltics from 1945 until the re-establishment of their independence. ...

German occupation zones in 1946 after territorial annexations
German occupation zones in 1946 after territorial annexations

The main beneficiary of these border revisions was the Soviet Union, which expanded its borders at the expense of Germany, Finland, Poland, and Romania. The Soviet Union also acquired the three independent states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, which had declared their neutrality before the outbreak of World War II. The Baltic states were occupied and annexed early in the war in agreement with the Nazis via the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, then re-conquered in 1944. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x646, 26 KB) Beschreibung, Quelle und Lizenz Manche Bundesländer sind erst 1946 gebildet worden. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x646, 26 KB) Beschreibung, Quelle und Lizenz Manche Bundesländer sind erst 1946 gebildet worden. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...


A minor temporary beneficiary was France, which in 1947 annexed the German state of Saar as a nominally independent protectorate under French economic control. Poland was compensated for its losses to the Soviet Union by receiving most of Germany east of the Oder-Neisse line, including the industrial regions of Silesia. In total Germany lost roughly a quarter of her territory. The Saar protectorate (1,000 sq. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ...


Numerous Germans were expelled, mostly from the ceded German territories and from the Sudetenland. Many died, and historians debate to this day the death rate. Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ...


The repatriation—pursuant to the terms of the Yalta Conference—of two million Russian soldiers who had come under the control of advancing American and British forces, resulted for the most part in their deaths.[citation needed] The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ...


Reparations

The eastern victors demanded payment of war reparations from the defeated nations, and in the Paris Peace Treaty, the Soviet Union's enemies—Hungary, Finland and Romania—were required to pay $300,000,000 each to the Soviet Union. Italy was required to pay $360,000,000, shared chiefly between Greece, Yugoslavia, and the Soviet Union. War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


The much larger reparations from occupied Germany to Russia were to be paid not by goods or money but by the transfer of capital goods, such as dismantled manufacturing plants. A separate reparation was 3,000,000 German former prisoners of war, as well as many civilians, that were forced to labour in Russia. Some did not get to return until well into the 1950s. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Reparations to the western victors consisted mainly of free coal deliveries as well as of machinery and dismantled factories, of which the majority went to France, with some going to Britain. Germany and Italy also paid in the form of POW-provided forced labor; 100,000 in Britain and 700,000 in France. The U.S settled for appropriating German patents as well as all German company assets in the U.S. The "intellectual reparations", such as patents and blueprints, taken by the U.S. and the UK amounted to close to $10 billion, equivalent of around $100 billion in 2006 terms.[1] The program of also acquiring German scientists and technicians for the U.S. was also used to deny the expertise of German scientists to the Soviet Union.[2] Allegations made by Canadian novelist James Bacque were that nearly one million German prisoners of war, that Dwight Eisenhower redesignated as Disarmed Enemy Forces in order to avoid having to obey the third Geneva Convention, died of starvation or exposure while held in post-war Western internment camps. ... Operation Paperclip scientists pose together. ...


The U.S. eventually stopped the shipment of dismantled factories from the U.S. zone of occupation east because of increasing friction with Russia, part of which was caused by Russian refusal to provide the western occupation zones with surplus food from the eastern occupation zone which had been the breadbasket of Germany. Western Allied dismantling of industry in the Saar area and Ruhr area was virtually completed by 1950. Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to...


Plans for Germany

The initial proposed plans of the United States were harsh. The Morgenthau Plan of 1944 called for stripping Germany of the industrial resources required for war. The main industrial areas of the Ruhr and Silesia were to be removed from Germany, as were Germany's main sources of coal and iron, namely Saar and the German speaking parts of Alsace-Lorraine, which were to be once again under French occupation. The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... The Saar protectorate (1,000 sq. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ...


While the Morgenthau Plan was never implemented in its original form, it did end up greatly influencing events. Most notable was this influence seen through its toned-down offshoots. Examples of these are the Potsdam Conference, Joint Chiefs of Staff Directive 1067, and the industrial plans for Germany. Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... The industrial plans for Germany or Level of Industry plans for Germany were the plans to lower German industrial potential after World War II. At the Potsdam conference, with the U.S. operating under influence of the Morgenthau plan[1], the victorious Allies decided to abolish the German armed forces...


