**Edward Witten** (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor at the Institute for Advanced Study. He is one of the world's leading researchers in superstring theory. He has made extensive contributions to theoretical physics, and in 1990 he was awarded the Fields Medal for his influence on the development of mathematics. In 1995, he suggested the existence of M-theory at a conference at the University of Southern California, and used M-theory to explain a number of previously observed dualities, sparking a flurry of new research in string theory called the second superstring revolution. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...
is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...
Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...
Baltimore redirects here. ...
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...
Theoretical physics attempts to understand the world by making a model of reality, used for rationalizing, explaining, predicting physical phenomena through a physical theory. There are three types of theories in physics; mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories. ...
Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, is one of the worldâ€™s leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. ...
Brandeis University is a private university located in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. ...
David Jonathan Gross (born February 19, 1941 in Washington, D.C.) is an American particle physicist and string theorist (although hes stated to the Brazilian newspaper Folha de SÃ£o Paulo, on 09/27/2006, that the second area is included in the first one). ...
Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory String theory is a model of fundamental physics, whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings, rather than the zero-dimensional point...
M-theory is a solution proposed for the unknown theory of everything which would combine all five superstring theories and 11-dimensional supergravity together. ...
Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ...
The obverse of the Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, a meeting that takes place every four years. ...
is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...
Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...
Theoretical physics attempts to understand the world by making a model of reality, used for rationalizing, explaining, predicting physical phenomena through a physical theory. There are three types of theories in physics; mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories. ...
The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ...
Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, is one of the worldâ€™s leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. ...
Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings. ...
Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics, as opposed to experimental processes, in an attempt to understand nature. ...
The obverse of the Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, a meeting that takes place every four years. ...
M-theory is a solution proposed for the unknown theory of everything which would combine all five superstring theories and 11-dimensional supergravity together. ...
The Trojan Shrine, better known as Tommy Trojan located in the center of University of Southern California campus. ...
The second superstring revolution refers to the intense wave of breakthroughs in string theory that took place approximately between 1994 and 1997. ...
## Birth and education
Edward Witten was born in Baltimore, Maryland ^{[1]} to a Jewish family, the son of Lorraine W. Witten and Louis Witten, a physicist specializing in gravitation and general relativity. He received his bachelor's degree in history (with a minor in linguistics) from Brandeis University. Witten planned to become a political journalist, and published articles in *The New Republic* and *The Nation*. He worked briefly for George McGovern's presidential campaign. Then, he attended the University of Wisconsin-Madison for one semester as an economics graduate student before dropping out. He then returned to academia, enrolling in applied mathematics at Princeton University before shifting departments and receiving a Ph.D. in physics in 1976 under David Gross, the Nobel laureate in Physics in 2004. Baltimore redirects here. ...
The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...
Louis Witten is an American theoretical physicist and the father of Edward Witten. ...
Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ...
Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...
For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ...
A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ...
Brandeis University is a private university located in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. ...
For other uses, see New Republic. ...
The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. ...
George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, Ph. ...
University of Wisconsin redirects here. ...
Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...
Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains. ...
Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ...
David Jonathan Gross (born February 19, 1941 in Washington, D.C.) is an American particle physicist and string theorist (although hes stated to the Brazilian newspaper Folha de SÃ£o Paulo, on 09/27/2006, that the second area is included in the first one). ...
The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ...
A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...
## Academic career After completing his PhD, he worked at Harvard University as a Junior Fellow and at Princeton as a professor. He was a Professor of Physics at Princeton University from 1980 to 1987. He also was briefly at Caltech for two years from 1999 to 2001. He is currently the Charles Simonyi Professor of Mathematical Physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Harvard redirects here. ...
Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...
The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ...
Charles Simonyi (Hungarian: Simonyi KÃ¡roly; born September 10, 1948, Budapest) is a computer software executive who, as head of Microsofts application software group, oversaw the creation of Microsofts flagship office applications. ...
Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, is one of the worldâ€™s leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. ...
Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ...
## Research and achievements Witten has made extensive contributions to theoretical physics, in work that has spawned a large number of highly mathematical results. He has been active primarily in quantum field theory and string theory, and in related areas of topology and geometry. His many contributions include a simplified proof of the positive energy theorem involving spinors in general relativity, his work relating supersymmetry and Morse theory, his introduction of topological quantum field theory and his related work on mirror symmetry and supersymmetric gauge theories, and his conjecture of the existence of M-theory. Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics, as opposed to experimental processes, in an attempt to understand nature. ...
Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ...
Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory String theory is a model of fundamental physics, whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings, rather than the zero-dimensional point...
A MÃ¶bius strip, an object with only one surface and one edge; such shapes are an object of study in topology. ...
For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ...
The positive energy theorem states that, assuming the dominant energy condition, the mass of an asymptotically flat spacetime is non-negative; furthermore, the mass is zero only for Minkowski spacetime. ...
In mathematics and physics, in particular in the theory of the orthogonal groups, spinors are certain kinds of mathematical objects (group representations of Spin(N), roughly speaking) similar to vectors, but which change sign under a rotation of radians. ...
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...
A Morse function is also an expression for an anharmonic oscillator In differential topology, the techniques of Morse theory give a very direct way of analyzing the topology of a manifold by studying differentiable functions on that manifold. ...
A topological quantum field theory (or topological field theory or TQFT) is a quantum field theory which computes topological invariants. ...
In physics and mathematics, mirror symmetry is a surprising relation that can exist between two Calabi-Yau manifolds. ...
In physics, gauge theories are a class of physical theories based on the idea that symmetry transformations can be performed locally as well as globally. ...
M-theory is a solution proposed for the unknown theory of everything which would combine all five superstring theories and 11-dimensional supergravity together. ...
Witten was awarded the Fields Medal by the International Mathematical Union in 1990, becoming the first physicist to win the prize. Sir Michael Atiyah said of Witten, "Although he is definitely a physicist, his command of mathematics is rivaled by few mathematicians... Time and time again he has surprised the mathematical community by his brilliant application of physical insight leading to new and deep mathematical theorems... he has made a profound impact on contemporary mathematics. In his hands physics is once again providing a rich source of inspiration and insight in mathematics."^{[citation needed]} One such example of his impact on pure mathematics is his framework for understanding the Jones polynomial using Chern-Simons theory. This had far reaching implications on low-dimensional topology and led to quantum invariants such as the Witten-Reshetikhin-Turaev invariants. The obverse of the Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, a meeting that takes place every four years. ...
Sir Michael Francis Atiyah, OM, FRS (b. ...
This article needs cleanup. ...
In physics, Chern-Simons theory is a 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory of Schwarz type. ...
In mathematics, geometric topology is the study of manifolds and their embeddings, with representative topics being knot theory and braid groups. ...
In physics, Chern-Simons theory is a 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory of Schwarz type. ...
## Personal life He is married to Chiara Nappi, who is a professor of physics at Princeton University. His brother, Matt Witten, is a screenwriter and producer for several popular TV series including *L.A. Law* and *House*. He is sentimentally attached to the Jewish tradition, in which he was raised, but he doesn't take seriously the truth value of religion. Since 1992, he has been on the board of Americans for Peace Now.^{[2]} To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...
Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...
Mattew Witten (birth date unknown) is the brother of Edward Witten, one of the best string theorists and the founder of M-Theory. ...
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...
House, also known as House, M.D., is an American medical drama television series created by David Shore and executive produced by Shore and film director Bryan Singer. ...
// Americans for Peace Now (APN) is the sister organization of the Israeli Shalom Achshav (Peace Now) movement. ...
## Awards and honors Witten has been honored with numerous awards, including a MacArthur Grant (1982), a Fields Medal (1990), and the National Medal of Science (2002). Pope Benedict XVI also appointed Witten as a member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (2006). He also appeared in the list of *TIME* magazine's 100 most influential people of 2004. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation is a private, independent grantmaking institution. ...
The obverse of the Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, a meeting that takes place every four years. ...
National Medal of Science The National Medal of Science is an honor given by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics. ...
Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ...
The Pontifical Academy of Sciences was founded in 1936 under its current name by Pope Pius XI and is placed under the protection of the reigning Supreme Pontiff (the current Pope). ...
â€œTIMEâ€ redirects here. ...
## Trivia - Witten has the highest
*h*-index of any living physicist. - Witten was mentioned in a 1999 episode of the cartoon
*Futurama*. - Witten was mentioned in the 2002
*Angel* episode "Supersymmetry". In economics, the Herfindahl index is a measure of the size of firms in relationship to the industry and an indicator of the amount of competition among them. ...
This article is about the television series. ...
For the South Korean TV series of the same name, see Angel (2007 TV series). ...
