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Encyclopedia > Edward Said
Edward Saïd
Image:Edward-Saïdjpg
Edward Wadie Saïd
Born: November 1, 1935(1935-11-01)
Jerusalem
Died: September 25, 2003 (aged 67)
New York City, U.S.
Occupation: Academic
Literary movement: Postcolonialism
Influences: Derrida, Vico, Shakespeare, Hopkins, Gramsci, Adorno, Conrad, Blackmur, Williams, Foucault, Chomsky
Influenced: Hamid Dabashi, Homi K. Bhabha John Esposito, Gayatri Spivak, Robert Fisk, Mahmood Mamdani, Joseph Massad.

Edward Wadie Saïd, Arabic: إدوارد وديع سعيد, Edward Wadī‘ Sa‘īd, (1 November 193525 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and Palestinian activist. He was University Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Columbia University, and is regarded as a founding figure in postcolonial theory.[1] is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... This article is about work. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French literary critic and philosopher of Jewish descent, considered the first to develop deconstruction. Positioning Derridas thought Derrida had a significant effect on continental philosophy and on literary theory, particularly through his long-time... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... The Best ideal is the true/ And other truth is none. ... Antonio Gramsci Antonio Gramsci (January 23, 1891 - April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer (ethnic Albanian by his father) and a politician, a leader and theorist of Socialism, Communism and anti-Fascism. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Teodor Józef Konrad NaÅ‚Ä™cz-Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born novelist who spent most of his adult life in Britain. ... Richard Palmer Blackmur (January 21, 1904 – February 2, 1965) was an American literary critic and poet. ... Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 - 26 January 1988) was a Welsh academic, novelist and critic. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew: אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Hamid Dabashi (Persian: ‎ ​) is an Iranian-born American intellectual historian, cultural and literary critic best known for his scholarship on Iran and Shia Islam. ... Homi K. Bhabha (born 1949) is an Indian-American postcolonial theorist. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak is a deconstructive literary critic and theorist of Indian extraction. ... For people named Robert Fiske, see Robert Fiske (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Arabic redirects here. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... Alma Mater Columbia University in the City of New York is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Postcolonial theory is a literary theory or critical approach that deals with literature produced in countries that were once, or are now, colonies of other countries. ...

Contents

Biography

Edward Saïd was born in Jerusalem (then in the British Mandate of Palestine) on November 1, 1935. His father was a wealthy Palestinian Christian businessman, an American citizen, and member of the U.S. Armed Services while his mother was born in Nazareth of Christian Lebanese and Palestinian descent. [2]. He referred to himself as a "Christian wrapped in a Muslim culture." His sister was the historian and writer Rosemarie Said Zahlan. According to Saïd's autobiographical memoir, Out of Place (excerpted in London Review of Books article "Between Worlds"), Saïd lived "between worlds" in both Cairo and Jerusalem until the age of 12. In 1947, he attended the Anglican St. George's Academy when he was in Jerusalem, but his extended family became (in his word) "refugees" in 1948 during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War when his family home in Talbiya was annexed, along with the western part of Jerusalem, by Israel: For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The Palestinian Christians are Palestinians who follow Christianity. ... Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natzrat) (Standard) Náẓərat Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Name Meaning Ancient word in Hebrew Government City District North Population 64,800[1] (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... Rosemarie Said Zahlan (Arabic: ‎), (August 20, 1937 - May 10, 2006) was a Palestinian-American historian and writer on the Gulf states. ... The London Review of Books (or LRB) is a twice-monthly British literary magazine. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...

I was born in Jerusalem and had spent most of my formative years there and, after 1948, when my entire family became refugees, in Egypt. All my early education had, however, been in élite colonial schools, English public schools designed by the British to bring up a generation of Arabs with natural ties to Britain. The last one I went to before I left the Middle East to go to the United States was Victoria College in Alexandria, a school in effect created to educate those ruling-class Arabs and Levantines who were going to take over after the British left. My contemporaries and classmates included King Hussein of Jordan, several Jordanian, Egyptian, Syrian and Saudi boys who were to become ministers, prime ministers and leading businessmen, as well as such glamorous figures as Michel Shalhoub, head prefect of the school and chief tormentor when I was a relatively junior boy, whom everyone has seen on screen as Omar Sharif.[3] A public school, in common English usage, is a (usually) prestigious school which charges fees and is not financed by the state. ... Victoria College, Alexandria, was founded in 1902 under the impetus of the recently ennobled Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer of the Barings Bank, that was heavily invested in Egyptian stability. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال) (November 14, 1935 - February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ... For the Pakistani actor of the same name, see Umer Sharif. ...

