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Encyclopedia > Edward VIII of the United Kingdom
Edward VIII
King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British
Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India
(more...)
Official portrait by John St Helier Lander, 1936
Reign 20 January 193611 December 1936
Predecessor George V
Successor George VI
Spouse Wallis, Duchess of Windsor (post-abdication)
Full name
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
Titles
HRH The Duke of Windsor
HM The King
HRH The Prince of Wales
HRH The Duke of Cornwall
HRH Prince Edward of Wales
HRH Prince Edward of Cornwall
HRH Prince Edward of York
HH Prince Edward of York
Royal house House of Windsor
Royal anthem God Save the King
Father George V
Mother Mary of Teck
Born 23 June 1894
White Lodge, Richmond, London
Baptised 16 July 1894
White Lodge, Richmond, London
Died 28 May 1972 (aged 77)
Paris, France
Burial 5 June 1972
Frogmore Estate, Berkshire

Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 189428 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20 January 1936, until his abdication on 11 December 1936. He was the second monarch of the House of Windsor, his father having changed the name of the Royal house from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in 1917. The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 421 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1710 pixel, file size: 2. ... John St Helier Lander (born Jersey 19 October 1868, died Witley, Surrey 12 February 1944) was a noted portrait painter. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... The Duke and Duchess of Windsor on their wedding day. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of Windsor, previously called the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, is the Royal House of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the other Commonwealth Realms. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the Queen Consort of George V. Queen Mary was also the Empress of India and Queen of Ireland. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... White Lodge is the first stage of training at the Royal Ballet School, London. ... Richmond is a suburb and the principal settlement of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south west London, England. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... White Lodge is the first stage of training at the Royal Ballet School, London. ... Richmond is a suburb and the principal settlement of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south west London, England. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frogmore or Frogmore House is a former royal residence in England, in the grounds of Windsor Castle, and is the site of the Frogmore Mausoleum containing the grave of Victoria and Albert. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ... New Crowns for Old depicts Disraeli as Abanazer from the pantomime version of Aladdin offering Victoria an Imperial crown in exchange for a Royal one. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The House of Windsor, previously called the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, is the Royal House of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the other Commonwealth Realms. ... Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) was once the name given to the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present states of Bavaria and Thuringia, which were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. ...


Before his accession to the throne, Edward VIII held the titles of Prince Edward of York, Prince Edward of York and Cornwall, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, and Prince of Wales (all with the style Royal Highness). As a young man he served in World War I, undertook several foreign tours on behalf of his father, and was associated with a succession of older married women. The Dukedom of Cornwall was the first dukedom created in the peerage of England. ... Banner of the Duke of Rothesay, the quarterings represent the Great Steward of Scotland and the Lord of the Isles. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... HRH is an abbreviation for the style His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Only months into his reign, Edward forced a constitutional crisis by proposing marriage to the American divorcée Wallis Simpson. Although legally Edward could have married Mrs. Simpson and remained king, his ministers opposed the marriage arguing that the people would never accept her as queen. Edward knew that the Government of British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin would resign if the marriage went ahead; this could have dragged the King into a general election thus ruining irreparably his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch. Rather than give up Mrs. Simpson, he chose to abdicate. Edward VIII is the only monarch of Britain to have voluntarily relinquished the throne. He is one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British history, and was never crowned. Wallis, Duchess of Windsor and the Duke of Windsor on their wedding day Bessie Wallis Warfield, more widely known as Wallis Simpson and later The Duchess of Windsor (June 19, 1896–April 24, 1986) was the wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor, the former King Edward VIII of the... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Instrument of Abdication signed by Edward VIII and his three brothers The Edward VIII abdication crisis refers to events which occurred in 1936, when King-Emperor Edward VIII of the British Empire precipitated a constitutional crisis throughout his realms by his desire to marry his mistress, Mrs. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ...


After his abdication he reverted to the style of a son of the sovereign, The Prince Edward, and was created Duke of Windsor on 8 March 1937. During World War II he was at first stationed with the British Military Mission to France, but after private accusations that he was pro-Nazi, was moved to the Bahamas as Governor and Commander-in-Chief. After the war he was never given another official appointment and spent the remainder of his life in retirement. The peerage title Duke of Windsor was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1937 for The Prince Edward, formerly King of the United Kingdom. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Early life

Edward VIII was born on 23 June 1894, at White Lodge, Richmond, Surrey.[1] He was the eldest son of The Duke of York (later King George V), and The Duchess of York (formerly Princess Victoria Mary of Teck). His father was the second son of The Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) and The Princess of Wales (formerly Princess Alexandra of Denmark). His mother was the eldest daughter of The Duke of Teck and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge. As a great grandson of Queen Victoria in the male line, Edward was styled His Highness Prince Edward of York at his birth. is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... White Lodge is a Georgian house situated in Richmond Park, on the outskirts of London. ... Richmond is a suburb and the principal settlement of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south west London, England. ... Not to be confused with Surry. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the Queen Consort of George V. Queen Mary was also the Empress of India and Queen of Ireland. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Princess Alexandra of Denmark (later Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925), was Queen Consort to Edward VII of the United Kingdom and thus Empress of India during her husbands reign. ... Prince Francis Duke of Teck Prince Francis, Duke of Teck (Francis Paul Charles Louis Alexander; German: Franz Paul Karl Ludwig Alexander) (August 28, 1837 – January 21, 1900), was a member of the British Royal Family, the father of Queen Mary. ... Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge (Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elizabeth; 27 November 1833 – 27 October 1897) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III. She later held the title of Duchess of Teck by marriage. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ...

Edward of Wales Little David, photographed by his grandmother Queen Alexandra
Edward of Wales Little David, photographed by his grandmother Queen Alexandra

He was baptised in the Green Drawing Room of White Lodge on 16 July 1894, by Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury.[2] Edward VIII was named after his late uncle, who was known to his family as "Eddy" or Edward, and his great-grandfather King Christian IX of Denmark. The name Albert was included at the behest of Queen Victoria. His last four names – George, Andrew, Patrick and David – came from the Patron Saints of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. The Prince was nevertheless, for the rest of his life, known to his family and close friends, by his last given name, David. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (721x1178, 173 KB) Summary Edward of Wales (Little David), later Edward VIII of United Kingdom, as a boy taken 1900-1908 by his grandmother Queen Alexandra (1844-1925). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (721x1178, 173 KB) Summary Edward of Wales (Little David), later Edward VIII of United Kingdom, as a boy taken 1900-1908 by his grandmother Queen Alexandra (1844-1925). ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Edward White Benson (July 14, 1829 – October 11, 1896) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1882 until his death. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... His Royal Highness Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale (Albert Victor Christian Edward Wettin) (January 8, 1864 – January 14, 1892) was born in Windsor, England, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales (the future King Edward VII) and Alexandra of Denmark, and was therefore the second... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the younger brother of Saint Peter. ... For information about the holiday, see: Saint Patricks Day Saint Patrick (Latin: [2], Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Christian missionary and is the patron saint of Ireland along with Brigid of Kildare and Columba. ... The Flag of Saint David. ...


Edward's parents, The Duke and Duchess of York, were often removed from their children's upbringing, like other upper-class English parents of the day. Edward and his younger brother Albert were abused by one of the royal nannies. The nanny would pinch Edward before he was due to be presented to his parents. His subsequent crying and wailing would lead the Duke and Duchess to send Edward and the nanny away.[3] On the other hand, the King, though a harsh disciplinarian,[4] was demonstrably affectionate[5] and Queen Mary displayed a frolicksome side when dealing with her children that belies her austere public image. She was amused by the children making tadpoles on toast for their French master,[6] and encouraged them to confide matters in her which it would have provoked the King to know.[7] George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ...


