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Encyclopedia > Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax
Cover of Time Magazine April 12, 1926

Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, known as Lord Irwin from 1926 until 1934, (1881-1959) was a British Conservative politician. He is often regarded as one of the architects of appeasement prior to World War II. During the period he held several ministerial posts in the cabinet. He succeeded Lord Reading as Governor General and Viceroy of India in April 1926, a post he held until 1931. This image is a TIME magazine cover. ... This image is a TIME magazine cover. ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the centre-right in the United Kingdom. ... Appeasement is a strategic maneuver, based on either pragmatism, fear of war, or moral conviction, that leads to acceptance of imposed conditions in lieu of armed resistance. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading (10 October 1860 - 30 December 1935) was a British politician and jurist. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ...

Contents

Early Career

He was born into a rather sickly west country family: Halifax's three older brothers all died in infancy leaving him the heir to his father's viscountcy. Halifax himself was born with a withered left arm with no hand, a disability that in no way affected his riding, hunting or shooting. He was nicknamed the "Holy Fox" by Winston Churchill in reference to these pursuits, his title and also his religiosity. The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS MP (November 30, 1874 – January 24, 1965) was a British statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. At various times an author, soldier, journalist, and politician, Churchill is generally regarded... Religion, sometimes used interchangeably with faith, is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the practices and institutions associated with such belief. ...


He was son of the second Viscount Halifax. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford and served as a Member of Parliament from 1910 to 1925 when he was elevated to the peerage. As a young officer in the Yorkshire Dragoons he saw some active service in World War I but remained mostly behind the lines, being moved to a desk job in 1917. Charles Lindley Wood, 2nd Viscount Halifax (7 January 1839 - 19 January 1934). ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (that is, an independent, fee-charging secondary school) for boys located in Eton, Berkshire near Windsor in England, located about a mile north of Windsor Castle. ... Christ Church, Oxford - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Turned down by South Africa for the post of governor general (the country was holding out for a cabinet minister or member of the royal family) and snubbed by Winston Churchill on his assumption of the post of Under-secretary for the Colonies, a balked Wood voted for the downfall of David Lloyd George's government and became President of the Board of Education under Andrew Bonar Law in 1922. He held this position (in which he was neither interested nor particularly effective) until 1924 when he was apparently equally undistinguished as Minister for Agriculture under Stanley Baldwin. His career had seemingly become bogged down. Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (January 17, 1863 – March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Secretary of State for Education and Skills is the chief minister of the Department for Education and Skills in the United Kingdom government. ... Andrew Bonar Law (September 16, 1858 - October 30, 1923) was a Conservative British statesman and Prime Minister. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food was a UK cabinet position, responsible for the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley (August 3, 1867 - December 14, 1947) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on three separate occasions. ...


Viceroy of India

He was Viceroy of India from 1926 to 1931. In 1925 he had been proposed at the suggestion of George V, no doubt mindful of his immediate family background (his grandfather had been Secretary of State for India) and immaculate pedigree. Created Baron Irwin, he arrived in Bombay 1 April 1926 hoping to improve Anglo-Indian relations and calm interfaith tensions in the country. A deeply religious man, he was considered the right choice to deal with Mahatma Gandhi. After he was appointed he ignored Gandhi for nineteen months. The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... His Majesty King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the House of Windsor in 1917. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... The title of Earl of Halifax has been created several times in British history. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ...


Irwin's rule was marked by a period of great political turmoil. The exclusion of Indians from the Simon Commission examining the country's readiness for self-government provoked serious violence and Irwin was forced into concessions which were poorly received in London as excessive and in India as half-hearted. Incidents included: the protests against the Simon Commission report; the Nehru report; the all-parties conference; the Muslim League leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah's 14 points; the Civil Disobedience Movement launched by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi; and the Round Table Conferences. In 1927 considered future Indian colonial govermanet responses to nationalist demands; served to unify nationalist politicians on bth right and left of independence movement and also to heal rift between Muslims and Hindus ... Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India and was the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... The Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) is the largest subscription-based organisation in the world. ... First Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 was attended by eighty-nine delegates from different religious, political groups and princely states. ...


