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Encyclopedia > Edwin Hubble
Edwin Hubble

Born November 20, 1889(1889-11-20)
Marshfield, Missouri, USA
Died September 28, 1953
San Marino, California
Residence USA
Nationality American
Field Astronomy
Institutions University of Chicago
Mount Wilson Observatory
Alma mater University of Chicago
Oxford University
Known for Big Bang
Hubble's law
Redshift

Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer. He was born to an insurance executive in Marshfield, Missouri and moved to Wheaton, Illinois in 1898. In his younger days, he was noted more for his athletic prowess rather than his intellectual abilities, although he did earn good grades in every subject, except for spelling. He won seven first places[1] and a third place in a single high school track meet in 1906. That year he also set a state record for high jump in Illinois. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Marshfield is the name of several places. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... According to the Big Bang model, the universe developed from an extremely dense and hot state. ... Hubbles law is the statement in physical cosmology that the redshift in light coming from distant galaxies is proportional to their distance. ... Redshift of spectral lines in the optical spectrum of a supercluster of distant galaxies (right), as compared with that of the Sun (left). ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... Marshfield is a city located in Webster County, Missouri. ... Incorporated City in 1859. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Gold medal winner Ethel Catherwood of Canada scissors over the bar at the 1928 Summer Olympics. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ...


His studies at the University of Chicago concentrated on mathematics and astronomy[citation needed] which led to a BS degree in 1910. Hubble also became a member of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity and in 1948 was named Kappa Sigma "Man of the Year". He spent the next three years as one of Oxford's first Rhodes Scholars, where he originally studied jurisprudence, before switching his major to Spanish and receiving the MA degree, after which he returned to the United States. Some of his British mannerisms and dress stayed with him all his life, occasionally irritating his more American colleagues. The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... ΚΣ (Kappa Sigma) is an international fraternity with currently over 200 chapters and colonies in North America. ... Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker. ... Philosophers of law ask what is law? and what should it be? Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Returning to the United States he worked as a high school teacher and a basketball coach at New Albany High School in New Albany, Indiana (near Louisville), and practiced law in Kentucky. He served in World War I and quickly advanced to the rank of major. He returned to astronomy at the Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago, where he earned a PhD in 1917 with a dissertation entitled "Photographic Investigations of Faint Nebulae". This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by throwing a ball through a high hoop (the basket) under organized rules. ... Founded in 1853, New Albany High School is the oldest public high school in the state of Indiana. ... New Albany is a city in Floyd County, Indiana, situated along the Ohio River opposite Louisville, Ky. ... “Louisville” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... 1897 photo of the 102 cm (40 inch) refractor at the Yerkes Observatory. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


In 1919 Hubble was offered a staff position by George Ellery Hale, the founder and director of Carnegie Institution's Mount Wilson Observatory, near Pasadena, California, where he remained until his death. He also served in the US Army at the Aberdeen Proving Ground during World War II. For his work there he received the Legion of Merit. Shortly before his death, Palomar's 200-inch Hale Telescope was completed; Hubble was the first to use it. Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... George Ellery Hale, Sc. ... The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California. ... Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Aberdeen Proving Ground is a United States Army facility located at Aberdeen, Maryland (in Harford county). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ... The Hale Telescope is the largest telescope at the Palomar Observatory. ...


He died of a cerebral thrombosis on September 28, 1953, in San Marino, California. His wife, Grace, did not have a funeral for him and never revealed what was done with his body--it was apparently Hubble's wish to have no funeral service and be buried in an unmarked grave, or that he wanted to be cremated. As of now, the whereabouts of his remains are unknown. A thrombus or blood clot is the final product of blood coagulation, through the aggregation of platelets and the activation of the humoral coagulation system. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of San Marino in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country United States State California County Los Angeles Government  - Mayor Matthew Lin  - City Manager Matt Ballantyne  - City Clerk Carol Robb Area  - City 9. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ...