Prince of Wales

Official Investiture Medallion
Official Investiture Medallion

Edward automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay when his father, George V, ascended the throne on 6 May 1910. The new King created him Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 23 June 1910, and officially invested him as such in a special ceremony at Caernarfon Castle on 13 July 1911.[8] For the first time since 1616 (and the evidence for that ceremony is thin) this investiture took place in Wales at the instigation of the Welsh politician David Lloyd George, Constable of the Castle, who at that time held the position of Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Liberal government.[9] Lloyd George invented a rather fanciful ceremonial which took the form of a Welsh pageant, coaching the prince to utter some sentences in Welsh. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Dukedom of Cornwall was the first dukedom created in the peerage of England. ... Banner of the Duke of Rothesay, the quarterings represent the Great Steward of Scotland and the Lord of the Isles. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... The Earldom of Chester is one of the few palatine earldoms in England. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The ward of Caernarfon Castle, showing (from left to right) the Black Tower, the Chamberlains Tower, and the Eagle Tower. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the country. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


Military career

Edward during World War I
Edward during World War I

When the First World War (1914–18) broke out Edward had reached the minimum age for active service and was keen to participate.[10] He had joined the army, serving with the Grenadier Guards, in June 1914, and although Edward was willing to serve on the front lines, the Secretary of State for War, Lord Kitchener, refused to allow it, citing the immense harm that the capture of the heir to the throne would cause.[11][12] Image File history File links Edward_V111_circa1915. ... Image File history File links Edward_V111_circa1915. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Grenadier Guards is the most senior regiment of the Guards Division of the British Army, and, as such, is the most senior regiment of infantry. ... Lord Kitchener can refer to: Field Marshal Horatio Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, prominent British soldier in Sudan, Boer War, and World War I Any of his heirs who have held the title Earl Kitchener Calypso music singer born Aldwyn Roberts; see: Lord Kitchener (calypsonian) This is a disambiguation page &#8212...


Despite this, Edward witnessed trench warfare firsthand and attempted to visit the front line as often as he could, leading to his award of the Military Cross in 1916. His role in the war, although limited, led to his great popularity among veterans of the conflict.[13] As of 1911 he was also a Midshipman in the Royal Navy, making Lieutenant in 1913. Edward undertook his first military flight in 1918 and later gained his pilot's licence.[14] On his succession he became Admiral of the Fleet in the Navy, Field Marshal in the Army, and Marshal of the Royal Air Force.[15] The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Royal Navy Insignia The flag of an Admiral of the Fleet is the Flag of the United Kingdom, and is in 1:2 rather than the 2:3 of other admirals flags. ... Field Marshal Viscount Slim in his Field Marshals uniform, holding a marshals baton. ... Marshal of the RAF sleeve/shoulder insignia Marshal of the Royal Air Force was the highest rank in the Royal Air Force. ...


Royal duties

HRH The Prince of Wales canoeing in Canada, 1919
HRH The Prince of Wales canoeing in Canada, 1919

Throughout the 1920s the Prince of Wales represented his father, King George V, at home and abroad on many occasions. He took a particular interest in visiting the poverty stricken areas of the country.[16] Abroad, the Prince of Wales toured the Empire, undertaking 16 tours between 1919 and 1935, and in the process acquiring the Bedingfield ranch, near Pekisko, High River, Alberta. H.R.H. the Prince of Wales canoeing on the Nipigon River, Ontario, Canada, September 5 - 7, 1919 Credit: Library and Archives Canada: PA-022366 Retrieved from: http://www. ... H.R.H. the Prince of Wales canoeing on the Nipigon River, Ontario, Canada, September 5 - 7, 1919 Credit: Library and Archives Canada: PA-022366 Retrieved from: http://www. ... Canoeing is the recreational or sporting activity of paddling a canoe or kayak. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... High River is a town in southwestern Alberta, Canada with a population of 9,523 (2004). ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked...


He made deeply racist comments about the Empire's subjects and various foreign peoples, both during his career as Prince of Wales and later as Duke of Windsor, particularly in Africa and India but also in Canada, the West Indies, Mexico and Australia. He said of Indigenous Australians, "they are the most revolting form of living creatures I've ever seen!! They are the lowest known form of human beings & are the nearest thing to monkeys."[17] His remarks were little commented upon at the time, but later biographers severely taxed his reputation with them.[18] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. ...


He soon became the 1920s version of a latter-day movie star. At the height of his popularity, he became the most photographed celebrity of his time and he set men's fashion.[19]


Romances

In 1930, King George V gave Edward a home, Fort Belvedere, near Sunningdale in Berkshire.[20] There Edward had relationships with a series of married women including half-British half-American textile heiress Freda Dudley Ward, American film actress Mildred Harris and Lady Furness (born Thelma Morgan) an American woman of part-Chilean ancestry, who introduced the Prince to fellow American Wallis Simpson. Mrs. Simpson had divorced her first husband in 1927 and subsequently married Ernest Simpson, a half-British half-American businessman. Mrs. Simpson and the Prince of Wales, it is generally accepted, became lovers while Lady Furness travelled abroad, though Edward adamantly insisted to his father the King that he was not intimate with her and that it was not appropriate to describe her as his mistress.[21] Fort Belvedere Fort Belvedere is a country house in Sunningdale, Berkshire. ... This page is about the town. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Freda Dudley Ward (28 July 1894 - 16 March 1983) was a leading English socialite. ... Mildred Harris Mildred Harris (November 29, 1901 - July 20, 1944) was a notable actress of the silent film era. ... Thelma, Viscountess Furness (August 23, 1904 – January 29, 1970), born Thelma Morgan, was the woman who preceded Wallis Simpson in the affections of Edward VIII of the United Kingdom. ... The Duke and Duchess of Windsor on their wedding day. ... Ernest Aldrich Simpson (1895 - 1958) was an Anglo-American shipping executive best known as the second husband of Wallis Simpson, who married the former Edward VIII of the United Kingdom. ... Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ...

British Royalty
House of Windsor
George V
   Edward VIII
   George VI
   Mary, Princess Royal
   Henry, Duke of Gloucester
   George, Duke of Kent
   Prince John
Edward VIII

King George V was disappointed in Edward's failure to settle down in life and disgusted by his many affairs with married women. He was reluctant to see Edward inherit the Crown. The King was quoted as saying of Edward: "After I am dead, the boy will ruin himself in 12 months".[22] He later said of Prince Albert and Albert's daughter, the Princess Elizabeth, (whom he called "Lilibet"): "I pray to God that my eldest son Edward will never marry and have children, and that nothing will come between Bertie and Lilibet and the throne."[23] Edward's relationship with Mrs. Simpson further weakened his poor relationship with his father. Although the King and Queen met Mrs. Simpson at Buckingham Palace in 1935,[24] they later refused to receive her.[25] But Edward had now fallen in love with Wallis and the couple grew ever closer. The British monarchy is a shared monarchy; this article describes the monarchy from the perspective of the United Kingdom. ... The House of Windsor, previously called the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, is the Royal House of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the other Commonwealth Realms. ... Image File history File links Royal_Standard_of_England. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... HRH The Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood, Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary (25 April 1897 - 28 March 1965) was a member of the British Royal Family. ... The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (Henry William Frederick Albert; 31 March 1900 – 10 June 1974) was a member of the British Royal Family, the third son of George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary, and thus uncle to Elizabeth II. He was appointed regent for his niece... The Prince George, Duke of Kent (George Edward Alexander Edmund) (20 December 1902–25 August 1942) was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth son of King George V. He held the title of Duke of Kent from 1934 to his death in 1942. ... The Prince John (John Charles Francis; 12 July 1905 – 18 January 1919) was a member of the British Royal Family, the youngest son of King George V. The Prince had epilepsy and was consequently largely hidden from the public eye. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


Edward's affair with the American divorcée led to such grave concern that the couple were followed by members of the Metropolitan police Special Branch, to examine in secret the nature of their relationship. An undated report detailed a visit by the couple to an antique shop, where the proprietor later noted that: "the lady seemed to have POW [Prince of Wales] completely under her thumb."[26] The prospect of having an American divorcée with a questionable past having such sway over the Heir Apparent caused some anxiety to government and establishment figures at the time.


