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Encyclopedia > Edward the Confessor
Saint Edward II, the Confessor
King of England
Image:EdtheCon.jpg
Reign June 8, 1042 (not crowned till 3 April 1043) – 4/5 January 1066
Born c. 1004
Islip, Oxfordshire, England
Died January 5, 1066
Buried Westminster Abbey, Westminster, England
Predecessor Harthacanute
Successor Harold Godwinson
Consort Edith of Wessex
Father Ethelred the Unready
Mother Emma of Normandy
Sainthood
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Communion
Canonized 1161
Major shrine Westminster Abbey
Commemorated 13 October
Patronage kings, difficult marriages, separated spouses, the British Royal Family
Saints Portal

St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. 10045 January 1066), son of Ethelred the Unready, was the penultimate Anglo-Saxon King of England and the last of the House of Wessex, ruling from 1042 until his death.[1] His reign marked the continuing disintegration of royal power in England and the aggrandisement of the great territorial earls, and it foreshadowed the country's later connection with Normandy, whose duke William I was to supplant Edward's successors Harold Godwinson and Edgar Ætheling as England's ruler. Edward the Confessor with Norman advisors. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Edward the Confessor crowned King of England at Winchester Cathedral. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Events December: End of the Samanid dynasty in Bokhara. ... Islip is a village in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... Harold II of England (Harold Godwinson; c. ... Edith of Wessex, (c. ... Ethelred II (c. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Icon of St. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Events December: End of the Samanid dynasty in Bokhara. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Ethelred II (c. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The House of Wessex refers to the family that ruled a kingdom in southwest England known as Wessex. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... William I of England (c. ... Harold II of England (Harold Godwinson; c. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ...


He succeeded his half-brother Harthacanute, who had successfully regained the throne of England after being dispossessed by his half-brother, Harold Harefoot. Edward and his brother Alfred the Aetheling, both sons of Emma of Normandy by Ethelred the Unready, had previously failed to depose Harold in 1036. When Edward died in 1066 he had no son to take over the throne so there was a problem as three people claimed the throne of England. Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... Ethelred II (c. ...


Edward was canonised in 1161 and is considered a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, which regards Edward the Confessor as the patron saint of kings, difficult marriages, and separated spouses. From the reign of Henry II of England to 1348 he was considered the patron saint of England, and he has remained the patron saint of the Royal Family. In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ...

Contents

Early years

Edward was born c. 1003, allegedly in Islip, Oxfordshire. His palace was in Brill, Buckinghamshire. In 1013, he and his brother Alfred were taken to Normandy by their mother Emma of Normandy, sister of Normandy's Duke Richard II, to escape the Danish invasion of England. Edward developed an intense personal piety in his quarter-century of Norman exile, during his most formative years, while England formed part of a great Danish empire. His familiarity with Normandy and its leaders would also influence his later rule. Islip is a village in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. ... For other uses of the word Brill see Brill (disambiguation) Brill is a village in Buckinghamshire, England, close to the border with Oxfordshire. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... Known as Richard The Good, (French, Le Bon). He was the son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and the Duchess Gunnor. ...


After an abortive attempt with Alfred in 1036 to displace Harold Harefoot from the throne, Edward returned to Normandy. Alfred, however, was captured and killed by Godwin, Earl of Wessex. This murder of his brother is thought to be the source of much of his later hatred for the Earl and played a major part in the reason for his banishment in autumn 1051; Edward said that the only way in which Godwin could be forgiven was if he brought back the murdered Alfred, an impossible task [citation needed]. Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ...


The Anglo-Saxon lay and ecclesiastical nobility invited Edward back to England in 1041; this time he became part of the household of his half-brother Harthacanute (son of Emma and Canute), and according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was sworn in as king alongside him. Following Harthacanute's death on 8 June 1042, Edward ascended the throne. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle indicates the popularity he enjoyed at his accession — "before Harthacanute was buried, all the people chose Edward as king in London". Edward was crowned at the cathedral of Winchester, the royal seat of the West Saxons on 3 April 1043. Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... Canute (or Cnut) I, or Canute the Great (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Danish: Knud den Store, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store) (ca. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with... This article concerns the English kingdom, not the Westland Wessex helicopter Wessex was one of the seven major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (the Heptarchy) that preceded the kingdom of England. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Edward the Confessor crowned King of England at Winchester Cathedral. ...