As a strategy Irwin had put all the Congress leaders behind the bars; and then had opened negotiations with Gandhi. Criticism of Irwin was largely unfair, but he had made an error and the consequences were serious and unrest grew. Irwin's attempts to mediate with Indian leaders were stymied by London's refusal to make concessions, or clarify the position on dominion status. This is a page about Dominions of the British Empire/Commonwealth. ...


With little room for manoeuvre Irwin resorted to repression using his emergency powers to arrest Gandhi, ban public gatherings and crush rebellious opposition. Gandhi's detention, however, only made matters worse. Irwin ultimately opted to negotiate signing the Delhi Pact in January 1931 which ended civil disobedience and the boycott of British goods in exchange for a Round Table Conference which represented all interests. The fortnight-long discussions resulted in a pact called the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, after which the Civil Disobedience Movement was suspended. 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... First Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 was attended by eighty-nine delegates from different religious, political groups and princely states. ...


The agreement between Gandhi and Irwin was signed on March 5, 1931. The salient points were:

  • The Congress would discontinue the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • The Congress would participate in the Round Table Conference.
  • The Government would withdraw all ordinances issued to curb the Congress.
  • The Government would withdraw all prosecutions relating to offenses not involving violence.
  • The Government would release all persons serving sentences of imprisonment for their activities in the civil disobedience movement.

It was also agreed that Gandhi would join the Second Round Table Conference as the sole representative of the Congress. First Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 was attended by eighty-nine delegates from different religious, political groups and princely states. ...


On March 20, 1931, Lord Irwin paid tributes to Gandhi's honesty, sincerity and patriotism at a dinner given by ruling Princes. A month following the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Lord Irwin retired and left India to join his new post as British ambassador to the USA. On Irwin's return to England in April 1931 the situation was calm, but within a year the conference collapsed and Gandhi was again arrested.


Halifax and appeasement

The same year Irwin turned down the position of Foreign Secretary in favour of some time at home but inexplicably followed this up with a return to Education in 1932, a position enlivened only by his continuing (now backroom) role in Indian politics and law, his attainment of the position of Master of the Middleton Hunt in 1932 and his election as Chancellor of Oxford University in 1933. In 1934 he inherited the title Viscount Halifax from his father. In the period that followed he held a succession of government posts - Secretary of State for War for five months in 1935, Lord Privy Seal (1935-1937) and Lord President of the Council (1937-1938) under Baldwin and, after 1937, Neville Chamberlain. 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... The University of Oxford, situated in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The title of Earl of Halifax has been created several times in British history. ... The position of Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, a British cabinet-level position, first applied to Henry Dundas (appointed in 1794). ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as Presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869–9 November 1940) was a British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937–1940. ...


The appointment of Anthony Eden as foreign secretary in 1935 seemed initially to tie in well with Halifax's feelings about the direction of foreign policy over which he increasingly began to advise. The two were in agreement (and in line with prevailing opinion throughout Britain) that Germany's reoccupation of the Rhineland - its "own backyard" - constituted no serious threat and should be welcomed in so far as it continued Germany's seeming progress towards returning to normality after the tribulations of the post-World War I settlement. However, after Chamberlain succeeded Baldwin in 1937, the new prime minister began increasingly to use back channels - including Halifax himself - for foreign diplomacy. Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG (June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In November 1937 Halifax went to Germany at the invitation of Hermann Göring. The pretext was a hunting exhibition but Halifax was given strict instructions from the Foreign Office in preparation for a meeting with Adolf Hitler. On meeting the Führer Halifax almost created an international incident by almost handing his coat to the diminutive dictator believing him to be a footman. In subsequent discussions Halifax ignored Eden's directive to pass on warnings against possible German designs on Austria and Czechoslovakia. He was also forced to listen politely to Hitler's hair-raising advice on how he should have handled difficulties in India and the meetings were generally uncomfortable. 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also Goering or Goring in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a prominent and early member of the Nazi party, founder of the Gestapo, and one of the main architects of Nazi Germany. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Imperial chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ...


The following year Eden resigned exasperated by the continued interference of the Prime Minister in foreign affairs and his persistence - with Halifax - in appeasement, particularly that of Benito Mussolini, whom Eden regarded as an untrustworthy gangster. Halifax got his job in February 1938. Three weeks later Hitler annexed Austria; Czechoslovakia was now seriously at risk. Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ...