Reign

Royal Cypher of Edward VIII
Royal Cypher of Edward VIII

King George V died on 20 January 1936, and Edward ascended the throne as King Edward VIII. The next day, he broke royal protocol by watching the proclamation of his own accession to the throne from a window of St. James's Palace in the company of the then still-married Mrs. Simpson.[27] It was also at this time that Edward VIII became the first Commonwealth monarch to fly in an aeroplane, when he flew from Sandringham to London for his Accession Council.[28] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 599 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (612 × 613 pixel, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 599 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (612 × 613 pixel, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Royal Cypher of Queen Elizabeth II, surmounted with a crown. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Sandringham is a village and civil parish in the north of the English county of Norfolk. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, the Accession Council proclaims a new monarch upon the death of a previous monarch. ...


Edward caused unease in government circles with actions that were interpreted as interference in political matters. On visiting the depressed coal mining villages in South Wales the King’s observation that "something must be done"[28] for the unemployed coal miners was seen as directly critical of the Government, though it has never been clear whether the King had anything in particular in mind. Government ministers were also reluctant to send confidential documents and state papers to Fort Belvedere because it was clear that Edward was paying little attention to them and because of the perceived danger that Mrs. Simpson and other house guests might see them.[29] This article is about the country. ...

Left-facing currency portrait of Edward VIII
Left-facing currency portrait of Edward VIII

Edward's unorthodox approach to his role extended also to the currency which bore his image. He broke with tradition whereby on coinage each successive monarch faced in the opposite direction to his or her prececessor. Edward insisted his left side was superior to his right, and that he face left (as his father had done).[30] Only a handful of coins were actually struck before the abdication, and when George VI succeeded he also faced left, to maintain the tradition by suggesting that had any coins been minted featuring Edward's portrait, they would have shown him facing right.[31] Image File history File links EdwardVIIIcoin. ... Image File history File links EdwardVIIIcoin. ...


On 16 July 1936 an attempt was made on the King's life. An Irish malcontent, Jerome Brannigan (otherwise known as George Andrew McMahon) produced a loaded revolver as the King rode on horseback at Constitution Hill, near Buckingham Palace. Police spotted the gun and pounced on him; he was quickly arrested. At Brannigan's trial, he alleged that "a foreign power" had approached him to kill Edward, that he had informed MI5 of the plan, and that he was merely seeing the plan through to help MI5 catch the real culprits. The court rejected the claims and sent him to jail for a year. It is now thought that Brannigan had indeed been in contact with MI5 but the veracity of the remainder of his claims remains open.[32] is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Constitution Hill is a road in the City of Westminster, London England. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


By October it was becoming clear that the new King planned to marry Mrs. Simpson, especially when divorce proceedings between Mr. and Mrs. Simpson were brought at Ipswich Crown Court.[33] Timber framed buildings in St Nicholas Street The Ancient House is decorated with a particularly fine example of pargeting Ipswich (pronounced ) is the county town of Suffolk and a non-metropolitan district in East Anglia, England on the estuary of the River Orwell. ...


Abdication

On 16 November 1936, Edward invited Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin to Buckingham Palace and expressed his desire to marry Wallis Simpson when she became free to re-marry. Baldwin informed the King that his subjects would deem the marriage morally unacceptable, largely because remarriage after divorce was opposed by the Church, and the people would not tolerate Wallis as Queen.[34] The Instrument of Abdication signed by Edward VIII and his three brothers The Edward VIII abdication crisis refers to events which occurred in 1936, when King-Emperor Edward VIII of the British Empire precipitated a constitutional crisis throughout his realms by his desire to marry his mistress, Mrs. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... The Duke and Duchess of Windsor on their wedding day. ...


Edward proposed an alternative solution of a morganatic marriage, but this too was rejected by the British Cabinet[35] as well as other Dominion governments.[36] The Prime Ministers of Australia, Canada and South Africa made clear their opposition to the King marrying a divorcée;[37] the Irish Free State expressed indifference and detachment and New Zealand, having never even heard of Mrs. Simpson before, vacillated in disbelief.[38] Faced with this opposition, Edward at first responded that there were "not many people in Australia" and their opinion didn't matter.[39] A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between persons of unequal social rank (unebenbürtig in German), which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann...


The King informed Baldwin that he would abdicate if he could not marry her. Baldwin then presented Edward with three choices: give up the idea of marriage; marry Mrs. Simpson against his ministers' wishes; or abdicate.[40] It was clear that Edward was not prepared to give up Mrs. Simpson. By marrying against the advice of his ministers, he would cause the government to resign, prompting a constitutional crisis.[41] He chose to abdicate.[42]

Signature of King Edward VIII
The 'R' and 'I' after his name indicate 'king' and 'emperor' in Latin ('Rex' and 'Imperator').

Edward duly signed the instruments[43] of abdication at Fort Belvedere on 10 December 1936, in the presence of his three brothers, The Duke of York, The Duke of Gloucester and The Duke of Kent.[44] The next day, he performed his last act as King when he gave royal assent to His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936, which applied to the United Kingdom. The provisions of the Statute of Westminster 1931 required that the parliaments of the United Kingdom and the Dominions each pass a separate Act allowing the abdication. In Canada the granting of Royal Assent to the Succession to the Throne Act by Governor General Lord Tweedsmuir ended Edward's reign as King of Canada. Similar legislation was enacted in the other Dominions either the same day or, in Ireland, one day later. The Irish Free State passed the External Relations Act, which included the abdication in its schedule, on 12 December. Thus, legally, for one day he was King in the Irish Free State but not the rest of the Commonwealth.[45] crop of existing image on wiki This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (Henry William Frederick Albert; 31 March 1900 – 10 June 1974) was a member of the British Royal Family, the third son of George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary, and thus uncle to Elizabeth II. He was appointed regent for his niece... The Prince George, Duke of Kent (George Edward Alexander Edmund) (20 December 1902–25 August 1942) was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth son of King George V. He held the title of Duke of Kent from 1934 to his death in 1942. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... His Majestys Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 was the Act of the British Parliament that allowed King Edward VIII to abdicate the throne, and passed succession to Prince Albert, Duke of York. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian Monarch, who is the Head of State; Canada is one of... John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, GCMG, GCVO, CH, PC (26 August 1875 – 11 February 1940), was a Scottish novelist and Unionist politician who served as Governor General of Canada. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994. ... The Executive Authority (External Relations) Act, 1936 was an enactment of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament) in 1936. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


On the night of 11 December 1936, Edward, now reverted to the title of Prince Edward, made a broadcast to the nation and the Empire, explaining his decision to abdicate. He famously said, "I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge my duties as king as I would wish to do without the help and support of the woman I love."[46] December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


After the broadcast, Edward departed the United Kingdom for Austria, though he was unable to join Mrs. Simpson until her divorce became absolute, several months later.[47] His brother, Prince Albert, Duke of York succeeded to the throne as George VI, with his elder daughter, The Princess Elizabeth, first in the line of succession, as the heiress-presumptive. George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honor, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ...


