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Encyclopedia > Edward Smith
Captain Edward John Smith

Photo of Captain Edward Smith from 1912 book, Wreck and Sinking of the Titanic by Marshall Everett
Born January 27, 1850(1850-01-27)
Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom
Died April 15, 1912 (aged 62)
Atlantic Ocean
Occupation Ship captain
Spouse Sarah Eleanor Pennington
Children Helen Melville Smith
Parents Edward Smith
Catherine Hancock

Captain Edward John Smith, RD, RNR (January 27, 1850April 15, 1912) was the captain of the RMS Titanic when it sank in 1912. He and his wife had a daughter named Helen Melville Smith. There is a statue to his legacy in Lichfield, England.[1] is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Map sources for Hanley at grid reference SJ8847 Disambiguation: Hanley may refer to Hanley, Canada. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... The Reserve Decoration, is an award for service in the Royal Navy Reserve of the United Kingdom. ... “RNR” redirects here. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Litchfield. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Biography

Personal life

Edward John Smith was born on January 27, 1850 in the town of Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent. His parents were Edward Smith, a potter, and Catherine Hancock née Marsh, who married in 1841 in Wolstanton. His parents later owned a shop. Smith attended the Etruria British School until the age of 13 when he went to Liverpool to begin a seafaring career. He apprenticed with Gibson & Co., Liverpool. is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Map sources for Hanley at grid reference SJ8847 Disambiguation: Hanley may refer to Hanley, Canada. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... Wolstanton is a suburban area on the outskirts of Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire. ... Etruria was the name of the fourth and penultimate site for the Wedgwood pottery business. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ...


On July 12, 1887, Smith married Sarah Eleanor Pennington. Their daughter, Helen Melville Smith, was born in Waterloo, Lancashire, in 1898. The family lived in an imposing red brick, twin-gabled house, named "Woodhead", on Winn Road, Portswood, Southampton. According to his daughter, Captain Smith loved cigars and the smoke from them. He wouldn't let anyone into his study while he was smoking because he didn't want the ring of smoke to be disturbed. is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Portswood is a district of Southampton, England, near Highfield. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ...


As a Captain

Smith joined the White Star Line in March 1880 as the Fourth Officer of the Celtic. He served aboard the company's liners to Australia and to New York, where he quickly rose in stature. In 1887, Smith received his first White Star command, the SS Republic. In 1888, Smith earned his Extra Master's Certificate and joined the Royal Naval Reserve (thus enabling him to append his name with "RNR"), qualifying as a full Lieutenant. This meant that in a time of war, Smith and his ship could be called upon to serve by the Royal Navy. Because of his position as a Commander in the Royal Naval Reserve, Smith had the distinction of being able to fly the Blue Duster of the R.N.R.; most ships flew the Red Duster of the merchant marine. For other uses, see White star. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... White Star Line logo and burgee SS Celtic was a steamship built for the White Star Line by shipbuilders Harland and Wolff of Belfast. ... This article is about the state. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... “RNR” redirects here. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... RFA Brambleleaf flying the square Blue Jack based on the Blue Ensign The Blue Ensign is a flag, one of several British ensigns, used by certain organisations or territories associated with the United Kingdom. ... The Red Ensign, as currently used by the United Kingdoms Merchant Navy The Red Ensign of the United Kingdom in use in London The Red Ensign or Red Duster is a flag that originated in the early 17th century as an ensign flown by the Royal Navy. ...


Bigger commands

Smith was Majestic's captain for nine years commencing in 1895. When the Boer War started in 1899, Smith and the Majestic were called upon to transport troops to Cape Colony. Two trips were made to South Africa, both without incident, and for his service, King Edward VII awarded Smith the Transport Medal, showing the "South Africa" clasp, in 1903. Smith was regarded as a "safe captain". The SS Majestic was a steamship built in 1890 for and operated by the White Star Line. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ... British campaign medals are awarded to members of the British Armed Forces, Allied forces and Civilians participating in specified military campaigns. ...


As he rose in seniority, Smith gained a reputation amongst passengers and crew for quiet flamboyance. Eventually Smith became the commodore of White Star Line, or one who all other captains reported to. Some passengers would only sail the Atlantic in a ship commanded by him. He became known as the "Millionaires' Captain" due to the fact that England's upper class were usually the ones who requested he be in command of the ships they sailed on. After he became commodore of the White Star fleet in 1904, it became routine for Smith to command the line's newest ships on their maiden voyages. In 1904, he was given command of the largest ships in the world at the time, White Star's new Baltic. Her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York, sailing June 29, 1904, went without incident. After three years with the Baltic, Smith was given his second new "big ship," the Adriatic. Once again, the maiden voyage went without incident. Commodore is a military rank used in some navies for officers whose position exceeds that of a Captain, but is less than that of a Flag Officer. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... Upper class is a concept in sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The RMS Baltic was the second ship of that name belonging to the White Star Line. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... RMS Adriatic was an ocean liner belonging to the White Star Line. ...