Contents

Discoveries

Galaxies exist beyond the Milky Way

Hubble's arrival at Mount Wilson in 1919 coincided roughly with the completion of the 100-inch Hooker Telescope, then the world's largest telescope. Using the Hooker Telescope Hubble identified Cepheid variables (a kind of star; see also standard candle) in several nearby "nebulae" (including the Andromeda Galaxy). His observations in 19231924 conclusively proved that these objects were much more distant than previously thought and hence galaxies themselves rather than constituents of the Milky Way. Announced on January 1, 1925, this discovery fundamentally changed mankind's view of the universe. Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California. ... A Cepheid variable is a member of a particular class of variable stars, notable for a fairly tight correlation between their period of variability and absolute stellar luminosity. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... A standard candle is an astronomical object that has a known luminosity. ... The Triangulum Emission Nebula NGC 604 lies in a spiral arm of Galaxy M33, 2. ... M31 in a small telescope The Andromeda Galaxy (IPA: , also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224; older texts often called it the Andromeda Nebula) is a spiral galaxy approximately 2. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Milky Way as seen from Death Valley The Milky Way is the galaxy where the Solar System (and Earth) is located. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hubble also devised a classification system for galaxies, grouping them according to their content, distance, shape, size and brightness. Astronomers classify galaxies based on their overall shape (elliptical, spiral or barred spiral) and further by the specific properties of the individual galaxy (for example degree of ellipse, number of spirals or definition of bar). ...


Redshift increases with distance

The 100 inch Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory that Hubble used to measure galaxy redshifts and a value for the rate of expansion of the universe.
The 100 inch Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory that Hubble used to measure galaxy redshifts and a value for the rate of expansion of the universe.

Hubble was generally incorrectly credited with discovering[2] the redshift of galaxies. These measurements and their significance were understood before 1918 by James Edward Keeler (Lick & Allegheny), Vesto Melvin Slipher (Lowell), and Professor William Wallace Campbell (Lick) at other observatories. Combining his own measurements of galaxy distances with Vesto Slipher's measurements of the redshifts associated with the galaxies, Hubble and Milton L. Humason discovered a rough proportionality of the objects' distances with their redshifts. Though there was considerable scatter (now known to be due to peculiar velocities), Hubble and Humason were able to plot a trend line from the 46 galaxies they studied and obtained a value for the Hubble-Humason constant of 500 km/s/Mpc, which is much higher than the currently accepted value due to errors in their distance calibrations.[3] In 1929 Hubble and Humason formulated the empirical Redshift Distance Law of galaxies, nowadays termed simply Hubble's law, which, if the redshift is interpreted as a measure of recession speed, is consistent with the solutions of Einstein’s equations of general relativity for a homogeneous, isotropic expanding space. Although concepts underlying an expanding universe were well understood earlier, this statement by Hubble and Humason led to wider scale acceptance for this view. The law states that the greater the distance between any two galaxies, the greater their relative speed of separation. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (554x904, 147 KB) The 100 inch (2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (554x904, 147 KB) The 100 inch (2. ... The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California. ... Redshift of spectral lines in the optical spectrum of a supercluster of distant galaxies (right), as compared with that of the Sun (left). ... Accelerating universe is a term for the idea that our universe is undergoing divergent rapid expansion. ... Redshift of spectral lines in the optical spectrum of a supercluster of distant galaxies (right), as compared with that of the Sun (left). ... James Edward Keeler (September 10, 1857 – August 12, 1900) was an American astronomer. ... Vesto Melvin Slipher (November 11, 1875 – November 8, 1969) was an American astronomer. ... William Wallace Campbell (April 11, 1862 – June 14, 1938) was an American astronomer. ... Vesto Melvin Slipher (November 11, 1875 – November 8, 1969) was an American astronomer. ... Milton Lasell Humason (August 19, 1891 – June 18, 1972) was as American astronomer. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hubbles law is the statement in physical cosmology that the redshift in light coming from distant galaxies is proportional to their distance. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... The Einstein field equations (EFE) or Einsteins equations are a set of ten equations in Einsteins theory of general relativity in which the fundamental force of gravitation is described as a curved spacetime caused by matter and energy. ... The Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric describes a homogeneous, isotropic expanding/contracting universe. ... Accelerating universe is a term for the idea that our universe is undergoing divergent rapid expansion. ...