Duke of Windsor

On 12 December 1936, at his Accession Privy Council, George VI announced he was to make his brother Duke of Windsor, and also re-admit him to the highest degrees of the various British Orders of Knighthood. He wanted this to be the first act of his reign, although the formal documents were not signed until 8 March of the following year. But during the interim, Edward was universally known as the Duke of Windsor. The King's decision to create Edward a royal duke ensured that he could neither stand for election to the House of Commons nor speak on political subjects in the House of Lords.[48] is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Spain and France (in Italy, principe... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ...


However, letters patent dated 27 May 1937, which re-conferred upon the Duke of Windsor the "title, style, or attribute of Royal Highness," specifically stated that "his wife and descendants, if any, shall not hold said title or attribute." Some British ministers advised that Edward had no need of it being conferred because he had not lost it, and further that Mrs. Simpson would automatically obtain the rank of wife of a prince with the style HRH; others maintained that he had lost all royal rank and should no longer carry any royal title or style as an abdicated King. On 14 April 1937 Attorney General Sir Donald Somervell submitted to Home Secretary Sir John Simon a memorandum summarising the views of Lord Advocate T.M. Cooper, Parliamentary Counsel Sir Granville Ram and himself, to the effect that: Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Donald Bradley Somervell, Baron Somervell of Harrow (August 24, 1889 – November 18, 1960) was a British politician. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ... John Allsebrook Simon, 1st Viscount Simon GCSI GCVO OBE PC (1873-1954) was a British politician and statesman. ... Her Majestys Advocate, known as the Lord Advocate (Morair Tagraidh in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief legal adviser to the Scottish Executive and the Crown in Scotland for both civil and criminal matters that fall within the devolved powers of the Scottish Parliament. ...

  1. We incline to the view that on his abdication the Duke of Windsor could not have claimed the right to be described as a Royal Highness. In other words, no reasonable objection could have been taken if the King had decided that his exclusion from the lineal succession excluded him from the right to this title as conferred by the existing Letters Patent
  2. The question however has to be considered on the basis of the fact that, for reasons which are readily understandable, he with the express approval of His Majesty enjoys this title and has been referred to as a Royal Highness on a formal occasion and in formal documents. In the light of precedent it seems clear that the wife of a Royal Highness enjoys the same title unless some appropriate express step can be and is taken to deprive her of it.
  3. We came to the conclusion that the wife could not claim this right on any legal basis. The right to use this style or title, in our view, is within the prerogative of His Majesty and he has the power to regulate it by Letters Patent generally or in particular circumstances.[49]

The Duke of Windsor married Mrs. Simpson, who had changed her name by deed poll to Wallis Warfield, in a private ceremony on 3 June 1937, at Chateau de Candé, near Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France. When the Church of England refused to sanction the union, a County Durham clergyman, the Reverend Robert Anderson Jardine (Vicar of St Paul's, Darlington), offered to perform the ceremony, and the Duke happily accepted. The new king, George VI, absolutely forbade members of the Royal Family to attend[50] — Edward had particularly wanted Princes Henry and George (the Dukes of Gloucester and Kent) and Lord Louis Mountbatten (Earl Mountbatten of Burma after 1947) to be there — and this continued for many years to rankle with the now ducal couple, notwithstanding the obvious awkwardnesses involved should royalty have been on hand because of the King's role as Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[51] A deed poll is a legal document binding only to a single person or several person acted jointly to express an active intention. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... Darlington, including the town clock. ... The Duke of Gloucester His Royal Highness The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (Henry William Frederick Albert Windsor) (31 March 1900 - 10 June 1974), was the third son of King George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary, the brother of King Edward VIII (later Duke of Windsor) and... His Royal Highness The Prince George, Duke of Kent (George Edward Alexander Edmund von Wettin, later Windsor) (20 December 1902 - 25 August 1942) was the fourth son of King George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary. ... Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ...


The denial of the style "HRH" to the Duchess of Windsor caused conflict, as did the financial settlement — the government declined to include the Duke or the Duchess on the Civil List and the Duke's allowance was paid personally by the King. But the Duke had compromised his position with the King by concealing the extent of his financial worth when they informally agreed on the amount of the sinecure the King would pay. Edward's worth had accumulated from the revenues of the Duchy of Cornwall paid to him as Prince of Wales and ordinarily at the disposal of an incoming king.[52] This led to strained relations between the Duke of Windsor and the rest of the Royal Family for decades. Edward became embittered against his own mother, writing to her in 1939: "[your last letter][53] destroy[ed] the last vestige of feeling I had left for you ... [and has] made further normal correspondence between us impossible."[54] In the early days of George VI's reign the Duke telephoned daily, importuning for money and urging that the Duchess be granted the style of HRH, until the harassed King ordered that the calls not be put through.[55] A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ...


The Duke had assumed that he would settle in Britain after a year or two of exile in France. However, King George VI (with the support of his mother Queen Mary and his wife Queen Elizabeth) threatened to cut off his allowance if he returned to Britain without an invitation. The new King and Queen were also forced to pay Edward for Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle. These properties were Edward's personal property, inherited from his father, King George V on his death, and thus did not automatically pass to George VI on abdication.[52] Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later Queen Elizabeth (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002), was the Queen Consort of George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... Sandringham House is a country house on 8000 acres (32 km²) of land near the village of Sandringham, Norfolk, which is privately owned by the British Royal Family. ... Balmoral Castle. ...


World War II

The Duke and Duchess of Windsor with Adolf Hitler
The Duke and Duchess of Windsor with Adolf Hitler

In 1937, the Duke and Duchess visited Germany, against the advice of the British government, and met Nazi leader Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden. The visit was much publicised by the German media. During the visit the Duke gave full Nazi salutes.[56] Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Hitler redirects here. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ...


The couple then settled in France. In September 1939, they were brought back to Britain by Lord Mountbatten in HMS Kelly, and the Duke was made a Major-General attached to the British Military Mission in France. Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... HMS Kelly (F01) was a K-class destroyer in Britains Royal Navy, launched on 25 October 1938 and commissioned on 23 August 1939. ...


In February 1940, the German Minister in the Hague, Count Julius von Zech-Burkersroda, claimed that the Duke had leaked the Allied war plans for the defence of Belgium.[57] When Germany invaded the north of France in May 1940, the Windsors fled south, first to Biarritz, then in June to Spain. In July the pair moved to Lisbon, where they lived at first in the home of a banker with German contacts.[58] Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... Biarritz (French: Biarritz, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan: Biàrritz; Basque: Miarritze) is a town and commune which lies on the Bay of Biscay, on the Atlantic coast, in southwestern France. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ...


A "defeatist" interview with the Duke that was widely distributed may have served as the last straw for the British government: the Prime Minister Winston Churchill threatened the Duke with a court-martial if he did not return to British soil.[59] In August, a British warship dispatched the pair to the Bahamas, where in the view of Winston Churchill the Duke could do least damage to the British war effort. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ...