During his command of the Adriatic, Smith received the Royal Naval Reserve's "Long Service" medal along with a promotion at White Star to Commander. He would now sign his name as "Commander Edward John Smith, R.D., R.N.R.", with "R.D." meaning "Reserve Decoration."


Olympic Class command

Smith had built a reputation as one of the world's most experienced sea captains, and so was called upon to take first command of the lead ship in a new class of ocean liners, the Olympic — again, the largest vessel in the world at that time. The maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York was successfully concluded on June 21, 1911, but as the ship was docking in New York harbor, it experienced a small incident which would foreshadow future events. Docking at Pier 59 under command of a harbor pilot, the Olympic was being assisted by twelve tugs when one got caught in the backwash of the Olympic's starboard propeller. The tug was spun around, collided with the bigger ship, and for a moment was trapped under the Olympic's stern, finally managing to work free and limp to the docks. RMS Olympic was the first of her class of ocean liners built for the White Star Line, which also included the ill-fated liners Titanic and Britannic. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The Hawke incident

On September 20, 1911, Olympic's first major mishap occurred during a collision with a British warship, HMS Hawke, in which the warship lost her prow. Although the collision left two of Olympic's watertight compartments filled and one of her propeller shafts twisted, she was able to limp back to Southampton. At the resultant inquiry, the Royal Navy blamed Olympic for the incident, alleging that her massive size generated a suction that pulled HMS Hawke into her side. At the helm during this incident was Captain Smith. is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... HMS Hawke, launched in 1891, was the nineteenth British warship to be named Hawke. ... Prow, the fore part of a ship, the stem and its surrounding parts, hence used like keel, by metonymy, of the ship itself. ... Floodability is a characteristic of the construction of a ship to resist flooding. ... A propeller shaft connects a propeller to an engine. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


The Hawke incident was a financial disaster for White Star, and the out-of-service time for the big liner made matters worse. Olympic returned to Belfast and, to speed up the repairs, Harland and Wolff was forced to delay Titanic's completion, in order to use her propeller shaft for the Olympic. This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... Harland and Wolff Heavy Industries is a diversified Heavy industrial company specialising in Shipbuilding, Ship breaking, Offshore construction, Modular construction, Civil, Marine engineering and Project management, located in Belfast, Northern Ireland. ...


Back at sea in February 1912, Olympic lost a propeller blade and once again returned to her builder for emergency repairs. To get her back to service immediately, Harland & Wolff yet again had to pull resources from Titanic, delaying her maiden voyage from March 20 to April 10. For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... The maiden voyage of a ship or aircraft is the first cruise or flight in revenue service, typically following a series of shakedown cruises or test-flights. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

RMS Titanic

Main article: RMS Titanic

Despite all the past trouble, Smith was yet again at the helm of the greatest steamship when Titanic left Southampton for her maiden voyage. Although some sources state that he had decided to retire after commanding the RMS Titanic on its maiden voyage, an article which appeared in the Halifax Morning Chronicle on April 9, 1912 stated that Smith would remain in charge of the Titanic "until the Company (White Star Line) completed a larger and finer steamer." For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


On April 10, 1912, Smith, wearing a bowler hat and a long overcoat, took a taxi from his home to Southampton docks. He came aboard the Titanic at 7AM to prepare for the board of trade muster at 8.00AM. He immediately went to his cabin to get the sailing report from Chief Officer Henry Wilde. is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Henry Tingle Wilde (September 21, 1872 – April 15, 1912) was the Chief Officer of the RMS Titanic. ...


After departure at 12:00PM, the huge amount of water displaced by Titanic as she passed caused the laid-up New York to break from her moorings and swing towards the Titanic. Quick action from Smith helped to avert a premature end to the maiden voyage. SS City of New York, also known as SS New York, was an ocean liner originally operated by Inman Line and later operated by American Line (as SS New York) and US Navy (as USS Harvard and USS Plattsburg). ...


At 11:40PM, on April 14, the Titanic struck an iceberg in the North Atlantic. The ship sank two hours and forty minutes later killing an estimated 1,500 people. Smith was one of those who died. is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Iceberg (disambiguation). ...