At the age of 15, Saïd's parents sent him to Mount Hermon School, a private college preparatory school in Massachusetts, where he recalls a "miserable" year feeling "out of place" ("Between Worlds"). Northfield Mount Hermon Northfield Mount Hermon (NMH) is a ninth-twelfth grade private college preparatory high school (secondary school) located in western Massachusetts, U.S.A. Its Northfield campus is located in Northfield, Massachusetts, and its Mount Hermon campus is located in nearby Gill, Massachusetts. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Said earned a B.A. from Princeton University and an M.A. and a Ph.D. from Harvard University, where he won the Bowdoin Prize. He joined the faculty of Columbia University in 1963 and served as Professor of English and Comparative Literature for several decades. In 1977 Said became the Parr Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Columbia and subsequently became the Old Dominion Foundation Professor in the Humanities. In 1992 he attained the rank of University Professor, Columbia's most prestigious academic position. Professor Said also taught at Harvard, Johns Hopkins, and Yale universities. He was fluent in English, French, and Arabic, and read several other languages. In 1999, after his earlier election to second vice president and following its succession policy, Said served as president of the Modern Language Association. A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Alma Mater Columbia University in the City of New York is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Yale redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ...


Said was bestowed with numerous honorary doctorates from universities around the world and twice received Columbia's Trilling Award and the Wellek Prize of the American Comparative Literature Association. His autobiographical memoir Out of Place won the 1999 New Yorker Prize for non-fiction. He was also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the Royal Society of Literature, and the American Philosophical Society.[4] The House of the Academy, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... American Academy of Arts and Letters is an organization whose goal is to foster, assist, and sustain an interest in American literature, music, and art. ... The Royal Society of Literature is the senior literary organisation in Britain. External link The Royal Society of Literature Categories: Literature stubs | Literature of the United Kingdom ... The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded as the Junto in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin. ...


Said's writing regularly appeared in The Nation, The Guardian, the London Review of Books, Le Monde Diplomatique, Counterpunch, Al Ahram, and the pan-Arab daily al-Hayat. He gave interviews alongside his good friend, fellow political activist, and colleague Noam Chomsky regarding U.S. foreign policy for various independent radio programs. The Nation logo The Nation is a weekly left-liberal periodical devoted to politics and culture. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... The London Review of Books (or LRB) is a twice-monthly British literary magazine. ... This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... CounterPunch is a biweekly newsletter published in the United States that covers politics from a left-wing perspective. ... This article is about the newspaper, for other uses see Al-Ahram (disambiguation). ... Al-Hayat (Life) is one of the leading daily pan-Arab newspaper, with a circulation of 110 000. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew: אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ...


Said also contributed music criticism to The Nation for many years. In 1999, he jointly founded the West-East Divan Orchestra with the Argentine-Israeli conductor and close friend Daniel Barenboim. This page discusses the many projects that work to create a peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs including the Palestinians. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In January 2006, anthropologist David Price obtained 147 pages of Said's 238-page FBI file through a Freedom of Information Act request. The records reveal that Said was under surveillance starting in 1971. Most of his records are marked as related to "IS Middle East" ("IS" = Israel) and significant portions remain "Classified Secrets."[5] There have been a number of people named David Price: Sir David Price (British politician) was a British Conservative Member of Parliament in the 1970s and 1980s David Price (Canadian politician) was a Member of Parliament from Quebec David Price (American politician) is a Democratic Congressman representing the 4th district... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Nearly sixty countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation, which sets rules on governmental secrecy. ... An example of a U.S. classified document; page 13 of a U.S. National Security Agency report[1] on the USS Liberty incident, partially declassified and released to the public in July 2003. ...


Edward Said died at the age of 67 in the early morning of September 25, 2003, in New York City, after a decade-long battle with chronic myelogenous leukemia.[6] is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a form of chronic leukemia characterized by increased and unregulated clonal production of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow. ...


In November 2004, Birzeit University renamed its music school as the Edward Said National Conservatory of Music in his honor.[7] Panorama of Birzeit Universitys campus (1997) Birzeit University (Arabic: ) is a university near the Arab town of Bir an Zeit near Ramallah. ...


Controversy over Said's early life

In 1999, Justus Reid Weiner, a researcher at the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, published an article in Commentary, arguing that Said's family did not permanently reside in Talbiya or live there during the final months of the British mandate, and therefore that they could not be considered refugees. According to Weiner, it was only Said's aunt who owned a house in Talbiya, while Said's family visited Jerusalem only occasionally. "On [Said's] birth certificate, prepared by the ministry of health of the British Mandate," Weiner states, "his parents specified their permanent address as Cairo," leaving blank the space for a local address. Weiner suggests Said grew up in Cairo, and probably never attended St. George's Academy in Jerusalem except during brief stays in that city. Weiner argues that Said's name is not on the school registry and that David Eben-Ezra, whom Said mentioned as a classmate, has no recollections of him.[8] Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs was founded in 1976 by Professor Daniel J. Elazar, as an independent, non-profit institute for policy research and education serving Israel and the Jewish people. ...