This discovery was the first observational support for the Big Bang theory which had been proposed by Alexander Friedmann in 1922. The observed velocities of distant galaxies, taken together with the cosmological principle appeared to show that the Universe was expanding in a manner consistent with the Friedmann-Lemaître model of general relativity. In 1931 Hubble wrote a letter to the Dutch cosmologist Willem De Sitter expressing his opinion on the theoretical interpretation of the redshift-distance relation[4]: According to the Big Bang model, the universe developed from an extremely dense and hot state. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman (June 16, 1888 – September 16, Russian cosmologist and mathematician. ... The Cosmological Principle is a principle invoked in cosmology that severely restricts the large variety of possible cosmological theories: On large scales, the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic. ... The Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric describes a homogeneous, isotropic expanding/contracting universe. ... An illustration of a rotating black hole at the center of a galaxy General relativity (GR) (aka general theory of relativity (GTR)) is the geometrical theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915/16. ... Willem de Sitter (May 6, 1872 – November 20, 1934) was a mathematician, physicist and astronomer. ...

"... we use the term 'apparent velocities' in order to emphasize the empirical feature of the correlation. The interpretation, we feel, should be left to you and the very few others who are competent to discuss the matter with authority."

Today, the 'apparent velocities' in question are considered to be artifacts of a coordinate transformation that occurs in an expanding space. Light traveling through stretching space will experience a Hubble-type redshift, a mechanism different from the Doppler effect. See Cartesian coordinate system or Coordinates (elementary mathematics) for a more elementary introduction to this topic. ... The metric expansion of space is a key part of sciences current understanding of the universe, whereby space itself is described by a metric which changes over time. ... A source of waves moving to the left. ...


In the 1930s Hubble was involved in determining the distribution of galaxies and spatial curvature. These data seemed to indicate that the universe was flat and homogeneous, but there was a deviation from flatness at large redshifts. According to Allan Sandage, The shape of the Universe is an informal name for a subject of investigation within physical cosmology. ... Euclid Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Greek mathematician [[Euclid]] of Alexandria. ... Allan Rex Sandage (Born June 18, 1926) is an American astronomer. ...

"Hubble believed that his count data gave a more reasonable result concerning spatial curvature if the redshift correction was made assuming no recession. To the very end of his writings he maintained this position, favouring (or at the very least keeping open) the model where no true expansion exists, and therefore that the redshift "represents a hitherto unrecognized principle of nature."[5]

There were methodological problems with Hubble's survey technique that showed a deviation from flatness at large redshifts. In particular the technique did not account for changes in luminosity of galaxies due to galaxy evolution. In astrophysics, the questions of galaxy formation and evolution are: How, from a homogeneous universe, did we obtain the very heterogeneous one we live in? How did galaxies form? How do galaxies change over time? A spectacular head-on collision between two galaxies is seen in this NASA Hubble Space...


Earlier, in 1917, Albert Einstein had found that his newly developed theory of general relativity indicated that the universe must be either expanding or contracting. Unable to believe what his own equations were telling him, Einstein introduced a cosmological constant (a "fudge factor") to the equations to avoid this "problem". When Einstein heard of Hubble's discovery, he said that changing his equations was "the biggest blunder of [his] life".[6] 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... In physical cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) was proposed by Albert Einstein as a modification of his original theory of general relativity to achieve a stationary universe. ...