It is Halifax's handling of this crisis that usually gains him the most criticism. British foreign policy was predicated on the notion that the dictators in Europe were essentially honourable, reasonable and were disinclined to general warfare throghout the continent. All three of these posits turned out to be false. The main result of this severe error of judgement was the loss of Czechoslovakia, its industry and military to the Reich without a shot being fired. Halifax had severe doubts during the lead up to the complete occupation in March 1939 but he made little effort to alter British policy fearing Britain's military unpreparedness to meet the Nazi threat and allowed himself to be sidelined as Chamberlain attended fruitless conferences in Germany (Berchtesgaden, Godesberg and Munich) without him. Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Berchtesgaden is a German municipality in the Bavarian Alps with a population of around 9,000. ... Godesberg (roughly gods mountain), a hill in the Eifel mountains in the Rhineland, Germany. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München (pronounced listen) is the state capital of the German Bundesland of Bavaria. ...


From here things stumbled from bad to worse. Halifax failed to realise how close relations had become between Moscow and Berlin until it was too late. Italy invaded Albania and on 1 September 1939 Halifax had to watch as the international order he had sought to preserve fell to bits as Hitler invaded Poland. Chamberlain's mishandling of the peace and his equally reckless handling of what is usually called the Phony War led to his departure from 10 Downing Street. Halifax was a relatively popular candidate for the post of Prime Minister, but hurriedly ruled himself out, fearing he was not up to the challenge. Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow (Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Maskvá  listen) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097. ... Berlin (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,426,000 inhabitants (as of January 2005); down from 4. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was the phase of World War II marked by no military operations in Continental Europe, that followed the collapse of Poland. ... 10 Downing Street (commonly known as Number 10), is the most famous London street address. ...


Halifax and the Widerstand

Concerns as to Halifax's earlier appeasing stance are countered in his biography , by Andrew Roberts. The 'hankering ' for peace , so noteable in Halifax' diplomacy , is said by the outbreak of war to be so completely conditioned by his distrust of Hitler , that he was largely immune to the several intimations of proffered peace . That he did his best, indeed, to thwart those which came from such as Pope Pius XII (the Vatican Exchanges ) , the Dutch and Belgian monarchs and , most importantly , from American President Roosevelt , because he realised that poular German approbation of Hitler was so overwhelming . A peace settlement , without the discrediting of Hitler ,was worthless . Nevertheless other historians of the widerstand allude to Foreign Office enthusiasm towards the proffer coming in the Vatican Exchanges of Autumn 1939 , as ever in widerstand foreign policy up until 1943 ,incurring suggestions for German territorial aggrandisement from the 1938 borders . On 8 January 1940 , Halifax is quoted as saying ,in a meeting with Lonsdale Bryans as contact for Ulrich von Hassell , the widerstand's foreign policy expert , that ".. he 'personally' would be against the Allies taking advantage of a revolution in Germany to attack the Siegfried Line.. " if such were to produce a regime fit for negotiating with . Andrew Roberts is a conservative UK historian. ... The Venerable Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as Pope and sovereign of Vatican City from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... President Roosevelt can refer to two different people who were President of the United States: Theodore Roosevelt Franklin D. Roosevelt It may also refer to the President Roosevelt ship, involved in a 1926 martime disaster. ... Widerstand (German: resistance) is the name given to the resistance movements in Nazi Germany. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bunker on the Siegfried line The original Siegfried line was a line of defensive forts and tank defences built by Germany along their border with France in 1916-1917 during World War I. However, in English, Siegfried line more commonly refers to the similar World War II defensive line, built...


This line echoes in accord with the widerstand history of Pope Pius XII's condition for intermediaryship , which was for the implementation of an equal verhanlungsfahige Regierung . However by July 1940 Halifax is both initialling stern Foreign Office rejection of German peace feelers from the Papal Nuncio in Berne , Dr.Salazar in Lisbon and the Finnish Prime Minister and yet within weeks previously had been 'hankering' for the "tentaive and half-baked Papal suggestions . 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... A Papal Nuncio (also known as an Apostolic Nuncio) is a permanent diplomatic representative (head of mission) of the Holy See to a state, having ambassadorial rank. ...