Following Weiner's widely publicized article, several respondents came to Said's defense. In The Nation, Christopher Hitchens writes that schoolmates and teachers confirmed Said's stay at St. George's, and quotes Said stating as early as 1992 that he had spent much of his youth in Cairo.[9] In another commentary by Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair in Counterpunch, Haig Boyadjian confirmed that he had been Said's classmate at St. George's in 1947, and chastised Weiner.[10]In an article entitled "Defamation, Zionist-style," Said explained himself, responding that "the family house was in fact a family house in the Arab sense, which meant that our families were one in ownership," and that his name could not be on the school's registry, which was terminated a year before his attendance.[11] Said charged that the "Zionist movement has resorted to shabbier and shabbier techniques," criticizing the Jerusalem Center for having "hired an obscure Israeli-American lawyer to 'research' the first ten years of my life and 'prove' that even though I was born in Jerusalem I was never really there".[12] Said later stated: "I was born in Jerusalem, my family is a Jerusalem family. We left Palestine in 1947. We left before most others. It was a fortuitous thing. . . . I never said I was a refugee, but the rest of my family was. My entire extended family was driven out. . . ."[13] Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... Alexander Claud Cockburn (pronounced , co-burn), born June 6, 1941, is a self-described radical Irish journalist who has lived and worked in the United States since 1973. ... Jeffrey St. ... CounterPunch is a biweekly newsletter published in the United States that covers politics from a left-wing perspective. ...


Orientalism

Main article: Orientalism (book)

Said is best known for describing and critiquing "Orientalism", which he perceived as a constellation of false assumptions underlying Western attitudes toward the East. In Orientalism (1978), Said described the "subtle and persistent Eurocentric prejudice against Arabo-Islamic peoples and their culture."[14] He argued that a long tradition of false and romanticized images of Asia and the Middle East in Western culture had served as an implicit justification for Europe and America's colonial and imperial ambitions. Just as fiercely, he denounced the practice of Arab elites who internalized the American and British orientalists' ideas of Arabic culture. Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ... For the book by Edward Said, see Orientalism (book). ... Occident redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ... Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... To internalize is to put something inside of borders where it did not originally belong. ... // Generosity and Bravery were the prominent virtues of and to the Arabs. ...


In 1980 Said criticized what he regarded as poor understanding of the Arab culture in the West:

So far as the United States seems to be concerned, it is only a slight overstatement to say that Moslems and Arabs are essentially seen as either oil suppliers or potential terrorists. Very little of the detail, the human density, the passion of Arab-Moslem life has entered the awareness of even those people whose profession it is to report the Arab world. What we have instead is a series of crude, essentialized caricatures of the Islamic world presented in such a way as to make that world vulnerable to military aggression.[15]

The argument

Orientalism has had a significant impact on the fields of literary theory, cultural studies and human geography, and to a lesser extent on those of history and oriental studies. Taking his cue from the work of Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault, and from earlier critics of western Orientalism such as A. L. Tibawi,[16] Anouar Malek-Abdel,[17] Maxime Rodinson,[18] and Richard William Southern,[19] Said argued that Western writings on the Orient, and the perceptions of the East purveyed in them, are suspect, and cannot be taken at face value. According to Said, the history of European colonial rule and political domination over the East distorts the writings of even the most knowledgeable, well-meaning and sympathetic Western ‘Orientalists’ (a term that he transformed into a pejorative): Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: [1]) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... Maxime Rodinson (26 January 1915–23 May 2004) was a French Marxist historian, sociologist and orientalist. ...

I doubt if it is controversial, for example, to say that an Englishman in India or Egypt in the later nineteenth century took an interest in those countries which was never far from their status in his mind as British colonies. To say this may seem quite different from saying that all academic knowledge about India and Egypt is somehow tinged and impressed with, violated by, the gross political fact – and yet that is what I am saying in this study of Orientalism. (Said, Orientalism 11)

Said contended that Europe had dominated Asia politically so completely for so long that even the most outwardly objective Western texts on the East were permeated with a bias that even most Western scholars could not recognise. His contention was not only that the West has conquered the East politically but also that Western scholars have appropriated the exploration and interpretation of the Orient’s languages, history and culture for themselves. They have written Asia’s past and constructed its modern identities from a perspective that takes Europe as the norm, from which the "exotic", "inscrutable" Orient deviates.


Said concludes that Western writings about the Orient depict it as an irrational, weak, feminised "Other", contrasted with the rational, strong, masculine West, a contrast he suggests derives from the need to create "difference" between West and East that can be attributed to immutable "essences" in the Oriental make-up. In 1978, when the book was first published, with memories of the Yom Kippur war and the OPEC crisis still fresh, Said argued that these attitudes still permeated the Western media and academia. After stating the central thesis, Orientalism consists mainly of supporting examples from Western texts. Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... Not to be confused with APEC. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international cartel[1][2] made up of Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ...


Criticism

"Orientalism" and other work by Said has sparked notable controversy in the academic community.