Death

It is not known how Smith died on the night of the sinking. Some survivors reported seeing him in the water with a life jacket, while others reported seeing him in the bridge wheelhouse as the open bridge flooded. In Robert Ballard's book, The Discovery of the Titanic, he claims that Smith went into the bridge at 2:13AM, eleven minutes before the final sinking. This idea is used by the 1997 film. Still, one other passenger claimed to have seen Smith swim back into the A Deck Promenade, soon after which he was sucked back inside the Grand Staircase when the windows gave way. The Titanic struck the iceberg at around 11:40PM, but did not sink until around 2:23AM the following day. This would make Captain Smith's date of death April 15, 1912. The Titanics sinking as depicted by artist Willy Stöwer. ... Robert D. Ballard Robert Duane Ballard, Ph. ... Titanic is a 1997 disaster romance film directed, written, produced and edited by James Cameron about the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Portrayals

Smith was first portrayed on film by the German actor Otto Wernicke in the 1943 Nazi propaganda movie Titanic. He was then portrayed by Brian Aherne in the 1953 film of the same name. Following that, he was played several times, including Laurence Naismith (A Night to Remember), Harry Andrews (S.O.S. Titanic) and by George C. Scott in the 1996 mini-series. His most recent portrayal was in 1997's Titanic, played by Bernard Hill. In the latter, he refuses the crew's help in leaving the ship and locks himself in the bridge, where he dies when the bridge goes under water, and floods when the windows break due to the pressure. Otto Karl Robert Wernicke (September 30, 1893 – November 7, 1965) was a German actor. ... Titanic was a 1943 Nazi propaganda film made during World War II in Berlin by Tobis Productions for Ufa Films. ... Brian Aherne (May 2, 1902 – February 10, 1986) was an English film actor who found success in Hollywood. ... Titanic is a 1953 dramatic movie directed by Jean Negulesco. ... Laurence Naismith (born 14 December 1908 in Surrey, England; died 5 June 1992 in Queensland, Australia) was an English actor who starred in many great well known films, such as Richard III, Jason and the Argonauts, (1963), Sink the Bismarck! (1960) and as Captain Edward Smith of the RMS Titanic... A Night to Remember is a 1958 film adaptation of Walter Lords book of the same name, recounting the final night of the RMS Titanic. ... Harry Andrews (November 10, 1911 - March 6, 1989) was a British actor. ... S.O.S. Titanic (1979) is a television movie that covers the doomed 1912 voyage as it is experienced by two second-class passengers, one played by David Warner, who would go on to play a personal security person to a first-class passenger in the 1997 film Titanic. ... George Campbell Scott (October 18, 1927 - September 22, 1999) was a stage and film actor, director, and producer. ... Titanic was a made-for-TV movie that premiered in 1996. ... Titanic is a 1997 disaster romance film directed, written, produced and edited by James Cameron about the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ... Bernard Hill (born December 17, 1944, Manchester, England, UK) is a British actor of film, stage and television. ...


He was portrayed on television by Michael Rennie in the pilot episode of The Time Tunnel. (For some unknown reason, he was billed as "Malcolm Smith" in the show's closing credits.) Michael Rennie (25 August 1909—10 June 1971) was an English film, television and stage actor best known for his starring role as the benevolent space visitor Klaatu in the 1951 classic science fiction film The Day the Earth Stood Still. ... The Time Tunnel is a 1966-1967 U.S. color science fiction TV series. ...


In literary form, Smith has a cameo appearance in the "Captain's Table" series of Star Trek novels. He is seen in the Captain's Table, a bar that anyone from any period of history can enter - as long as they are a ship (or troop) captain. Smith is seen clutching a drink and muttering to himself "Damned iceberg. Damned iceberg." Captain Mackenzie Calhoun (of Star Trek: New Frontier) takes pity on Smith and gives him his Starfleet communicator. This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... MKNZy of Calhoun or Mackenzie Calhoun Captain Mackenzie Calhoun. ... Star Trek: New Frontier is a Star Trek novel series created by Peter David. ...


References

  1. ^ Smith information at Titanic-Titanic.com

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Edward John Smith

  Results from FactBites:
 
Edward Smith - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (933 words)
Smith was Majestic's captain for nine years commencing in 1895.
Smith had built a reputation as one of the world's most experienced sea captains, and so was called upon to take first command of the lead ship in a new class of ocean liners, the Olympic — again, the largest vessel in the world.
An interpretation of Smith's fate is provided when he calmly remains at the bridge during the ship's final moments as the wheelhouse collapses from the water pressure and floods.
Captain Edward John Smith (1037 words)
Edward John Smith, 62, was born at Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent in January 1850, the son of potter Edward Smith and Catherine Smith.
Smith served with distinction in the Boer war by commanding troopships to the Cape.
Smith's widow Eleanor Sarah was born 17 June 1861, after her husband's death she remained in Southampton for a time but later moved to London.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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