The Duke of Windsor was installed as Governor, and became the first Commonwealth monarch ever to hold a civilian political office. He did not enjoy the position, and referred to the islands as "a third-class British colony."[60] However, he was praised for his efforts to combat poverty on the island nation, although his attitudes (unremarkable at the time) were racist. He said of Étienne Dupuch, the editor of the Nassau Daily Tribune: "It must be remembered that Dupuch is more than half Negro, and due to the peculiar mentality of this Race, they seem unable to rise to prominence without losing their equilibrium."[18] He was praised, even by Dupuch at the time, for his resolution of civil unrest over low wages in Nassau in 1942, even though he blamed the trouble on communist agitators and draft-dodging Jews.[61] He held the post until the end of World War II in 1945. For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Sir Étienne Dupuch (February 16, 1899 - August 23, 1991) was the editor of the Nassau Daily Tribune from 1919 and served in the Bahamian House of Assembly for 24 years. ... For other uses of Nassau, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The Austrian ambassador, who was also a cousin and friend of George V, believed that Edward favoured German fascism as a bulwark against communism, and even that he initially favoured an alliance with Germany.[62] Edward's experience of "the unending scenes of horror"[63] during World War I led him to support appeasement. Hitler considered Edward to be friendly towards Nazi Germany, saying "His abdication was a severe loss for us."[64] Many historians have suggested that Hitler was prepared to reinstate Edward as King in the hope of establishing a fascist Britain.[65] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

The Duke in 1945
The Duke in 1945

It is widely believed that the Duke (and especially the Duchess) sympathised with fascism before and during World War II, and had to remain in the Bahamas to minimise their opportunities to act on those feelings. In 1940 he said: "In the past 10 years Germany has totally reorganized the order of its society… Countries which were unwilling to accept such a reorganization of society and its concomitant sacrifices should direct their policies accordingly."[66] During the occupation of France, the Duke asked the German forces to place guards at his Paris and Riviera homes: they did so.[67] The British Foreign Office strenuously objected when the pair planned to tour aboard a yacht belonging to a Swedish magnate, Axel Wenner-Gren, whom American intelligence wrongly believed to be a close friend of Nazi leader Hermann Göring.[68] Lord Caldecote wrote to Winston Churchill just before the couple were sent to the Bahamas, "[the Duke] is well-known to be pro-Nazi and he may become a centre of intrigue."[69] The latter, but not the former, part of this assessment is corroborated by German operations designed to use the Duke. (See Operation Willi.) Image File history File links Size of this preview: 500 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (620 × 744 pixel, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Edward VIII of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 500 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (620 × 744 pixel, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Edward VIII of... Axel Lennart Wenner-Gren (June 5, 1881 - November 24, 1961) was a Swedish entrepreneur and one of the wealthiest men in the world during the 1930s. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... Thomas Walker Hobart Inskip, 1st Viscount Caldecote was a British politician who served in many legal posts, culminating in serving as Lord Chancellor from 1939 until 1940. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ... Operation Willi was the German code name for the unsuccessful attempt by the SS to kidnap Edward, Duke of Windsor in July 1940 and induce him to work with Hitler for either a peace settlement with Britain, or a restoration to the throne after the German conquest of Great Britain. ...


The Allies became sufficiently disturbed by the German plots that President Roosevelt ordered covert surveillance of the Duke and Duchess when they visited Palm Beach, Florida, in April 1941. The former Duke of Württemberg (then a monk in an American monastery) had convinced the Federal Bureau of Investigation that the Duchess had been sleeping with the German ambassador in London, Joachim von Ribbentrop, had remained in constant contact with him, and had continued to leak secrets.[70] Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Being largely seasonal, downtown Palm Beachs streets are virtually vacant in the summer. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Philipp Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg (George Philipp Albrecht Carl Maria Joseph Ludwig Hubertus Stanislaus Leopold von Württemberg) was born on 14 November 1893 in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ), serving as both a federal criminal investigative body and a domestic intelligence agency. ... Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ...


After the war, the Duke admitted in his memoirs that he admired the Germans, but he denied being pro-Nazi. Of Hitler he wrote: "[the] Führer struck me as a somewhat ridiculous figure, with his theatrical posturings and his bombastic pretensions."[71]


Later life

The couple returned once again to France to live at 4 rue du Champ d'Entraînement on the Neuilly-sur-Seine side of the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, where the City of Paris provided him with a house[72] and the French government exempted him from income tax.[73] They spent much of the remainder of their lives essentially in retirement, as the Duke never occupied another professional role after his wartime governorship of the Bahamas. Effectively taking on the role of minor celebrities, the couple were for a time in the 1950s and 1960s regarded as part of café society. They hosted parties and shuttled between Paris and New York; many of those who met the Windsors socially, including Gore Vidal, reported on the vacuity of the Duke's conversation.[74] Neuilly-sur-Seine is a commune in the Hauts-de-Seine département in France. ... The upper lake, with rowboats The Bois de Boulogne is a park located along the western edge of the 16ème arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Café society was the collective description for the so-called beautiful people and bright young things who gathered in fashionable cafes and restaurants in Paris, London, Rome or New York, beginning in the late 1800s. ... Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced , occasionally , , etc) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays. ...


In 1951 the Duke produced a ghost-written memoir, A King's Story, in which he makes no secret of his disagreement with liberal politics.[9] The royalties from the book, as well as large and illegal currency transactions, supplemented the Duke's allowance.[73] Nine years later, he also penned a relatively unknown book, A Family Album, chiefly about the fashion and habits of the Royal Family throughout his life, from the time of Queen Victoria through his grandfather and father, and his own tastes. Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ...

President Nixon and the Duke and Duchess of Windsor in 1970
President Nixon and the Duke and Duchess of Windsor in 1970

The couple appeared on Edward R. Murrow's television interview show Person to Person.[75] The couple visited President Eisenhower at the White House in 1955 and in 1970 appeared in a 50-minute BBC television interview; that year they were invited as guests of honour to a dinner at the White House by President Richard M. Nixon in repayment for their having entertained Nixon in Paris during the mid-1960s when his political fortunes were low. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 608 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (849 × 837 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Downloaded from [1] The Dutchess of Windsor, Richard Nixon, The Duke of Windsor. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 608 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (849 × 837 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Downloaded from [1] The Dutchess of Windsor, Richard Nixon, The Duke of Windsor. ... Order: 37th President Vice President: Spiro Agnew (1969–1973), Gerald R. Ford (1973–1974) Term of office: January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Preceded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Succeeded by: Gerald R. Ford Date of birth: January 9, 1913 Place of birth: Yorba Linda, California Date of death: April 22... April 8, 1956: CBS newsman Edward R. Murrow talking to reporters during a stop in Wiesbaden, Germany. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


The Royal Family never accepted the Duchess and would not receive her formally, but the Duke sometimes met his mother and brother, the King, after his abdication; he attended the King's funeral. Queen Mary in particular maintained her anger with Edward and her indignation as to Wallis: "To give up all this for that," she said.[76] In 1965, the Duke and Duchess returned to London. They were visited by the Queen, Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent and the Princess Royal. A week later, the Princess Royal died and they attended her memorial service. In 1967 they joined the Royal Family for the centenary of Queen Mary's birth. The last royal ceremony he attended was the funeral of Princess Marina in 1968.[77] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... HRH Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent (née Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark), (13 December 1906 - 27 August 1968) was a member of the British Royal Family; the wife of Prince George, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George V and Queen... A centenary is an event to celebrate the 100th anniversary of an event. ...


In the late 1960s, the Duke's health deteriorated. In 1972, Queen Elizabeth visited the Windsors while on a state visit to France, however only the Duchess appeared with the Royal party for a photocall. On 28 May of that year the Duke, who was a smoker from an early age, died at his home in Paris from throat cancer. His body was returned to Britain, lying in state at St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle; an unexpectedly large number of people filed by the casket. The funeral service was held in the chapel on 5 June in the presence of the Queen, the royal family, and the Duchess of Windsor, and the coffin was buried in a plot beside the Royal Mausoleum at Frogmore. The Duchess stayed at Buckingham Palace during her visit.[78] Increasingly senile and frail, the Duchess died 14 years later, and was buried alongside her husband simply as "Wallis, Duchess of Windsor".[79] May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Throat cancer is a common way of referring to some head and neck cancers, usually squamous cell carcinomas. ... Members of the public outside St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle, waiting to watch the Garter Procession St Georges Chapel is the place of worship at Windsor Castle in England. ... Windsor castle, a thousand-year-old fortress transformed into a royal palace. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Frogmore or Frogmore House is a former royal residence in England, in the grounds of Windsor Castle, and is the site of the Frogmore Mausoleum containing the grave of Victoria and Albert. ...