  • Ernest Gellner[20] argued that Said's contention that the West had dominated the East for more than 2,000 years (since the composition of Aeschylus’s The Persians) was unsupportable, noting that until the late 17th century the Ottoman Empire had posed a serious threat to Europe. Mark Proudman notes that Said claimed the British empire extended from Egypt to India in the 1880s, when in fact the Ottoman and Persian empires intervened. [21]
  • Another criticism is that the areas of the Middle East on which Said had concentrated, including Palestine and Egypt, were poor examples for his theory, as they came under European control only for a relatively short period in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These critics suggested that Said devoted much less attention to more apt examples, including the British Raj in India, and Russia’s dominions in Asia, because Said was more interested in making political points about the Middle East.[22] Islamic apostate Ibn Warraq was the most recent critic of Said's Orientalism in his titular book; Defending the West: a Critique of Edward Said's Orientalism
  • Some of Said's academic critics argue that Said made no attempt to distinguish between writers of very different types: such as on the one hand the poet Goethe (who never even travelled in the East), the novelist Flaubert (who undertook a brief sojourn in Egypt), Ernest Renan (whose work is widely regarded as tainted by racism), and on the other scholars such as Edward William Lane who was fluent in Arabic. In Said's mind their common European origins and attitudes, overrode such considerations, these critics contend.[25] Irwin (among others) points out that Said entirely ignored the fact that Oriental studies in the 19th century were dominated by Germans and Hungarians, from countries that, inconveniently for Said's purposes, did not possess an Eastern empire.[26] Such critics accuse Said of creating a monolithic ‘Occidentalism’ to oppose to the ‘Orientalism’ of Western discourse, arguing that he failed to distinguish between the paradigms of Romanticism and the Enlightenment, that he ignored the widespread and fundamental differences of opinion among western scholars of the Orient; that he failed to acknowledge that many Orientalists (such as Sir William Jones) were more concerned with establishing kinship between East and West than with creating "difference", and had frequently made discoveries that would provide the foundations for anti-colonial nationalism.[27] More generally, critics argue that Said and his followers fail to distinguish between Orientalism in the media and popular culture (for instance the portrayal of the Orient in such films as Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom) and academic studies of Oriental languages, literature, history and culture by Western scholars (whom, it is argued, they tar with the same brush).[28]
  • Finally, Said's critics argue that by making ethnicity and cultural background the test of authority and objectivity in studying the Orient, Said drew attention to the question of his own identity as a Palestinian and as a "Subaltern." Ironically, given Said's largely Anglophone upbringing and education at an elite school in Cairo, the fact that he spent most of his adult life in the United States, and his prominent position in American academia, his own arguments that "any and all representations … are embedded first in the language and then in the culture, institutions and political ambience of the representer … [and are] interwoven with a great many other things besides the 'truth', which is itself a representation" (Orientalism 272) could be said to disenfranchise him from writing about the Orient himself. Hence these critics claim that the excessive relativism of Said and his followers trap them in a "web of solipsism",[29] unable to talk of anything but "representations", and denying the existence of any objective truth.

I do not think I could have written the book on nationalism which I did write, were I not capable of crying, with the help of a little alcohol, over folk songs . ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ... Albert Habib Hourani (Arabic: ألبرت حبيب حوراني) (March 31, 1915 – January 17, 1993) was a prominent scholar of Middle Eastern history through much of the 20th century. ... Robert Graham Irwin (b. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Kanan Makiya is an Iraqi-American academic. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... The New York Review of Books (or NYRB) is a biweekly magazine on literature, culture, and current affairs published in New York which takes as its point of departure that the discussion of important books is itself an indispensable literary activity. ... Maxime Rodinson (26 January 1915–23 May 2004) was a French Marxist historian, sociologist and orientalist. ... Jacques Augustin Berque (June 4, 1910 - June 27, 1995) was a French Islamic scholar and sociologist. ... Malcolm Kerr (1931–1984) was a political scientist and teacher who was an expert on Middle East politics. ... Aijaz Ahmad is a well-known Marxist literary theorist and political commentator based in India. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... “Goethe” redirects here. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – Croisset, May 8, 1880) is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Edward William Lane (1801 - 1876), Arabic scholar, son of a prebendary of Hereford, where he was born, began life as an engraver, but going to Egypt in search of health, devoted himself to the study of Oriental languages and manners, and adopted the dress and habits of the Egyptian man... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Occidentalism is a term for stereotyped and sometimes dehumanizing views of the so-called Western world, including Europe, the United States, Australia and so on. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Enlightenment (or brightening) broadly means the acquisition of new wisdom or understanding enabling clarity of perception. ... Sir William Jones Sir William Jones (September 28, 1746 – April 27, 1794) was an English philologist and student of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages. ... Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is an 1984 adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg. ... The term subaltern is used in postcolonial theory to refer to marginalized groups and the lower classes; this sense of the word was coined by Antonio Gramsci. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... Solipsism is the philosophical idea that My mind is the only thing that exists. Solipsism (Latin: solus, alone + ipse, self) is an epistemological or metaphysical position that knowledge of anything outside the mind is unjustified. ...

Supporters of Said and his influence

Said’s supporters argue that such criticisms, even if correct, do not invalidate his basic thesis, which they say still holds true for the 19th and 20th centuries and in particular for general representations of the Orient in Western media, literature and film.[30] His supporters point out that Said himself acknowledges limitations of his study's failing to address German scholarship (Orientalism 18-19) and that, in the "Afterword" to the 1995 edition of Orientalism, he, in their view, convincingly refutes his critics, such as Lewis (329-54).