In occupied Germany, the Morgenthau plan lived on in the U.S. occupation directive JCS 1067 and in the Allied "industrial disarmament" plans, designed to reduce German economic might and to destroy Germany's capability to wage war by complete or partial de-industrialization and restrictions imposed on utilization of remaining production capacity. The first industrial plan for Germany, signed in 1946, required the destruction of 1,500 manufacturing plants. The purpose of this was to lower German heavy industry output to roughly 50% of its 1938 level. By 1950, after the virtual completion of the by the then much watered-out "level of industry" plans, equipment had been removed from 706 manufacturing plants in the west and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6,700,000 tons.[3] This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


The Joint Chiefs of Staff Directive 1067 (JCS 1067), which governed U.S. policy in Germany from April 1945 until July 1947, stated that no help was to be given to the Germans in rebuilding their nation, save for the minimum required to mitigate starvation.


These policies were however to some degree counteracted by the military governor of the U.S. zone in Germany, General Lucius D. Clay, who did his best to use whatever loopholes the directives allowed for, particularly for actions that would reduce “unrest” and “famine“. This slowed down the rate factories were being destroyed and increased the food rations to 1,500 calories per day (half the normal UK rations). Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1897 - April 16, 1978) was an American general. ...

The September 1944 U.S. (Morgenthau) Plan for the partitioning of Germany.
The September 1944 U.S. (Morgenthau) Plan for the partitioning of Germany.

The problems brought on by these types of policies became apparent to many after a year of occupation. Germany had long been the industrial giant of Europe, and its poverty held back the general European recovery. The continued scarcity in Germany also led to considerable expenses for the occupying powers, which were obligated to try to make up the most important shortfalls. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (998x896, 143 KB) Summary own made Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: World War II ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (998x896, 143 KB) Summary own made Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: World War II ...


The Western powers' worst fear was that the poverty and hunger would drive the Germans to communism. General Clay stated "There is no choice between being a communist on 1,500 calories a day and a believer in democracy on a thousand". Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


After lobbying by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Generals Clay and George Marshall, the Truman administration finally realized that economic recovery in Europe could not go forward without the reconstruction of the German industrial base on which it had previously had been dependent.[4] In July 1947, President Truman rescinded on "national security grounds"[5] the punitive JCS 1067, which had directed the U.S. forces of occupation in Germany to "take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany." It was replaced by JCS 1779, which instead stressed that "[a]n orderly, prosperous Europe requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany."[6] Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ...


Marshall Plan

In view of the continued poverty and famine in Europe, and with the onset of the Cold War that made it important to bring as much of Germany as possible into the western camp, it became apparent that a change of policy was required. The most notable example of this change was a plan established by United States Secretary of State George Marshall, the "European Recovery Program", better known as the Marshall Plan, which called for the U.S. Congress to allocate billions of dollars for the reconstruction of Europe. Also as part of the effort to rebuild global capitalism and spur post-war reconstruction, the Bretton Woods system was put into effect after the war. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


For Western Germany, the psychological impact of the Marshall Plan was large. In monetary terms, Germany received only half of what Britain received; in addition, Germany was eventually forced to repay the majority of the money. But it meant that the occupation policy was officially changed, and thus the West German people finally could start rebuilding their new nation. The East German population were not included, and their attempt to revolt against the Russians a few years later was quickly put down.


In the Netherlands the Bakker-Schut Plan to demand a huge monetary compensation and even to annex a part of Germany that would have doubled the country's size was dropped. But many Germans living in the Netherlands were declared 'hostile subjects' and put into a concentration camp in an operation called Black Tulip. A total of 3,691 Germans were ultimately deported. The Bakker-Schut Plan. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Operation Black Tulip was a plan in 1945 by Dutch minister of Justice Kolfschoten to evict all Germans from the Netherlands. ...


Closely related was the Monnet Plan of French bureaucrat Jean Monnet that proposed giving France control over the German coal areas of the Ruhr and Saar and using these resources to bring France to 150% of prewar industrial production. This article deals with the 1945-47 plan of the immediate post war period. ... Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (November 9, 1888 – March 16, 1979) is regarded by many as the architect of European Unity. ... The Saar protectorate (1,000 sq. ...