Edward's Reign

A sealed writ of Edward the Confessor.
A sealed writ of Edward the Confessor.

Edward's reign was marked by peace and prosperity, but effective rule in England required coming to terms with three powerful earls: Godwin, Earl of Wessex, who was firmly in control of the noses of Wessex, which had formerly been the heart of the Anglo-Saxon monarchy; Leofric, Earl of Mercia, whose legitimacy was strengthened by his marriage to Lady Godiva, and in the north, Siward, Earl of Northumbria. Edward's sympathies for Norman favourites frustrated Saxon and Danish nobles alike, fuelling the growth of anti-Norman opinion led by Godwin, who had become the king's father-in-law in 1045. The breaking point came over the appointment of an archbishop of Canterbury: Edward rejected Godwin's man and appointed the bishop of London, Robert of Jumièges, a trusted Norman. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 770 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1720 × 1340 pixel, file size: 274 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A sealed writ of Edward the Confessor, issued in favour of Westminster Abbey. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 770 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1720 × 1340 pixel, file size: 274 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A sealed writ of Edward the Confessor, issued in favour of Westminster Abbey. ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... Leofric (born 968, died 31 August or 30 September 1057) was the Earl of Mercia and founded monasteries at Coventry and Much Wenlock. ... For other uses of Godiva, see Godiva (disambiguation). ... Sigurd the Dane, also known as Siward, was an English nobleman in the Eleventh Century, and the Earl of Northumbria. ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... Events Emperor Go-Reizei ascends the throne of Japan. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Robert of Jumièges (d. ...


Matters came to a head over a bloody riot at Dover between the townsfolk and Edward's kinsman Eustace, count of Boulogne. Godwin refused to punish them, Leofric and Siward backed the King, and Godwin and his family were all exiled in September 1051. Queen Edith was sent to a nunnery at Wherwell. Earl Godwin returned with an army following a year later, however, forcing the king to restore his title and send away his Norman advisors. Godwin died in 1053 and the Norman Ralph the Timid received Herefordshire, but his son Harold accumulated even greater territories for the Godwins, who held all the earldoms save Mercia after 1057. Harold led successful raiding parties into Wales in 1063 and negotiated with his inherited rivals in Northumbria in 1065, and in January 1066, upon Edward's death, he was proclaimed king. Eustace II, (d. ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... Leofric (born 968, died 31 August or 30 September 1057) was the Earl of Mercia and founded monasteries at Coventry and Much Wenlock. ... Sigurd the Dane, also known as Siward, was an English nobleman in the Eleventh Century, and the Earl of Northumbria. ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... Edith of Wessex, (c. ... Wherwell is a village in Hampshire, England. ... Ralph the Timid was the earl of Hereford from before 1050 until his death in 1057. ... Herefordshire is a historic and ceremonial county and unitary district (known as County of Herefordshire) in the West Midlands region of England. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... Harold II of England (Harold Godwinson; c. ... This article is about the country. ...


Aftermath

The details of the succession have been widely debated: the Norman position was that William had been designated the heir, and that Harold had been publicly sent to him as emissary from Edward, to apprise him of Edward's decision. Harold's party asserted that the old king had made a deathbed bestowal of the crown on Harold. However, Harold was approved by the Witenagemot who, under Anglo-Saxon law, held the ultimate authority to convey kingship. William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... Biblical pharaoh depicted as an Anglo-Saxon king with his witan (11th century) The Witenagemot (also called the Witan, more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ...


Edward had married Godwin's daughter Edith on 23 January 1045, but the union was childless. The reason for this is the subject of much speculation. Possible explanations include Edward, having taken vow of chastity, considering the union a spiritual marriage, the age difference between Edward and Edith engendering a filial rather than spousal relationship, Edward's antipathy toward Edith's father (Barlow 1997), or infertility. Edith of Wessex, (c. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Emperor Go-Reizei ascends the throne of Japan. ... Spiritual marriage comes from the idea of love without sex. ...