Said's continuing importance in the fields of literary criticism and cultural studies is represented by his influence on scholars studying India, such as Gyan Prakash,[31] Nicholas Dirks,[32] and Ronald Inden,[33] and literary theorists such as Hamid Dabashi, Homi K. Bhabha[34] and Gayatri Spivak.[35] Hamid Dabashi (Persian: ‎ ​) is an Iranian-born American intellectual historian, cultural and literary critic best known for his scholarship on Iran and Shia Islam. ... Homi K. Bhabha (born 1949) is an Indian-American postcolonial theorist. ... Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak is a deconstructive literary critic and theorist of Indian extraction. ...


Both supporters of Edward Said and his critics acknowledge the profound, transformative influence that his book Orientalism has had across the spectrum of the humanities; but whereas his critics regret his influence as limiting, his supporters praise his influence as liberating. [36]


Criticism of US Foreign Policy

In a 1997 revised edition of his book Covering Islam, Said discussed instances of what he said was biased reporting in the Western press: “speculations about the latest conspiracy to blow up buildings, sabotage commercial airliners, and poison water supplies.”[37]


Said opposed many US foreign policy endeavors in the Middle East. During an April 2003 interview with Al-Ahram Weekly, Said argued that the Iraq war was ill-conceived: Al-Ahram Weekly is the leading English-language newspaper in Egypt. ...

My strong opinion, though I don't have any proof in the classical sense of the word, is that they want to change the entire Middle East and the Arab world, perhaps terminate some countries, destroy the so-called terrorist groups they dislike and install regimes friendly to the United States. I think this is a dream that has very little basis in reality. The knowledge they have of the Middle East, to judge from the people who advise them, is to say the least out of date and widely speculative....

I don't think the planning for the post- Saddam, post-war period in Iraq is very sophisticated, and there's very little of it. [US Undersecretary of State Marc] Grossman and [US Undersecretary of Defense Douglas] Feith testified in Congress about a month ago and seemed to have no figures and no ideas what structures they were going to deploy; they had no idea about the use of institutions that exist, although they want to de-Ba'thise the higher echelons and keep the rest. Marc Grossman was the United States Under Secretary for Political Affairs from 2001 to 2005. ... Douglas Feith. ...


The same is true about their views of the army. They certainly have no use for the Iraqi opposition that they've been spending many millions of dollars on. And to the best of my ability to judge, they are going to improvise.[38]

Pro-Palestinian activism

Palestinians
Palestinian family in early 1900s
Demographics & geography

Definitions · Palestine
Palestinian people · Palestinian diaspora
Palestinian territories · Refugee camps
Geography of the Gaza Strip
Geography of the West Bank
Electoral Districts · Governorates ·
Cities in the West Bank & Gaza Strip
East Jerusalem · The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 786 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 781 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ramallah, Jerusalem Sanjac (district), Damascus region, Ottoman Empire. ... The term Palestine and the related term Palestinian have several overlapping (and occasionally contradictory) definitions. ... This article is about the geographical area known as Palestine. ... For other uses of Palestinian, see Definitions of Palestine and Palestinian. ... Palestinian diaspora (Arabic: , al-shatat) is a term used to describe Palestinians living outside of historic Palestine - an area today known as Israel and the Palestinian territories or the West Bank, Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... List of Palestinian refugee camps with current population and year they were established: Gaza, 8 camps, 478,854 refugees 1948, Beach camp (Shati), 76,109 1949, Bureij, 30,059 1948, Deir el-Balah, 20,188 1948, Jabalia (Jabalyia, Abalyia), 103,646 1949, Khan Yunis, 60,662 1949, Maghazi, 22,536... The 16 Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip are divided into 16 districts (Aqdya, singular - qadaa). ... Map showing governorates and areas of formal Palestinian control (green) After the signing of the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian territories were divided into three areas and 16 governorates under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Map of the West Bank Map of Gaza Strip This is a list of cities and towns in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the two territories that make up the Palestinian territories. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ...

Politics

PLO · PNC · PLC · PFLP
PNA · PNA political parties
Palestinian flag
Politics of Palestine The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ... The Palestinian Legislative Council, (sometimes referred to to as the Palestinan Parliament) the legislature of the Palestinian Authority, is a unicameral body with 88 members, elected from 16 electoral districts in the West Bank and Gaza. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... Proportions 1:2 The Palestinian flag has been in use by Palestinians to represent their national aspirations since the middle of the 20th century. ...

Religion & religious sites

Christianity
Al-Aqsa Mosque · Dome of the Rock
Churches: Nativity · Holy Sepulchre · Annunciation
History of the Levant
The Palestinian Christians are Palestinians who follow Christianity. ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: , translit. ... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Greek: Ναός της Αναστάσεως, Naos tis Anastaseos; Georgian: აგდგომის ტადზარი Agdgomis Tadzari; Armenian: Surp Harutyun) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... The Church of the Annunciation is a church in Nazareth that was established in the place in which, according to the Christian tradition, was the house of Mary, the mother of Jesus and in which the angel Gabriel told Mary the Annunciation. ...