Ambassador to the United States and Later Life

Winston Churchill maintained him as foreign minister for about nine months to present the Conservative Party as a unified front but the two men did not enjoy a particularly close relationship and Halifax soon found himself packed off to Washington - a common recourse of Churchill with men he suspected might be able but with whom he did not get on. Halifax did not at first appear a particularly deft diplomat and made a number of widely publicised gaffes including some poorly received jokes about baseball. To the American public he came across as the distant, out of touch British aristocrat that arguably he was. Gradually relations improved, particularly with President Roosevelt, but Halifax was always going to be on the margins in America because of Winston Churchill's tight personal control of contact with the United States. Once again Halifax was sidelined by his own prime minister and he was often excluded from sensitive discussions. Now an old man and mourning the death of his middle son in combat in 1942, Halifax wearied of Washington and asked Anthony Eden to have him replaced but ultimately he stuck out the position under both Harry Truman and Clement Attlee back in Britain. The appointment continued to be dogged by failure however as the Americans abruply cancelled lend-lease, upon which the British economy depended and the subsequent loan negotiations were fraught and unsatisfying to the UK. The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the centre-right in the United Kingdom. ... State nickname: The Evergreen State Other U.S. States Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Governor Christine Gregoire Official languages None Area 184,824 km² (18th)  - Land 172,587 km²  - Water 12,237 km² (6. ... A view of the playing field at Busch Stadium in St. ... President Roosevelt can refer to two different people who were President of the United States: Theodore Roosevelt Franklin D. Roosevelt It may also refer to the President Roosevelt ship, involved in a 1926 martime disaster. ... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the victim of Mt. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH (January 3, 1883 – October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... The Lend-lease Act of March 11, 1941 permitted the President of the United States to sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government [whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States] any defense article. It thus extended...


More successfully he took part in a plethora of international conferences over the UN and Russia (memorably describing Molotov, the Russian foreign minister as "smiling granite") though here again he believed that Churchill's view of the Russian threat was exaggerated and urged him to be more conciliatory perhaps indicating the reluctance to learn the lessons of the 1930's so obvious in his 1957 autobiography The Fulness of Days, a book politely dubbed "gently evasive". This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Molotov can refer to: Vyacheslav Molotov - a Soviet politician a former name of the Russian city of Perm Molotov - a Mexican hiphop group Molotov cocktail - a weapon This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In retirement from 1946 he returned to largely honorary pursuits as Chancellor of Sheffield University and the Order of the Garter and Chairman of the BBC. He died at his estate at Garrowby shortly before Christmas 1959. University of Sheffield Rerum Cognoscere Causas (To discover the causes of things) Shield image © University of Sheffield The University of Sheffield is a university located in Sheffield, England. ...  Spoken article available (part 1)  (part 2) A garter is one of the Orders most recognisable insignia. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) was formed in 1927 by means of a royal charter. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lord Halifax features in the novel The Remains of the Day by Kazuo Ishiguro and also the 1993 film of the same name in which he is portrayed by the actor Peter Eyre. Halifax also appears in the film Gandhi, where he is portrayed by Sir John Gielgud. The Remains of the Day (1989) is the third novel by British-Japanese author Kazuo Ishiguro. ... Kazuo Ishiguro (born November 8, 1954) is a Japanese-born British author. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Gandhi is a 1982 film, an idealized dramatic depiction of the life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. ... John Gielgud as photographed in 1936 by Carl Van Vechten Sir Arthur John Gielgud OM CH (April 14, 1904–May 21, 2000) was an English theatre and film actor, regarded by many as one of the greatest of his time. ...


Further reading

His autobiography was Fullness of Days (1957); earlier biographies were written by A. Johnson (1941) and the Earl of Birkenhead (1965). Halifax is still a somewhat controversial figure, and none of these books can be safely categorised as free of some agenda. The Roberts book had access to more documents. Andrew Roberts is a conservative UK historian. ...