End of European Imperialism

The destruction of Europe and the destruction of a significant portion of the United Kingdom's cities (via aerial bombing) would also ruin the reputation of the imperial nations in the eyes of their colonies. Coupled with the enormous expense incurred in the war, an empire was perceived to be an unnecessarily expensive possession. Thus this would provoke the rapid decolonization process that would see the empires of the United Kingdom, France and others swept away. Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ...


Nationalist tendencies helped India and Pakistan become independent from the British Empire in August 1947. Soon Malaysia and other South East Asian colonies also became independent. The Netherlands lost Indonesia, and France lost Indochina. In just a few decades, most Asian and African colonies were independent. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Superpowers

The immense destruction wrought over the course of the war caused a sharp decline in the influence of the great powers of Europe. After the war, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States both became formidable forces. The U.S. suffered very little during the war and because of military and industrial exports became a formidable manufacturing power. This led to a period of wealth and prosperity for the U.S. in the fields of industry, agriculture and technology which continues to this day. One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Soviet redirects here. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...


While the homeland of the United States was untouched by the war, quite the opposite was true in the Soviet Union. At the height of the Axis advance in 1941, the Wehrmacht got within 20 kilometers (12.5 mi) of Moscow. Although the Nazis were pushed back from Moscow by Soviet winter counter thrusts in early 1942, the Wehrmacht's Operation Blue in summer 1942 pushed German forces northeast of the Black Sea to Stalingrad and southeast of the Black Sea to the approaches to Grozny at the foot the Caucasus Mountains. Therefore the Germans controlled all of Soviet territory west of Leningrad, Moscow, and Stalingrad, from the Baltic Sea to the Caucasus. During the initial German invasion, Operation Barbarossa, the use of scorched earth tactics by both sides left the western portion of the Soviet Union almost totally destroyed. Agricultural land was burned, livestock exterminated, infrastructure dismantled or destroyed and entire towns flattened. All of this land was part of more battles as the Red Army swept west in 1943-1944. Although the Soviets were able to salvage some heavy industry and ship it to safer areas around the Ural Mountains, much of the USSR's pre-war industry fell into the hands of the Germans. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad... For other uses of Grozny, see Grozny (disambiguation). ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ... Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


The Soviet Union also suffered unprecedented casualties. From 1941 to 1945 the Red Army lost over 10 million killed and more than 18 million wounded. Civilian losses were also immense; most estimates range from 14 to 17 million civilians killed. Most civilians in the occupied lands in the western USSR were either shot or left to starve or freeze to death by the Germans. Additionally, the majority of Holocaust victims, as well as the perpetration of the Holocaust, were from the Eastern Front. The total deaths resulting from the war amounted to roughly fourteen percent of the USSR's and sixteen percent of Poland's total pre-war population. By comparison, the United States lost about 0.3% of its total pre-war population.{fact|August 2007}} For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


Because of the immense loss of life and the destruction of land and industrial capacity, the USSR was at an economic and (because of the American use of atomic weapons on Japan) strategic disadvantage relative to the United States. The USSR was, however, in a better economic and strategic position than any other continental European power. By the end of the war in 1945 the Red Army was very large, battle-tested and occupied all of Eastern and Central Europe as well as what was to become East Germany. In areas they occupied, the Red Army installed governments they felt would be friendly towards the USSR. Given the tremendous suffering of the Soviet people during the war, Soviet leadership wanted a "buffer zone" of friendly governments between Russia and Western European nations. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


Politics

European Union

The European Union grew out of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which was founded in 1951 by the six founding members: Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg (the Benelux countries) and West Germany, France and Italy. Its purpose was to pool the steel and coal resources of the member states, and to support the economies of the participating economies. As a side effect, the ECSC helped diffuse tensions between countries which had recently been enemies in the war. In time this economic merger grew, adding members and broadening in scope, to become the European Economic Community, and later the European Union. Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...

The headquarters of the United Nations, located in New York City. The United Nations was founded as a direct result of World War II.
The headquarters of the United Nations, located in New York City. The United Nations was founded as a direct result of World War II.