Edward's nearest heir would have been his nephew Edward the Exile, who was born in England, but spent most of his life in Hungary. He had returned from exile in 1056 and died not long after, in February the following year. So Edward made his great nephew Edgar Atheling his heir. But Edgar had no secure following among the earls: the resultant succession crisis on Edward's death without a direct "throneworthy" heir — the "foreign" Edgar was a stripling of fourteen — opened the way for Harold's coronation and the invasions of two effective claimants to the throne, the unsuccessful invasion of Harald Hardrada in the north and the successful one of William of Normandy. Edward the Exile (1016 – February 1057), son of King Edmund Ironside and of Ealdgyth, gained the name of Exile from his life spent mostly far from the England of his forefathers. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Harald III (1015–September 25, 1066) was the king of Norway from 1046 together with the son of Olaf Haraldsson (St. ...


William of Normandy, who had visited England during Godwin's exile, claimed that the childless Edward had promised him the succession to the throne, and his successful bid for the English crown put an end to Harold's nine-month kingship following a 7,000-strong Norman invasion. Edgar Ætheling was elected king by the Witan after Harold's death but was brushed aside by William. Edward, or more especially the mediæval cult which would later grow up around him under the later Plantagenet kings, had a lasting impact on English history. Westminster Abbey was founded by Edward between 1045 and 1050 on land upstream from the City of London, and was consecrated on 28 December 1065. Centuries later, Westminster was deemed symbolic enough to become the permanent seat of English government under Henry III. The Abbey contains a shrine to Edward which was the centrepiece to the Abbey's redesign during the mid-thirteenth century. In 2005, Edward's remains were found beneath the pavement in front of the high altar. His remains had been moved twice in the 12th and 13th centuries, and the original tomb has since been found on the central axis of the Abbey in front of the original high altar. William I of England (c. ... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... The Witenagemot (or Witan) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 28 - Westminster Abbey is consecrated. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ...


Historically, Edward's reign marked a transition between the 10th century West Saxon kingship of England and the Norman monarchy which followed Harold's death. Edward's allegiances were split between England and his mother's Norman ties. The great earldoms established under Canute grew in power, while Norman influence became a powerful factor in government and in the leadership of the Church. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Headline text Canute (anglicized form of Knut, from Old Norse knútr meaning knot, sometimes Cnut; Danish Knud) is the name of several kings of medieval Denmark, two of whom reigned also over England during the first half of the 11th century. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ...


It was during the reign of Edward that some features of the English monarchy familiar today were introduced. Edward is regarded as responsible for introducing the royal seal and coronation regalia. Also under Edward, a marked change occurred in Anglo-Saxon art, with continental influences becoming more prominent (including the "Winchester Style" which had become known in the 10th century but prominent in the 11th), supplanting Celtic influences prominent in preceding painting, sculpture, calligraphy and jewellery (see Benedictional of St. Æthelwold for an example of the Winchester Style). His crown is believed to have survived until the English Civil War when Oliver Cromwell allegedly ordered it to be destroyed. Gold from it is understood to have been integrated into the St. Edward's Crown, which has been used in coronations since Charles II of England in 1661. Folio 25r from the Benedictional of St. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England, Scotland and Ireland into a republican Commonwealth and for the brutal war exercised in his conquest of Ireland. ... St. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


Canonization

When Henry II came to the throne in 1154, he united in his person at last the English and Norman royal lines. To reinforce this new warrant of authenticity, the cult of King Edward the Confessor was promoted. Osbert de Clare was a monk of Westminster, elected Prior in 1136, and remembered for his lives of saints Edmund, Ethelbert and Edburga, in addition to one of Edward, in which the king was represented as a holy man, reported to have performed several miracles and to have healed people by his touch. Osbert was, as his surviving letters demonstrate, an active ecclesiastical politician, and went to Rome to advocate the cause for Edward to be declared a saint, successfully securing his canonisation by Pope Alexander III in 1161. Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... In traditional usage, the cult of a religion, quite apart from its sacred writings (scriptures), its theology or myths, or the personal faith of its believers, is the totality of external religious practice and observance, the neglect of which is the definition of impiety. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... Edmund the Martyr (circa 840 - November 20, 870) was a King of East Anglia. ... Ethelbert (or Æthelbert, or Aethelberht) (c. ... Saint Eadburh or Edburga (died June 15, 960) was the daughter of King Edward the Elder by his third marriage. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ... Alexander III, né Orlando Bandinelli (c. ...