Culture

Art · Costume & embroidery · Cuisine
Dance · Language · Literature · Music
Palestinian art is a term used to refer to paintings, posters, installation art and other visual media produced by Palestinian artists. ... Palestinian Costumes Foreign travelers to Palestine often commented on the rich variety of costumes among the Palestinian people, especially among the village women. ... Palestinian cuisine or foods from or commonly eaten in the Palestinian territories and the Arab population of Israel. ... Dabke (also transliterated from the Arabic as debke, dabka, and dabkeh) is the traditional folk dance of the Levant, going back generations, and is also the national dance of Lebanon, Jordon, Syria and Palestine, its found also in Iraq and Saudi Arabia but with a different name (Chobi). ... Palestinian literature refers to the Arabic language novels, short stories and poems produced by Palestinians. ... Palestinian music ;Arabic,موسيقى فلسطينية is one of many regional sub-genres of Arabic music. ...

Notable Palestinians

Hany Abu-Assad· Ibrahim Abu-Lughod
Yasser Arafat · Hanan Ashrawi
Mohammad Bakri . Rim Banna
Mahmoud Darwish · Emile Habibi
Nathalie Handal · Mohammed Amin al-Husseini
Faisal Husseini · Abd al-Qader al-Husseini
Ghassan Kanafani · Ghada Karmi
Leila Khaled · Rashid Khalidi
Walid Khalidi · Samih al-Qasim
Edward Said · Khalil al-Sakakini
Elia Suleiman · May Ziade
The following is a list of prominent Palestinians from Israel and Palestine, as well as Palestinian refugees living in other places. ... Hany Abu-Assad (b. ... Ibrahim Abu-Lughod (February 15, 1929 — May 23, 2001) was a Palestinian (later American) academic, characterised by Edward Said as Palestines foremost academic and intellectual[1] and by Rashid Khalidi as one of the first Arab-American scholars to have a really serious effect on the way the Middle... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Hanan Ashrawi Dr. Hanan Daoud Khalil Ashrawi (born 8 October 1946 in Ramallah, Palestine) is a Palestinian Anglican scholar and political activist. ... Mohammed Bakri (also spelled Muhammad Bakri) is an Israeli Arab actor, film producer and film director. ... Rim Banna born in Nazareth, she is a Palestinian singer, composer and arranger, well-known for her modern interpretations of traditional folk songs. ... Mahmoud Darwish Mahmoud Darwish (Arabic: ; born 1941 in Al-Birwah, British Mandate of Palestine) is a contemporary Palestinian poet and writer of prose. ... Emile Habibi (August, 1921 - May 3, 1996) was a Palestinian-Israeli writer and politician. ... Nathalie Handal (born July 29, 1969) is a Palestinian poet, writer and playwright and a literary researcher. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... Faisal Husseini Faisal Abdel Qader Al-Husseini (Arabic: فيصل عبدالقادر الحسيني) (July 17, 1940 - May 31, 2001) was a Palestinian politician who was considered a possible future leader of the Palestinian people. ... Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni (alternatively spelt Abd al Qadir al Husseini) (1907-1948) was a Palestinian nationalist and fighter who in late 1933 founded the secret military group known as the Organization for Holy Struggle, (Munazzamat al-Jihad al-Muqaddas),[1] [2] which he... Ghassan Kanafani Ghassan Kanafani (غسان كنفاني, born April 9, 1936 in Acre, Palestine - died July 8, 1972 in Beirut, Lebanon) was a Palestinian writer and a spokesman for the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... —Ghada Karmi (1939- ) (Arabic: ‎) is a Palestinian doctor of medicine, author and academic. ... Leila Khaled in the 1970s Leila Khaled (Arabic: ; born April 9, 1944) is a member of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), part of the secular, leftwing Palestinian rejectionist front. ... Rashid Khalidi (1950 - ) is the Edward Said Professor of Arab Studies at Columbia University, and the head of Columbias Middle East Institute. ... Walid Khalidi (1925- ) is a Palestinian historian who had written extensively on the Palestinian exodus and the 1948 Israeli-Arab War. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Khalil Sakakini Khalil al-Sakakini (خليل السكاكيني) (January 23, 1878 - August 13, 1953) was a distinguished Palestinian Jerusalemite educator, scholar, and poet. ... Elia Suleiman (born July 28, 1960 in Nazareth) is a Palestinian film director and actor. ... May Ziade (1886 - 1941) was born in Palestine (of the Ottoman Empire) in 1886. ...

v  d  e
A poster of Edward Said on the Israeli West Bank barrier.