Other discoveries

Hubble discovered the asteroid 1373 Cincinnati on August 30, 1935. He also wrote The Observational Approach to Cosmology and The Realm of the Nebulae around this time. 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... 1373 Cincinnati is a Main belt asteroid. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


Nobel Prize

Hubble spent much of the later part of his career attempting to have astronomy considered an area of physics, instead of being its own science. He did this largely so that astronomers - including himself - could be recognized by the Nobel Prize Committee for their valuable contributions to astrophysics. This campaign was unsuccessful for a long time. The Nobel Prize Committee eventually decided that astronomical work would be eligible for the physics prize. Unfortunately for Hubble, this occurred in 1953 some months after his death. The Nobel Prize is never awarded posthumously. The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awarded for Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, and Physiology or Medicine. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Honors

Awards

Named after him The Catherine Wolfe Bruce gold medal is awarded every year by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific for outstanding lifetime contributions to astronomy. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Gold Medal awarded to Asaph Hall The Gold Medal is the highest award of the Royal Astronomical Society. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... French Military Medal The Médaille militaire (Military Medal) is a decoration of the French Republic which was first instituted in 1852. ... Ballistics (gr. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... 2069 Hubble is a dark-colored main belt asteroid. ... Hubble is a lunar crater that lies very near the east-northeastern limb of the Moon. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ...

Notes

  1. ^ For the record, these were discus, hammer throw, pole vault, standing and running high jump, shot put, mile-relay. The third-placing was for broad jump.[citation needed]
  2. ^ This had actually been observed by Vesto Slipher in the 1910s, but the world was largely unaware. Ref: Slipher (1917): Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., 56, 403.
  3. ^ Distance determination in astronomy continues to be an active area of research, see the article on cosmic distance ladder for more details.
  4. ^ http://www.astronomycafe.net/anthol/expan.html
  5. ^ http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/diamond_jubilee/1996/sandage_hubble.html
  6. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wnet/hawking/strange/html/strange_cosmo.html

Vesto Melvin Slipher (November 11, 1875 – November 8, 1969) was an American astronomer. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

References

See also

This article is about a celestial body. ... Astronomers classify galaxies based on their overall shape (elliptical, spiral or barred spiral) and further by the specific properties of the individual galaxy (for example degree of ellipse, number of spirals or definition of bar). ... Gérard Henri de Vaucouleurs (April 25, 1918–October 7, 1995) was a French-American astronomer. ... Spiral nebula is an old term for a spiral galaxy. ... William Wilson Morgan (January 3, 1906 – June 21, 1994) was an American astronomer. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... According to the Big Bang model, the universe developed from an extremely dense and hot state. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... An illustration of a rotating black hole at the center of a galaxy General relativity (GR) (aka general theory of relativity (GTR)) is the geometrical theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915/16. ... Hubbles law is the statement in physical cosmology that the redshift in light coming from distant galaxies is proportional to their distance. ... Hubbles law is the statement in astronomy that the redshift in light coming from distant galaxies is proportional to their distance. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Location of San Marino in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country United States State California County Los Angeles Government  - Mayor Matthew Lin  - City Manager Matt Ballantyne  - City Clerk Carol Robb Area  - City 9. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Persondata
NAME Hubble, Edwin Powell
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American astronomer
DATE OF BIRTH November 20, 1889(1889-11-20)
PLACE OF BIRTH Marshfield, Missouri
DATE OF DEATH September 28, 1953
PLACE OF DEATH San Marino, California

  Results from FactBites:
 
Edwin Hubble - MSN Encarta (1592 words)
Edwin Hubble (1889–1953), American astronomer, who made important contributions to the study of galaxies, the expansion of the universe, and the size of the universe.
Hubble was the first to discover that fuzzy patches of light in the sky called spiral nebula were actually galaxies like Earth’s galaxy, the Milky Way.
In 1929 Hubble compared the distances of the galaxies to the speed at which they were moving away from Earth, and he found a direct and very consistent correlation: The farther a galaxy was from Earth, the faster it was receding.
Edwin Hubble (249 words)
Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 - September 28, 1953) was a noted American astronomer who was able to show that the universe is expanding.
Hubble was born on in Marshfield, Missouri and his studies at the University of Chicago concentrated on mathematics and astronomy which led to a B.S. degree in 1910.
Hubble's observations in 1923-1924 with the Hooker Telescope established beyond doubt that the fuzzy "nebulae" seen earlier with less powerful telescopes were not part of our galaxy, as had been thought, but were galaxies themselves, outside the Milky Way.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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