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Encyclopedia > Edwardian period

The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It succeeded the Victorian period and is sometimes extended to include the period up to the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, the start of World War I in 1914, or even the end of the war in 1918. Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, June 20, 1837) gave her name to the historic era. ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Perhaps because of the King's fondness for travel, the period was marked by an enthusiasm for the art and fashions of continental Europe.

Contents

Class and society

Socially, the Edwardian era was a period during which the British class system was very rigid, although paradoxically, changes in social thought, particularly the rising interest in socialism, attention to the plight of the poor and the status of women, expressed in, for example, the issue of women's suffrage, together with increased economic opportunities as a result of rapid industrialization, created an environment in which there could be more social mobility and people would become more liberal. This change was to be hastened in the aftermath of the first World War. Social class describes the relationships between people in hierarchical societies or cultures. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ...


The upper classes embraced leisure sports, which led to rapid developments in fashion, as more mobile and flexible clothing styles were needed. The corset was modified, and later its everyday wearing was gradually abandoned. Upper class refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool. ... For other uses, see Fashion (disambiguation). ... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... A luxury hourglass corset from 1878. ...


The lower classes, as with earlier periods, were segregated from the aristocratic and mercantile "society".


The Arts

The Edwardian Period was also known as the Belle Époque - meaning beautiful era. Despite its short preeminence, the period is characterized by its own unique architectural style, fashion, and way of life. Art Nouveau, in particular, held a particularly strong influence. In the United States, the Edwardian Period was followed by the Arts and Crafts Period in design and art which ran concurrently in the UK. The Belle Époque (French for Beautiful Era) was a period in European history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until World War I. Occurring during the time of the French Third Republic and the German Empire, the Belle Époque was considered a golden age as peace prevailed... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ...


Theatre

The theatre during the Edwardian Period is marked by the rise of the New Drama, or plays by George Bernard Shaw, Harley Granville Barker, and Continental imports by Henrik Ibsen and Gerhardt Hauptmann; the decline of the actor/manager system as headed by Sir Henry Irving, Sir George Alexander, and Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, which ended effectively with the start of World War I; and the continued popularity of music hall performance. George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was an Irish dramatist, literary critic, and socialist. ... Harley Granville-Barker (November 25, 1877 – August 31, 1946) was a British actor, director, producer, critic and playwright. ... Ibsen redirects here. ... Gerhart Hauptmann. ... Henry Irving, as Hamlet, in a 1893 illustration from The Idler magazine John Henry Brodribb Irving (February 6, 1838–October 13, 1905), better known as Sir Henry Irving, was one of the most famous stage actors of all time. ... Sir George Alexander (June 19, 1858 - March 15, 1918), born George Alexander Gibb Samson, was an English actor and theatre manager. ... Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree (December 17, 1853 - July 2, 1917) was an English actor-manager. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ...


Literature

In fiction, some of the best-known names are H.G. Wells, John Galsworthy, Arnold Bennett, Joseph Conrad, E.M. Forster and P.G. Wodehouse. Apart from these famous writers, this was a period when an enormous number of novels and short stories were being published and consumed, and a significant distinction between highbrow literature and popular fiction was emerging. Among the most famous works of literary criticism was A.C. Bradley's Shakespearean Tragedy (1904). Another notable author was J.B. Priestley, who used to write plays, novels and other great pieces of work. H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... John Galsworthy OM (14 August 1867 – 31 January 1933) was an English novelist and playwright. ... Arnold Bennett, British novelist Enoch Arnold Bennett (May 27, 1867-March 27, 1931) was a British novelist. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Teodor Józef Konrad Nałęcz-Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born novelist who spent most of his adult life in Britain. ... Edward Morgan Forster (January 1, 1879 - June 7, 1970) was an English novelist. ... Called English literatures performing flea, P. G. Wodehouse, pictured in 1904, became famous for his complex plots, ingenious wordplay, and prolific output. ... Highbrow is a colloquial synonym for intellectual. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Genre fiction is a term for writings by multiple authors that are very similar in theme and style, especially where these similarities are deliberately pursued by the authors. ... Andrew Cecil Bradley (1851 - 1935) was an English literary scholar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... John Boynton Priestley (September 13, 1894, Bradford, England - August 14, 1984, Stratford-upon-Avon) was a British writer and broadcaster. ...


A series of significant events

1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871–January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867–May 30, 1912), were two Americans generally credited with building the worlds first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and heavier-than-air human flight on December 17, 1903. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IV Olympiad, were held in 1908 in London, England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Louis Blériot Louis Blériot (July 1, 1872 – August 2, 1936) was a French inventor and engineer, who performed the first flight over a large body of water in a heavier-than-air craft. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... RMS Olympic was the first of her class of ocean liners built for the White Star Line, which also included the ill-fated liners Titanic and Britannic. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A poster attacking the Liberals governments role in the Cat and Mouse Act. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... // Zeppelins German zeppelins bombed towns on the East Coast in January 1915. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders, Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 182,000 251,309 The Battle of... The Blue Riband is an award held by the ship with the record for a transatlantic crossing. ... RMS Lusitania was a British luxury ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Line Shipping Company and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ...

See also

Preceded by
Victorian Period
Edwardian Period
19011910
Succeeded by
Golden Twenties

Fashionable Londoners in front of Harrods, 1909. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, June 20, 1837) gave her name to the historic era. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... It is a term, mostly used in Europe, to describe the 1920s, in which most of the continent had an economic boom following the First World War and the severe economic downturns that took place between 1919-1923. ...

References


 
 

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