Legacy

In media

Edward's profound effect on his public is given extensive literary treatment in Robertson Davies's Deptford Trilogy. One of the characters, Boy Staunton, is a great admirer of Edward VIII, having met him in person once and styled himself after him. His discontent upon reaching the position of Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario mirrors Edward's decision to choose love over his title and position. Other novels including Edward as a character include Guy Walters's The Leader (Headline Book Publishing Ltd. 2003) – a fictional alternative history of World War II: Edward VIII does not abdicate but reigns as king with Wallis Simpson as queen. They rule a fascist England after World War II and are allied with a victorious Hitler, but are opposed by the hero of the book, Captain James Armstrong. In the novel I Never Promised You a Rose Garden, written under the pen name Hannah Green, there is a mental patient who believes she is the 'secret first wife of Edward VIII, abdicated King of England'. William Robertson Davies, CC, FRSC, FRSL (born August 28, 1913, at Thamesville, Ontario, and died December 2, 1995 at Orangeville, Ontario) was a Canadian novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor. ... The Deptford Trilogy is the name given to three related novels by Canadian novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor Robertson Davies. ... This is a list of Lieutenant Governors of the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Guy Walters (born August 8, 1971, Kensington, London) is a British author and journalist. ... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Wallis, Duchess of Windsor and the Duke of Windsor on their wedding day Bessie Wallis Warfield, more widely known as Wallis Simpson and later The Duchess of Windsor (June 19, 1896–April 24, 1986) was the wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor, the former King Edward VIII of the... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... I Never Promised You a Rose Garden is an autobiographical novel by Joanne Greenberg, written under the pen name of Hannah Green. ... Joanne Greenberg (b,. Brooklyn 1932 ) is an American author most well known for the bestselling novel, I Never Promised You a Rose Garden written under the pen name of Hannah Green, which was adapted into a 1977 movie of the same name. ...


The calypso song "Edward VIII" by the Trinidadian calypsonian Lord Caresser was the most popular calypso record in 1937.[80] In singer-songwriter Al Stewart's song "Life Between the Wars" there is a reference to Edward: "The King is leaving Buckingham Palace/It's far too cold; he'd rather have Wallis." Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad at about the start of the 20th century. ... Motto Together we aspire, together we achieve Anthem Forged From The Love of Liberty Capital Port of Spain Largest town Chaguanas [1] Official languages English Government Republic  -  President George Maxwell Richards  -  Prime Minister Patrick Manning Independence  -  from the United Kingdom 31 August 1962  Area  -  Total 5,128 km² (172nd) 1... A Calypsonian is a musician, usually from Trinidad, who has studied calypso and memorised its traditional tunes and stanzas. ... Al Stewart (born Alastair Ian Stewart on September 5, 1945, Glasgow, Scotland), is a British singer-songwriter and musician. ...


In the 1963 cartoon Million Hare, Bugs Bunny remarks that he has the same tailor as the Duke of Windsor. Edward was portrayed by Richard Chamberlain in the 1972 made-for-TV movie The Woman I Love' which focused on the love between Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson. He was portrayed by Edward Fox in the seven-part 1978 miniseries Edward and Mrs. Simpson, based on Frances Donaldson's 1974 biography, Edward VIII. Produced by Thames Television, the focus was on both the romance and the constitutional crisis that triggered the abdication. Steven Campbell Moore portrayed Edward in the 2005 BBC-TV production Wallis & Edward, billed as the first scripted account of the romance from Wallis Simpson's point of view.[81] A cartoon is any of several forms of illustrations with varied meanings that evolved from its original meaning. ... Bugs Bunny is an Academy Award-winning fictional animated rabbit who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... Richard Chamberlain, right, as John Blackthorne, and John Rhys-Davies, left, as the Portuguese Pilot Vasco Rodrigues in the Shogun television miniseries. ... The Duke and Duchess of Windsor on their wedding day. ... There have been several well-known individuals named Edward Fox, including: Edward Fox (c. ... Frances Annesley (née Lonsdale), Lady Donaldson of Kingsbridge was a writer and biographer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stephen Campbell Moore (born Stephen Thorpe) is an English actor. ...


Other information

Monarchical Styles of
King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sir

Image File history File links Edward's_crown_PD_cleaned. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ...

Titles

  • 1894–1898: His Highness Prince Edward of York
  • 1898–1901: His Royal Highness Prince Edward of York
  • 1901: His Royal Highness Prince Edward of Cornwall
  • 1901–1910: His Royal Highness Prince Edward of Wales
  • 1910 His Royal Highness The Duke of Cornwall
  • 1910–1936: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
    • in Scotland: 1910–1936: His Royal Highness The Prince Edward, Duke of Rothesay
  • 1936: His Majesty The King

and, occasionally, outside of the United Kingdom, and with regard to India

  • 1936: His Imperial Majesty The King-Emperor
  • 1936–1937: His Royal Highness The Prince Edward
  • 1937–1972: His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor
    • Edward began use of the title immediately upon abdication, in accordance with George VI's declaration to his Accession Council that his first act as King would be to grant to his brother the said title. However, several months passed before the concession was formalised by Letters Patent

Styles

From his father's ascension to the throne on 6 May 1910 until his own accession on 20 January 1936, Prince Edward held the style His Royal Highness The Prince Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


His full style as king was His Majesty, Edward the Eighth, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India


After his abdication, his full style was His Royal Highness The Prince Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David, Duke of Windsor


Honours

British Honours

Edward lost almost all of his British honours upon ascension, because he became sovereign of most of them. When he was no longer sovereign, his brother reinstated his pre-ascension honours The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is an order of chivalry associated with Ireland. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... Insignia of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India. ... The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1877. ... Queen Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... This page deals with the order after its revival in the 19th century. ... The Royal Victorian Chain is a British award, instituted in 1902 by HM King Edward VII as a personal award of the British Monarch (i. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... A Royal Fellow of the Royal Society is elected to the Fellowship and Foreign Membership of the Royal Society. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ...


Foreign Honours

Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... The founder, Philip the Good , with at least five other Members wearing collars, 1447-8 Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, with the collar of the Order The Order of the Golden Fleece (Spanish: Orden del Toisón de Oro) is an order of chivalry founded in 1430 by Duke Philip... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image:Order of St Olav collar. ...

Military

  • Mid, 1911–1913: Midshipman, Royal Navy
  • Lt, 1913–1919: Lieutenant, Royal Navy
  • Lt, 1914–1916: Lieutenant, 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards, British Army. (World War I, Flanders and Italy)
  • Capt, 10 March 1916: Captain, British Army
  • Capt, 1919: Captain, Royal Navy

March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Honorary military appointments

January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Admiral of the Fleet is a supreme naval position that has existed in historical navies and still exists in several modern-day navies. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Marshal of the RAF sleeve/shoulder insignia Marshal of the Royal Air Force was the highest rank in the Royal Air Force. ...