As a pro-Palestinian activist, Said campaigned for a creation of an independent Palestinian state. From 1977 until 1991, Said was an independent member of the Palestinian National Council who tended to stay out of factional struggles.[39] He supported the two-state solution and voted for it in Algiers in 1988. In 1991, he quit the PNC in protest over the process leading up to the signing of the Oslo Accords, feeling that the Oslo terms were unacceptable and had been rejected by the Madrid round negotiators. He felt that Oslo would not lead to a truly independent state and was inferior to a plan Arafat had rejected when Said himself presented it to Arafat on behalf of the US government in the late 1970s. In particular, he wrote that Arafat had sold short the right of Palestinian refugees to return to their homes in pre-1967 Israel and ignored the growing presence of Israeli settlements. Said's relationship with the Palestinian Authority was once so bad that PA leaders banned the sale of his books in August 1995, but improved when he hailed Arafat for rejecting Barak's offers at the Camp David 2000 Summit. Ultimately, Said came to prefer and to support a state that would afford Palestinians a home with equal human rights in place of the Jewish state of modern-day Israel. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ... The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ... The two-state solution is the name for a class of proposed resolutions of the long-running Arab-Israeli conflict now explicitly backed by the Israeli and United States governments. ... ... “Alger” redirects here. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942) is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minster, and current Minister of Defense and leader of Israels Labor Party. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ...

Edward Said throwing a stone across the Lebanon-Israel border.

On July 3, 2000, Said was photographed lobbing a rock across the Lebanon-Israel border. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Blue Line is a border demarcation between Lebanon and Israel, drawn by the United Nations for the purposes of determining whether Israel had withdrawn from Lebanon. ...


Although Said denied aiming the rock at Israeli soldiers, an eyewitness account in the Lebanese newspaper As-Safir asserted that Said had positioned himself less than 30 feet from Israeli soldiers manning a two-story watchtower before throwing the rock over the border fence, though it instead hit barbed-wire. "One stone tossed into an empty space scarcely warrants a second thought", he later said, labeling the stone-throwing as "a symbolic gesture of joy". The stoning was witnessed by Israel-based television journalist Dennis Zinn, who suggested "the Lebanese line up and wait to throw their rocks until soldiers and civilians are exposed."[40] As-Safir (Arabic: السفير) The Embassador, is a leading Arabic-language daily newspaper in Lebanon. ...


While the photo provoked criticism from some Columbia faculty and students as well as from the Anti-Defamation League, the provost issued a statement defending Said's act on the grounds of freedom of expression, a position echoed by his supporters on campus.[41] The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ...


In June 2002, Said, along with Hadrr Abdel-Shafi, Ibrahim Dakak, and Mustafa Barghouti, helped establish the Palestinian National Initiative, or Al-Mubadara, an attempt to build a third force in Palestinian politics, a democratic, reformist alternative to both the established Fatah and Islamist militant groups, such as Hamas. Mustafa Barghouti Mustafa Barghouti (also often written Mustafa Barghouthi, Mustafa Al Barghuthi, Dr Barghuthi; born 1954) is a Palestinian democracy activist. ... ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Muslim militant organization. ...


In Al-Ahram Weekly, in April 2002, Said observes: Al-Ahram, founded in 1875, is the oldest daily newspaper in the Arab world. ...

Above all we must, as Mandela never tired of saying about his struggle, be aware that Palestine is one of the great moral causes of our time. Therefore, we need to treat it as such. It's not a matter of trade, or bartering negotiations, or making a career. It is a just cause which should allow Palestinians to capture the high moral ground and keep it.[42]

In August 2003, in an article published online in Counterpunch, Said summarizes his position on the contemporary rights of Palestinians vis-à-vis the historical experience of the Jewish people: CounterPunch is a biweekly newsletter published in the United States that covers politics from a left-wing perspective. ...

I have spent a great deal of my life during the past 35 years advocating the rights of the Palestinian people to national self-determination, but I have always tried to do that with full attention paid to the reality of the Jewish people and what they suffered by way of persecution and genocide. The paramount thing is that the struggle for equality in Palestine/Israel should be directed toward a humane goal, that is, co-existence, and not further suppression and denial.[43]

It is important to note that while Said was seen - and indeed, often appropriated by various Islamic groups - as a global intellectual defender of Islam, Said himself denied this claim several times, most notably in republications of Orientalism. Said's primary objectives were humanistic and not Islamic; his vision for Palestine and Israel's peaceful co-existence necessarily took Islam into consideration, but emphasized the needs of Palestinians and Israelis as two ethnic groups whose basic needs, such as food, water, shelter and protection, were to be valued above all else.


Said notes that "in all my works I remained fundamentally critical of a gloating and uncritical nationalism.... My view of Palestine ... remains the same today: I expressed all sorts of reservations about the insouciant nativism and militant militarism of the nationalist consensus; I suggested instead a critical look at the Arab environment, Palestinian history, and the Israeli realities, with the explicit conclusion that only a negotiated settlement between the two communities of suffering, Arab and Jewish, would provide respite from the unending war." He notes that every Arabic publisher who was interested in his book on Palestine "wanted me to change or delete those sections that were openly critical of one or another Arab regime (including the PLO), a request that I have always refused to comply with."[44]


Furthermore, he was one of few Palestinian activists who at the same time acknowledged Israel and Israel's founding intellectual theory, Zionism. Said was one of the first proponents of a two-state solution, and in an important academic article entitled "Zionism from the Standpoint of its Victims," Said argued that both the Zionist claim to a land - and, more importantly, the Zionist claim that the Jewish people needed a land - and Palestinian rights of self-determination held legitimacy and authenticity. In this way Said stood out among the crowd of Palestinian activists as one who could simultaneously stand at the center of Palestinian nationalism on the one hand and intellectual, meta-nationalistic humanism on the other. This uncanny self-assurance in both base political and elite intellectual spheres helped raise his status in the intelligent public’s eye.