External link

  • Lord Irwin (http://www.indhistory.com/lord-irwin.html/)


Preceded by:
H.A.L. Fisher
President of the Board of Education
1922–1924
Succeeded by:
Charles Philips Trevelyan
Preceded by:
Noel Buxton
Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries
1924–1925
Succeeded by:
Walter Guinness
Preceded by:
The Earl of Lytton
Viceroy of India
1926–1931
Succeeded by:
The Earl of Willingdon
Preceded by:
Sir Donald Maclean
President of the Board of Education
1932–1935
Succeeded by:
Oliver Stanley
Preceded by:
The Viscount Hailsham
War Secretary
1935
Succeeded by:
Duff Cooper
Preceded by:
The Marquess of Londonderry
Lord Privy Seal
1935–1937
Succeeded by:
The Earl De La Warr
Leader of the House of Lords
1935–1938
Succeeded by:
The Earl Stanhope
Preceded by:
Ramsay MacDonald
Lord President of the Council
1937–1938
Succeeded by:
The Viscount Hailsham
Preceded by:
Anthony Eden
Foreign Secretary
1938–1940
Succeeded by:
Anthony Eden
Preceded by:
The Viscount Caldecote
Leader of the House of Lords
1940
Succeeded by:
The Lord Lloyd
Preceded by:
Lord Lothian
British Ambassador to the United States
1940–1946
Succeeded by:
Lord Inverchapel



The Secretary of State for Education and Skills is the chief minister of the Department for Education and Skills in the United Kingdom government. ... The Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food was a UK cabinet position, responsible for the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. ... Walter Edward Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne (29 March 1880 - 6 November 1944) was a British politician. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... George Freeman Thomas, PC later Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon of Ratton (September 12, 1866 - August 12, 1941) was a British Liberal politician who served as Governor General of Canada and Viceroy of India. ... Sir Donald Maclean (1864-1932) was a Liberal Member of Parliament for Bath (1906-1910), Peebles and Selkirk (1910-1918), Peebles and South Midlothian (1918-1922), and Northern Division of Cornwall (1929-1932) and served as President of the Board of Education (1931-1932). ... The Secretary of State for Education and Skills is the chief minister of the Department for Education and Skills in the United Kingdom government. ... Oliver Frederick George Stanley (1896-1950) was a prominent British Conservative politician who held many ministerial posts before his early death when it was assumed he would soon assume higher office. ... Douglas McGarel Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham was a British lawyer and politician. ... The position of Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, a British cabinet-level position, first applied to Henry Dundas (appointed in 1794). ... Alfred Duff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich (22 February 1890 - 1 January 1954), known universally as Duff Cooper, was a British diplomat, Cabinet member and acclaimed author. ... Charles Stewart Henry Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 7th Marquess of Londonderry (1878_1949) had careers in both Irish and British politics. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... Herbrand Edward Dundonald Brassey Sackville, 9th Earl De La Warr (June 20, 1900 - January 28, 1976), known as Lord Buckhurst from 1900 until 1915 (and sometimes nicknamed Buck de la Warr after that), was a British National Labour politician in the 1930s. ... Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, most often Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. ... James Richard Stanhope, 13th Earl of Chesterfield and 7th Earl Stanhope (1880-1967) was a British politician in the late 1930s as The Earl Stanhope. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (October 12, 1866 – November 9, 1937), British politician, was twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as Presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... Douglas McGarel Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham was a British lawyer and politician. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG (June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ... The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG (June 12, 1897 - January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary during World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1950s. ... Thomas Walker Hobart Inskip, 1st Viscount Caldecote was a British politician who served in many legal posts, culminating in serving as Lord Chancellor from 1939 until 1940. ... Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, most often Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. ... George Ambrose Lloyd, 1st Baron Lloyd (1879-February 4, 1941) was a British Conservative politician strongly associated with the Diehard wing of the party. ... Philip Henry Kerry, 11th Marquess of Lothian (1882-1940) was a British politician who briefly served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1931 and later as British Ambassador to the United States of America from 1939 to 1940. ... The British Ambassador is in charge of Britains diplomatic mission to the USA. His official title is, Her Majestys Ambassador to the United States of America. ...

Preceded by:
New Creation
Earl of Halifax
Succeeded by:
Charles Wood
Preceded by:
Charles Wood
Viscount Halifax


The title of Earl of Halifax has been created several times in British history. ... Charles Ingram Courtenay Wood, 2nd Earl of Halifax ( 3 October 1912 - 1980) was a British politician and peer. ... Charles Lindley Wood, 2nd Viscount Halifax (7 January 1839 - 19 January 1934). ... The title of Earl of Halifax has been created several times in British history. ...


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