Ancestors

Edward VIII's ancestors in three generations
Edward VIII of the United Kingdom
Father:
George V of the United Kingdom
Paternal grandfather:
Edward VII of the United Kingdom
Paternal great-grandfather:
Albert, Prince Consort
Paternal great-grandmother:
Victoria of the United Kingdom
Paternal grandmother:
Alexandra of Denmark
Paternal great-grandfather:
Christian IX of Denmark
Paternal great-grandmother:
Louise of Hesse-Kassel
Mother:
Mary of Teck
Maternal grandfather:
Francis, Duke of Teck
Maternal great-grandfather:
Duke Alexander of Württemberg
Maternal great-grandmother:
Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde
Maternal grandmother:
Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge
Maternal great-grandfather:
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Maternal great-grandmother:
Princess Augusta, Duchess of Cambridge

George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Augustus Charles Albert Emanuel, later HRH The Prince Consort) (26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Princess Alexandra of Denmark (later Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925), was Queen Consort to Edward VII of the United Kingdom and thus Empress of India during her husbands reign. ... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ... Louise of Hesse-Cassel, Luise Wilhelmine Friederike Caroline Auguste Julie von Hessen-Kassel (in Danish, Louise Wilhelmine Frederikke Caroline Auguste Julie), b Kassel 7 Sep 1817, d Bernstorff 29 Sep 1898, was a daughter of ancient German princely family, the Landgraves of Hesse, and became Queen of Denmark, being the... Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the Queen Consort of George V. Queen Mary was also the Empress of India and Queen of Ireland. ... His Highness Prince Francis, Duke of Teck (Francis Paul Charles Louis Alexander) (August 28, 1837 - January 21, 1900)), was a member of the British Royal Family, the father of Queen Mary. ... Duke Alexander of Württemberg (9 September 1804 – 4 July 1885) was the father of His Serene Highness Prince Francis of Teck and the grandfather to the Adolphus Cambridge, 1st Marquess of Cambridge and Queen Mary of Great Britain, wife of King George V. He was the son of Duke... Countess Claudia Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde, Countess of Hohenstein (September 21, 1812 - October 1, 1841) was the wife of Duke Alexander of Württemberg. ... Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge (Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elizabeth; 27 November 1833 – 27 October 1897) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III. She later held the title of Duchess of Teck by marriage. ... Prince Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge (24 February 1774-8 July 1850), was the tenth-born child and seventh son of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel (Augusta Wilhelmina Louisa; later Duchess of Cambridge; 25 July 1797 – 6 April 1889) was the consort of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the tenth-born child, and seventh son, of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. ...