Image File history File linksMetadata United_Nations_HQ_-_New_York_City. ... Image File history File linksMetadata United_Nations_HQ_-_New_York_City. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

United Nations

Because the League of Nations had failed to actively prevent the war, in 1945 a new international alliance was considered and then created, the United Nations (UN). The UN also was responsible for the initial creation of the modern state of Israel in 1948, in part as a response to the Holocaust. The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


The UN operates within the parameters of the United Nations Charter, and the reason for the UN’s formation is outlined in the Preamble to the United Nations Charter. Unlike its predecessor, the United Nations has taken a more active role in the world, such as fighting diseases and providing humanitarian aid to nations in distress. The UN also served as the diplomatic front line during the Cold War. The biggest advantage the United Nations has over the League of Nations is the presence of world superpowers such as the United States and Russia, for the League had little actual international power because of the absence of these nations. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Preamble to the United Nations Charter is the opening of the United Nations Charter. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Cold War

The now-defunct Berlin Wall, a symbol of the Cold War.
The now-defunct Berlin Wall, a symbol of the Cold War.

The end of World War II is seen by many as marking the end of the United Kingdom's position as a global superpower and the catalyst for the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as the dominant powers in the world. Friction had been building up between the two before the end of the war, and with the collapse of Nazi Germany relations spiraled downward. Image File history File links A picture of the Berlin Wall http://www. ... Image File history File links A picture of the Berlin Wall http://www. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Superpower (disambiguation). ...


In the areas occupied by Western Allied troops, pre-war governments were re-established or new democratic governments were created; in the areas occupied by Soviet troops, including the territories of former Allies such as Poland, communist states were created. These became satellites of the Soviet Union. This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ...


Germany was partitioned into four zones of occupation, with the American, British and French zones grouped as West Germany and the Soviet zone as East Germany. Austria was once again separated from Germany and it, too, was divided into four zones of occupation, which eventually reunited and became the republic of Austria. Korea was divided in half along the 38th parallel. This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... The 38th parallel north is a line of latitude that cuts across Asia, the Mediterranean and the United States. ...


The partitions were initially informal, but as the relationship between the victors deteriorated, the military lines of demarcation became the de facto country boundaries. The Cold War had begun, and soon two blocs emerged: NATO and the Warsaw Pact. This article is about the military alliance. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


The partitioning of Europe and Germany and Berlin persisted until the crumbling of the Eastern Bloc in 1989/1990. The Berlin Wall fell on 9 November 1989. East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Technology

The massive research and development involved in the Manhattan Project in order to quickly achieve a working nuclear weapon design greatly impacted the scientific community, among other things creating a network of national laboratories in the United States. In addition, the pressing for numerous calculations for various things like codebreaking (Colossus) and ballistics tables kick-started the development of electronic computer technology. The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... A Colossus Mark II computer. ... This article is about the machine. ...


Social effects

One of the economic effects which affected almost all participants to a certain degree was the increased participation of women in the workforce (where they did take the place of many men during the war years), though this was somewhat reduced in the decades following the war, as changing societal mores forced many to return to home and family. Red Army atrocities refers to the systemic commission of crimes by Soviet military personnel in Eastern Europe in late 1944 and early 1945, particularly murder and rape. ... For children used as soldiers, see Military use of children. ... Rosie the Riveter: We Can Do It! - Many women first found economic strength in World War II-era manufacturing jobs. ...


According to historian Antony Beevor, amongst others, in his book Berlin - The Downfall 1945 the advancing Red Army had left a massive trail of raped women and girls of all ages behind them. More than 2,000,000 were victims of rape, often repeatedly. This continued for several years. As a result of this trauma East German women's attitude towards sex was affected for a long time, and it caused social problems between men and women. Russian authorities dispute the event.[7] Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... Red Army atrocities refers to the systemic commission of crimes by Soviet military personnel in Eastern Europe in late 1944 and early 1945, particularly murder and rape. ...


The German soldiers left many war children behind in nations such as France and Denmark, which were occupied for an extended period. After the war, the children and their mothers often suffered recriminations. The situation was worst in Norway, where the “Tyskerunger“ (German-kids) suffered, and still suffer, abuse.[8][9] For children used as soldiers, see Military use of children. ...