Image of Edward the Confessor
Image of Edward the Confessor

In 1163, the newly sainted king's remains were enshrined in Westminster Abbey with solemnities presided over by Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. On this occasion the honour of preparing a sermon was given to Aelred, the revered Abbot of Rievaulx, to whom is generally attributed the vita in Latin, a hagiography partly based on materials in an earlier vita by Osbert de Clare and which in its turn provided the material for a rhymed version in octasyllabic Anglo-Norman, possibly written by the chronicler Matthew Paris. At the time of Edward's canonisation, saints were broadly categorised as either martyrs or confessors: martyrs were people who had been killed for their faith, while confessors were saints who had died natural deaths. Edward was accordingly styled Edward the Confessor, partly to distinguish him from his canonised predecessor Edward the Martyr. Image File history File links St_Edward_the_Confessor. ... Image File history File links St_Edward_the_Confessor. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... St Thomas Becket, St Thomas of Canterbury (c. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Aelred of Hexham, Abbot of Rievaulx, is a Christian saint of noble descent who was born in Hexham, England, in 1110. ... Rievaulx is a small village near Helmsley in North Yorkshire and is located in what was the inner court of Rievaulx Abbey, close to the River Rye. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Self portrait of Matthew Paris from the original manuscript of his Historia Anglorum (London, British Library, MS Royal 14. ... Look up Martyr in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The title confessor is used in the Christian Church in two separate ways. ... King Edward the Martyr or Eadweard II (c. ...


The Roman Catholic Church regards Edward the Confessor as the patron saint of kings, difficult marriages, and separated spouses. After the reign of Henry II, Edward was considered the patron saint of England until 1348 when he was replaced in this role by St. George. He remained the patron saint of the Royal Family. “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ...


Edward's reign is memorialized in an eight panel stained glass window within St Laurence Church, Ludlow, England. Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... St Laurence Church: One of the large stained glass windows St Laurence Church, Ludlow was established as a Norman place of worship in association with the founding of Ludlow in the 11th century AD. This parish church in Shropshire, England contains an extensive set of misericords in the choir stalls...


In the Arts

Referenced by characters in Shakespeare's play, The Tragedy of Macbeth, as the saintly king of San Mateo. Macbeth is also a Scottish clan. ...


Ancestors

Edward's ancestors in three generations
Edward the Confessor Father:
Ethelred the Unready
Paternal Grandfather:
Edgar of England
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Edmund I of England
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Elgiva
Paternal Grandmother:
Elfrida
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Earl Ordgar, Alderman of Devon
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Wulfrith Redburch
Mother:
Emma of Normandy
Maternal Grandfather:
Richard I of Normandy
Maternal Great-grandfather:
William I of Normandy
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Sprota
Maternal Grandmother:
Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Maternal Great-grandmother:

For a more complete ancestry that can be traced back to Cerdic, see House of Wessex family tree. Ethelred II (c. ... King Edgar or Eadgar I ( 942 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of King Edmund I of England. ... Edmund I (or Eadmund, 921 – May 26, 946), called the Elder, the Deed-Doer, or the Just, was King of England from 939 until his death. ... Elfrida (c. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... Richard the Fearless as part of the Six Dukes of Normandy statue in the town square of Falaise. ... This article is about the ruler of Normandy. ... Gunnora or Gunnor (c. ... Cerdic was the name of more than one King in English history: Cerdic of Elmet Cerdic of Wessex This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The numbering of English monarchs starts anew after the Norman conquest, which explains why the regnal numbers assigned to English kings named Edward begin with the later Edward I (ruled 1272–1307) and do not include Edward the Confessor (who was the third King Edward).

Ordinal numbers or regnal numbers are used to distinguish between persons with the same name who held the same office. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ...

References

  • Barlow, Frank (1997). Edward the Confessor. 

External links

Further reading

  • Aelred of Rievaulx, Life of St. Edward the Confessor, translated Fr. Jerome Bertram (first English translation) St. Austin Press ISBN 1-901157-75-X
Preceded by
Harthacanute
King of England
10421066
Succeeded by
Harold II

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