Notes and sources

  1. ^ Windsor, HRH The Duke of (1951). A King’s Story. London: Cassell and Co, p.1. 
  2. ^ His twelve godparents were Queen Victoria (1837–1901), the Prince and Princess of Wales, the King (Prince Adolphus of Teck stood proxy) and Queen of Denmark (The Duchess of Fife stood proxy), the King of Württemberg (The Duke of Connaught and Strathearn stood proxy), the Queen of Greece (Princess Victoria Wales stood proxy), the Tsarevitch of Russia, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Prince Louis of Battenberg stood proxy), the Duke and Duchess of Teck and the Duke of Cambridge.
  3. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.7
  4. ^ The Duke of Windsor, pp.25–28
  5. ^ Ziegler, Philip (1991). King Edward VIII: The official biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, pp.30–31. ISBN 0-394-57730-2. 
  6. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.38–39
  7. ^ Ziegler, p.79
  8. ^ Weir, Alison (1996). Britain’s Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy Revised edition. London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-7448-9. 
  9. ^ a b The Duke of Windsor, p.78
  10. ^ The Duke of Windsor, pp.106–107 and Ziegler, pp.48–50
  11. ^ Roberts, Andrew (2000). in Edited by Antonia Fraser: The House of Windsor. London: Cassell and Co, p.41. ISBN 0-304-35406-6. 
  12. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.109
  13. ^ Ziegler, p.111 and The Duke of Windsor, p.140
  14. ^ The Prince of Wales takes to the skies in his first flight in 1918. Royal Insight magazine. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  15. ^ Titles, Orders, and Military Appointments. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  16. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.215
  17. ^ Godfrey, Rupert (editor) (1998), "11 July 1920", Letters From a Prince: Edward to Mrs. Freda Dudley Ward 1918–1921, Little, Brown & Co, ISBN 0-7515-2590-1
  18. ^ a b Ziegler, p.448
  19. ^ Broad, Lewis (1961). The Abdication: Twenty-five Years After. A Re-appraisal. London: Frederick Muller Ltd, p.4–5. 
  20. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.235
  21. ^ Ziegler, p.233
  22. ^ Middlemas, Keith; Barnes, John (1969). Baldwin: A Biography. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p.976. ISBN 0297178598. 
  23. ^ Airlie, Mabell (1962). Thatched with Gold. London: Hutchinson, p.197. 
  24. ^ Windsor, The Duchess of (1956). The Heart Has Its Reasons. Michael Joseph, p.205. 
  25. ^ Bradford, Sarah (1989). King George VI. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p.142. ISBN 0297796674. 
  26. ^ Boycott, Owen; Bates, Stephen (January 30, 2003). Car dealer was Wallis Simpson's secret lover. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  27. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.265
  28. ^ a b Matthew, H. C. G. (2004), "Edward VIII [later Prince Edward, duke of Windsor] (1894–1972)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  29. ^ Ziegler, p.273–274
  30. ^ The Duke of Windsor, pp.293–294
  31. ^ Coinage and bank notes. Royal Insight. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  32. ^ Cook, Andrew (3 January 2003). The plot thickens. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  33. ^ Broad, pp.56–57
  34. ^ The Duke of Windsor, pp.330–331
  35. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.346
  36. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.354
  37. ^ Ziegler, pp.305–307
  38. ^ Bradford, p.187
  39. ^ Bradford, p.188
  40. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.354–355
  41. ^ Beaverbrook, Lord (1966). The Abdication of King Edward VIII. London: Hamish Hamilton, p.57. 
  42. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.387
  43. ^ There were fifteen separate copies – one for each Dominion, the Irish Free State, India, the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Prime Minister, amongst others.
  44. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.407
  45. ^ Executive Authority (External Relations) Act, 1936. The Government of Ireland. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  46. ^ The Official Website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  47. ^ Ziegler, p.336
  48. ^ Clive Wigram's conversation with Sir Claud Schuster, Clerk to the Crown and Permanent Secretary to the Lord Chancellor quoted in Bradford, p.201
  49. ^ The drafting of the letters patent of 1937. National Archives file HO 144/22945. François Velde (2003 January). Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  50. ^ Williams, Susan (2003). The historical significance of the Abdication files. Public Records Office – New Document Releases – Abdication Papers, London. Public Records Office of the United Kingdom. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  51. ^ Ziegler, pp.354–355
  52. ^ a b Ziegler, pp.376–378
  53. ^ She had asked Alec Hardinge to write to the Duke explaining that he could not be invited to his father's memorial
  54. ^ Ziegler, p.384
  55. ^ Ziegler, p.349
  56. ^ Donaldson, Frances (1974). Edward VIII. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p.331–332. ISBN 0297767879. 
  57. ^ Bradford, p. 434
  58. ^ Bloch, Michael (1982). The Duke of Windsor’s War. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p.91. ISBN 0297779478. 
  59. ^ Bloch, p.93
  60. ^ Bloch, p.364
  61. ^ Ziegler, p.471–472
  62. ^ Papers of Count Albert Mensdorff-Pouilly-Dietrichstein (1861–1945) in the State Archives, Vienna quoted in Rose, Kenneth (1983). King George V. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p.391. ISBN 0297782452. 
  63. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.122
  64. ^ Speer, Albert (1970). Inside the Third Reich. New York: Macmillan, p.118. 
  65. ^ Ziegler, p.392
  66. ^ Bloch, pp.79–80
  67. ^ Roberts, p.52
  68. ^ Bloch, pp.154–159, 230–233
  69. ^ Ziegler, p.434
  70. ^ Evans, Rob; Hencke, David (June 29, 2002). Wallis Simpson, the Nazi minister, the telltale monk and an FBI plot. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  71. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p.277
  72. ^ Ziegler, p.534–535
  73. ^ a b Roberts, p.53
  74. ^ Vidal, Gore (1995). Palimpsest: a memoir, p.206. ISBN 0-679-44038-0. 
  75. ^ Time (October 8, 1956). Peep Show. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  76. ^ Bradford, p.198
  77. ^ Ziegler, pp.554–556
  78. ^ Ziegler, pp.556–557
  79. ^ "Simple funeral rites for Duchess", BBC, 29 April 1986. Retrieved on 2007-02-28. 
  80. ^ Calypso World. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  81. ^ Wallis & Edward. BBC America. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Princess Alexandra of Denmark (later Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925), was Queen Consort to Edward VII of the United Kingdom and thus Empress of India during her husbands reign. ... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ... Adolphus Cambridge, 1st Marquess of Cambridge(Adolphus Charles Alexander Albert Edward George Philip Louis Landislaus), neè His Serene Highness Prince Adolphus of Teck and later His Highness The Duke of Teck (13 August 1868-23 October 1927), was a member of the British Royal Family and a younger brother of... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Her Royal Highness The Princess Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife (Louise Victoria Alexandra Dagmar Duff, née Wettin) (20 February 1867-4 January 1931), was the third child and the eldest daughter of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. ... William II King of Württemberg Wilhelm II, King of Württemberg (25 February 1848-2 October 1921) was son of Prince Friedrich of Württemberg (1808-1870) and his wife Catherine of Württemberg (1821-1898), daughter of King William I of Württemberg. ... Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 1850 – 16 January 1942) was a member of the British Royal Family, a son of Queen Victoria. ... Olga, Queen of Greece Olga Konstantinovna of Russia later Queen Olga of Greece (in Russian Великая Княжна Ольга Константиновна in Greek Βασίλισσα Όλγα της Ελλάδος) (3 September 1851 - 18 June 1926), was the queen consort of King George I of Greece and briefly in 1920, Regent of Greece. ... HRH The Princess Victoria, Princess Royal (later German Empress Frederick) Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (nee Her Royal Highness The Princess Victoria, Princess Royal of Great Britain and Ireland) (Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise), (21 November 1840-5 August 1901) was Empress of Germany and Queen of Prussia. ... Nicholas II of Russia (Nikolai Aleksandrovich Romanov) (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Alfred Ernest Albert; 6 August 1844 – 30 July 1900) was the third Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha between 1893 and 1900. ... Admiral of the Fleet Prince Louis of Battenberg, later Louis Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven (24 May 1854-11 September 1921) was a minor German prince who married into the British Royal Family and pursued a distinguished career in the Royal Navy, eventually serving as First Sea Lord from... Prince Francis Duke of Teck Prince Francis, Duke of Teck (Francis Paul Charles Louis Alexander; German: Franz Paul Karl Ludwig Alexander) (August 28, 1837 – January 21, 1900), was a member of the British Royal Family, the father of Queen Mary. ... Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge (Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elizabeth; 27 November 1833 – 27 October 1897) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III. She later held the title of Duchess of Teck by marriage. ... Prince George, 2nd Duke of Cambridge Prince George, Duke of Cambridge (26 March 1819 – 17 March 1904), was a member of the British Royal Family, a male-line grandson of King George III. The Duke was an army officer and served as commander-in-chief of the British Army from... Highly regarded British biographer and historian. ... Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Countess of Airlie, by Philip Alexius de Laszlo, c. ... The Duke and Duchess of Windsor on their wedding day. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Baron Beaverbrook William Maxwell Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, PC (May 25, 1879 – June 9, 1964) was a Canadian – British business tycoon and politician. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clive Wigram, 1st Baron Wigram, GCB GCVO CSI was Private Secretary to the Sovereign 1931–1936. ... Claud Schuster, 1st Baron Schuster (2 August 1869–28 June 1956) was a British barrister and civil servant. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexander Hardinge, 2nd Baron Hardinge of Penshurst KCB GCVO MC PC (17 May 1894–29 May 1960) was Private Secretary to the Sovereign during the Abdication Crisis of Edward VIII and during most of the Second World War. ... Frances Annesley (née Lonsdale), Lady Donaldson of Kingsbridge was a writer and biographer. ... Kenneth Vivian Rose (b. ... Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer, commonly known as Albert Speer ( ; March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981), was an architect, author and high-ranking Nazi German government official, sometimes called the first architect of the Third Reich. His two bestselling autobiographical works, detailing his often close personal relationship with German dictator... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced , occasionally , , etc) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bloch, Michael (1982). The Duke of Windsor’s War. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297779478. 
  • Bradford, Sarah (1989). King George VI. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297796674. 
  • Donaldson, Frances (1974). Edward VIII. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297767879. 
  • Godfrey, Rupert (editor) (1998). Letters From a Prince: Edward to Mrs. Freda Dudley Ward 1918–1921. Little, Brown & Co. ISBN 0-7515-2590-1. 
  • Roberts, Andrew; Edited by Antonia Fraser (2000). The House of Windsor. London: Cassell and Co. ISBN 0-304-35406-6. 
  • Williams, Susan (2003). The historical significance of the Abdication files. Public Records Office – New Document Releases – Abdication Papers, London. Public Records Office of the United Kingdom. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  • Windsor, HRH The Duke of (1951). A King’s Story. London: Cassell and Co. 
  • Ziegler, Philip (1991). King Edward VIII: The official biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-57730-2. 

Frances Annesley (née Lonsdale), Lady Donaldson of Kingsbridge was a writer and biographer. ... Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Highly regarded British biographer and historian. ...

Further reading

  • Bloch, Michael (1988). The Secret File of the Duke of Windsor. London: Bantam Books. ISBN 059301667X. 
  • Bloch, Michael (editor) (1986). Wallis and Edward: Letters 1931–1937. Summit Books. ISBN 0-671-61209-3. 
  • Menkes, Suzy (1987). The Windsor Style. London: Grafton Books. ISBN 0246132124. 
  • Windsor, The Duchess of (1956). The Heart has its Reasons: The Memoirs of the Duchess of Windsor. New York: Houghton Mifflin. 
  • Ziegler, Philip (1985). Mountbatten: the official biography. Collins. 

External links

Wikisource
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Edward VIII of the United Kingdom
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Edward VIII of the United Kingdom
House of Windsor
Cadet branch of the House of Wettin
Born: 23 June 1894
Died: 18 May 1972
Preceded by
George V
King of the United Kingdom and British dominions beyond the seas
Emperor of India

20 January11 December 1936
Succeeded by
George VI
British royalty
Preceded by
George, Prince of Wales
Heir to the Throne
as heir apparent
1910–1936
Succeeded by
Prince Albert, Duke of York
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New Title Duke of Windsor
1937–1972
Title Extinct
Honorary titles
Vacant
Title last held by
George V
Grand Master of the Order of St. Michael and St. George
1917–1936
Succeeded by
1st Earl of Athlone
Preceded by
new office
Grand Master of the Order of the British Empire
1917–1936
Succeeded by
Queen Mary
Persondata
NAME Windsor, The Duke of
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Edward VIII; Windsor, Edward
SHORT DESCRIPTION Former King-Emperor of the British Empire
DATE OF BIRTH 23 June 1894
PLACE OF BIRTH Richmond, London
DATE OF DEATH 28 May 1972
PLACE OF DEATH Paris, France

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