Military effects

World War II produced many technologies that would revolutionize warfare, such as the Messerschmitt Me 262.
World War II produced many technologies that would revolutionize warfare, such as the Messerschmitt Me 262.

In the military sphere, World War II marked the coming of age of airpower. Advanced aircraft and guided missiles (developed late in the war) made the battleship, once the queen of the world's oceans, and fixed fortifications such as coastal artillery obsolete. While the pendulum continues to swing in this never-ending competition, air powers are now a full partner in any military action. Download high resolution version (2160x1440, 489 KB)Messerschmidt Me 262, RAF Cosford, 2002, taken & submitted by Paul Maritz (paulmaz) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2160x1440, 489 KB)Messerschmidt Me 262, RAF Cosford, 2002, taken & submitted by Paul Maritz (paulmaz) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (German: Swallow) was the worlds first operational turbojet fighter aircraft. ... Military aircraft are airplanes used in warfare. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Missile. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... 19th century coastal artillery guns preserved in Suomenlinna fortress in Helsinki Coastal artillery is the branch of armed forces concerned with operating mobile anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications. ...


The war was the high-water mark for mass armies. While huge conscript armies were seen again (during the Korean War and in several African conflicts), after this victory the major powers relied upon small highly-trained and well-equipped militaries. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders...


Perhaps most important of all, World War II ushered in the nuclear era, with the dropping of the first atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...


Trials for war crimes

After the war, many high-ranking Germans were prosecuted for war crimes, as well as the mass murder of the Holocaust committed mainly on the area of General Government, in the Nuremberg trials. Similarly Japanese leaders were prosecuted in the Tokyo War Crime Trial. Although the deliberate targeting of civilians was already defined as a war crime and it had been used extensively by both sides, most notably in Poland, Britain, Germany and Japan, those responsible were never tried for it. In other countries, notably in Finland, the Allies demanded the political leadership to be prosecuted in "war-responsibility trials" In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The war-responsibility trials were a series of trials where anyone that had something to do with the continuation or starting of the war in Finland during the Continuation war were prosecuted and forced to resign. ...


Defeat of Japan

The defeat of Japan, and its occupation by Allied Forces, led to a westernization of Japan that was more far-reaching than might otherwise have occurred. Japan quickly modernized into a strong, western-style market and industrial economy, a boom that was to continue well into the 1990s. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In economics, the term boom and bust refers to the movement of an economy through economic cycles due to changes in aggregate demand. ...


See also

Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... Operation Black Tulip was a plan in 1945 by Dutch minister of Justice Kolfschoten to evict all Germans from the Netherlands. ... German Nazism and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities and peoples before, during and after World War II. While the attempt of Nazi Germany to exterminate several nations viewed as subhuman by Nazi ideology, was stopped by the Allies, Nazi aggression neverthless led to... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Japanese Post-War Economic Miracle is the name given to the historical phenomenon of Japans record period of economic growth following World War II, spurred both by US investment and Japanese government economic interventionism in particular through their Ministry of International Trade and Industry. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Norman M. Naimark The Russians in Germany pg. 206
  2. ^ Norman M. Naimark The Russians in Germany pg. 206
  3. ^ Frederick H. Gareau "Morgenthau's Plan for Industrial Disarmament in Germany" The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Jun., 1961), pp. 517-534
  4. ^ Ray Salvatore Jennings "The Road Ahead: Lessons in Nation Building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for Postwar Iraq May 2003, Peaceworks No. 49 pg.15
  5. ^ Ray Salvatore Jennings “The Road Ahead: Lessons in Nation Building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for Postwar Iraq May 2003, Peaceworks No. 49 pg.15
  6. ^ Pas de Pagaille! Time Magazine July 28, 1947.
  7. ^ www.buzzle.com/editorials/6-23-2002-20908.asp. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  8. ^ hnn.us/comments/7983.html. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  9. ^ news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/crossing_continents/1691452.stm. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.

(Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

•Glantz, David M and House, Jonathan. When Titans Clashed; How the Red Army Stopped Hitler. University Press of Kansas, 1995. ISBN 0-7006-0899-0

  • Norman M. Naimark The Russians in Germany; A History of the Soviet Zone of occupation, 1945-1949. Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-78406-5

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