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...
## References ## External links Fields Medalists | Ahlfors / Douglas (1936) • Schwartz / Selberg (1950) • Kodaira / Serre (1954) • Roth / Thom (1958) • Hörmander / Milnor (1962) • Atiyah / Cohen / Grothendieck / Smale (1966) • Baker / Hironaka / Novikov / Thompson (1970) • Bombieri / Mumford (1974) • Deligne / Fefferman / Margulis / Quillen (1978) • Connes / Thurston / Yau (1982) • Donaldson / Faltings / Freedman (1986) • Drinfel'd / Jones / Mori / **Witten** (1990) • Zelmanov / Lions / Bourgain / Yoccoz (1994) • Borcherds / Gowers / Kontsevich / McMullen (1998) • Lafforgue / Voevodsky (2002) • Okounkov / Perelman / Tao / Werner (2006) The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ...
The Mathematics Genealogy Project is a web-based database that gives an academic genealogy based on dissertation supervision relations. ...
The obverse of the Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, a meeting that takes place every four years. ...
Lars Valerian Ahlfors (April 18, 1907 â€“ October 11, 1996) was a Finland Swedish mathematician, remembered for his work in the field of Riemann surfaces and his text on complex analysis. ...
Jesse Douglas (July 3, 1897 - October 7, 1965) was an American mathematician. ...
Laurent Schwartz (5 March 1915 â€“ 4 July 2002 in Paris) was a French mathematician. ...
Atle Selberg (born June 17, 1917) is a Norwegian mathematician known for his work in analytic number theory, and in the theory of automorphic forms, in particular bringing them into relation with spectral theory. ...
Kunihiko Kodaira (å°å¹³ é‚¦å½¦ Kodaira Kunihiko, 16 March 1915 â€“ 26 July 1997) was a Japanese mathematician known for distinguished work in algebraic geometry and the theory of complex manifolds; and as the founder of the Japanese school of algebraic geometers. ...
Jean-Pierre Serre (born September 15, 1926) is one of the leading mathematicians of the twentieth century, active in algebraic geometry, number theory and topology. ...
Klaus Friedrich Roth (Roth is pronounced ROW-th) (29 October 1925) is a British mathematician known for work on diophantine approximation, the large sieve, and irregularities of distribution. ...
RenÃ© Thom (September 2, 1923 - October 25, 2002) was a French mathematician and founder of the catastrophe theory. ...
Lars HÃ¶rmander Lars Valter HÃ¶rmander (born 24 January 1931) is a Swedish mathematician and one of the leading experts in partial differential equations. ...
John Willard Milnor (b. ...
Sir Michael Francis Atiyah, OM, FRS (b. ...
Paul Joseph Cohen (April 2, 1934 â€“ March 23, 2007[1]) was an American mathematician. ...
Alexander Grothendieck (born March 28, 1928 in Berlin, Germany) is one of the most important mathematicians of the 20th century. ...
Stephen Smale (born July 15, 1930) is an American mathematician from Flint, Michigan, and winner of the Fields Medal in 1966. ...
Alan Baker (born on August 19, 1939) is an English mathematician. ...
Heisuke Hironaka (åºƒä¸ å¹³ç¥ Hironaka Heisuke, born April 9, 1931) is a Japanese mathematician. ...
Sergei Petrovich Novikov (also Serguei) (Russian: Ð¡ÐµÑ€Ð³ÐµÐ¹ ÐŸÐµÑ‚Ñ€Ð¾Ð²Ð¸Ñ‡ ÐÐ¾Ð²Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð²) (born 20 March 1938) is a Russian mathematician, noted for work in both algebraic topology and soliton theory. ...
John Griggs Thompson (born 13 Oct 1932) is a mathematician noted for his work in the field of finite groups. ...
Enrico Bombieri (born November 26, 1940) is a Italian mathematician, born in Milan. ...
David Bryant Mumford (born 11 June 1937) is an American mathematician known for distinguished work in algebraic geometry, and then for research into vision and pattern theory. ...
Pierre Deligne, March 2005 Pierre Deligne (born 3 October 1944) is a Belgian mathematician. ...
Charles Louis Fefferman (born April 18, 1949) is a renowned American mathematician at Princeton University. ...
Gregori Aleksandrovich Margulis (first name often given as Gregory, Grigori or Grigory) (born February 24, 1946) is a mathematician known for his far-reaching work on lattices in Lie groups, and the introduction of methods from ergodic theory into diophantine approximation. ...
Daniel Quillen (born June 21, 1940) is an American mathematician, a Fields Medallist, and the current Waynflete Professor of Pure Mathematics at Magdalen College, Oxford. ...
Alain Connes (born April 1, 1947) is a French mathematician, currently Professor at the College de France (Paris, France), IHES (Bures-sur-Yvette, France) and Vanderbilt University (Nashville, Tennessee). ...
William Thurston William Paul Thurston (born October 30, 1946) is an American mathematician. ...
Shing-Tung Yau (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born April 4, 1949) is a prominent mathematician working in differential geometry, and involved in the theory of Calabi-Yau manifolds. ...
Simon Kirwan Donaldson, born in Cambridge in 1957, is an English mathematician famous for his work on the topology of smooth (differentiable) four-dimensional manifolds. ...
Gerd Faltings, June 2006 Gerd Faltings (born July 28, 1954 in Gelsenkirchen-Buer) is a German Lutheran mathematician known for his work in arithmetic algebraic geometry. ...
Michael Hartley Freedman (born 21 April 1951 in Los Angeles, California, USA) is a mathematician at Microsoft Research. ...
Vladimir Gershonovich Drinfeld (Russian: ) is a mathematician born February 4, 1954 in the Ukrainian SSR. At the age of 15 he won a gold medal with the perfect score in the International Mathematics Olympiad in 1969, representing the Soviet Union, and entered the Moscow State University the same year...
Vaughan Frederick Randal Jones (born 31 December 1952) is a New Zealand mathematician, known for his work on von Neumann algebras, knot polynomials and conformal field theory. ...
Shigefumi Mori (æ£® é‡æ–‡ Mori Shigefumi, born February 23, 1951) is a Japanese mathematician, known for his work in algebraic geometry, particularly in relation to the classification of three-folds. ...
Efim Isaakovich Zelmanov (Ð•Ñ„Ð¸Ð¼ Ð˜ÑÐ°Ð°ÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð¸Ñ‡ Ð—ÐµÐ»ÑŒÐ¼Ð°Ð½Ð¾Ð²: born September 7, 1955) is a mathematician, known for his work on combinatorial problems in nonassociative algebra and group theory, including his solution of the restricted Burnside problem. ...
Pierre-Louis Lions (August 11, 1956 - ) is a French mathematician. ...
Jean Bourgain (born Ostend, February 28, 1954), is a professor of mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study. ...
Jean-Christophe Yoccoz (born May 29, 1957) is a French mathematician. ...
Richard Ewen Borcherds (born November 29, 1959) is a British mathematician specializing in lattices, number theory, group theory, and infinite-dimensional algebras. ...
William Timothy Gowers (born November 20, 1963, Wiltshire, United Kingdom) is a British mathematician. ...
Maxim Kontsevich (Russian: ÐœÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¼ ÐšÐ¾Ð½Ñ†ÐµÐ²Ð¸Ñ‡) (born August 25, 1964) is a Russian mathematician. ...
Curtis T McMullen (born 21 May 1958) is Professor of Mathematics at Harvard University. ...
Laurent Lafforgue (born November 6, 1966, in Antony, France) is a French mathematician. ...
Vladimir Voevodsky (Russian: Ð’Ð»Ð°Ð´Ð¸Ð¼Ð¸Ñ€ Ð’Ð¾ÐµÐ²Ð¾Ð´ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹) (born June 4, 1966) is a Russian mathematician. ...
Andrei Okounkov (Russian: ÐÐ½Ð´Ñ€ÐµÐ¹ ÐžÐºÑƒÐ½ÑŒÐºÐ¾Ð², Andrej Okunkov) (born 1969) is a mathematician who works on representation theory and its applications to algebraic geometry, mathematical physics, probability theory and special functions. ...
Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman (Russian: ), born 13 June 1966 in Leningrad, USSR (now St. ...
Terence Chi-Shen Tao (é™¶å“²è»’) (born July 17, 1975, Adelaide, South Australia) is an Australian mathematician working primarily on harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, combinatorics, analytic number theory and representation theory. ...
Wendelin Werner (born September 1968 in Germany) is a German-born French mathematician working in the area of self-avoiding random walks, Schramm-Loewner evolution, and related theories in probability theory and mathematical physics. ...
| |