Said's books on the issue of Israel and Palestine include The Question of Palestine (1979), The Politics of Dispossession (1994) and The End of the Peace Process (2000).


Publications

  • Joseph Conrad and the Fiction of Autobiography (1966)
  • Beginnings: Intention and Method (1975)
  • Orientalism (1978)
  • The Question of Palestine (1979)
  • Orientalisme (1980)
  • Literature and Society (editor) (1980)
  • The Middle East: What Chances For Peace? (1980) [co-contributor with Joseph J. Sisco, Shlomo Avineri, Saburo Okita, Udo Steinbach, William Scranton, Abdel Hamid Abdel-Ghani and H.R.H. Prince Saud]
  • Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World (1981)
  • The World, the Text and the Critic (1983)
  • After the Last Sky: Palestinian Lives (1986) [with photographs by Jean Mohr]
  • Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question (1988) [contributor and co-editor with Christopher Hitchens]
  • Yeats and Decolonization (1988)
  • Musical Elaborations (1991)
  • Culture and Imperialism (1993)
  • The Politics of Dispossession (1994)
  • Representations of the Intellectual: The Reith Lectures (1994)
  • The Pen and the Sword: Conversations with Edward W. Said (1994) [Conversations with David Barsamian]
  • Peace and Its Discontents: Essays on Palestine in the Middle East Peace Process (1996)
  • Entre guerre at paix (1997)
  • Acts of Aggression: Policing "Rogue States" (with Noam Chomsky and Ramsey Clark) (1999)
  • Out of Place (1999) (a memoir)
  • Henry James: Complete Stories, 1884-1891 (Editor) (1999)
  • The End of the Peace Process: Oslo and After (2000)
  • Reflections on Exile (2000)
  • The Edward Said Reader (2000)
  • Power, Politics and Culture: Interviews with Edward W. Said (2001)
  • CIA et Jihad, 1950-2001: Contre l'URSS, une désastreuse alliance (2002), with John K. Cooley
  • Culture and Resistance: Conversations with Edward W. Said (2003) [Interviews by David Barsamian]
  • Freud and the Non-European (2003)
  • From Oslo to Iraq and the Road Map (Collection of Essays) (2003)
  • Parallels and Paradoxes: Explorations in Music and Society (with Daniel Barenboim) (2003)[45]
  • Humanism and Democratic Criticism (2005)
  • On Late Style: Music and Literature Against the Grain (published posthumously in 2006)
  • Criticism in Society (year of publication unknown)
  • Edward Said: A Critical Reader (year of publication unknown)
  • Jewish Religion, Jewish History (Introduction) (year of publication unknown)
  • Nationalism, Colonialism, and Literature (year of publication unknown)

// Joseph Conrad (born Teodor Józef Konrad Nałęcz-Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born novelist who spent most of his adult life in Britain. ... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ... Shlomo Avineri (born Bielsko-Biała, Poland 1933) is an Israeli political scientist. ... Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question, is a collection of esseys, co-edited by Edward Said and Christopher Hitchens, and first published by Verso in 1988 ( ISBN 0-86091-887-4). ... Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew: אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... John K. Cooley John K. Cooley (b. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

See also

The Edward Said National Conservatory of Music is a Palestinian music conservatory with branches in Ramallah, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Robert Young, White Mythologies: Writing History and the West (New York & London: Routledge, 1990). ISBN 0-415-05372-2.
  2. ^ Amritjit Singh, Interviews With Edward W. Said (Oxford: UP of Mississippi, 2004) 19 & 219. ISBN 1-57806-366-3.
  3. ^ Edward Said, "Between Worlds," London Review of Books May 7, 1998, accessed March 1, 2006.
  4. ^ http://www.randomhouse.com/vintage/catalog/results_author.pperl?authorid=26689
  5. ^ David Price, "How the FBI Spied on Edward Said," CounterPunch January 13, 2006, accessed January 15, 2006.
  6. ^ See Columbia News mourns passing of Edward Said.
  7. ^ See Birzeit U.
  8. ^ Justus Reid Weiner, "'My Beautiful Old House' and Other Fabrications by Edward Said," Commentary Sept. 1999, re-posted on FreeRepublic ("A Conservative News Forum") April 15, 2001, accessed February 9, 2006; abridged versions and extracts or excerpts of Weiner's article were also published elsewhere, incl. in both The Daily Telegraph and The Wall Street Journal; see, e.g., Justus Reid Weiner, "The False Prophet of Palestine" The Wall Street Journal August 26, 1999.
  9. ^ Rpt. in Michael Sprinkler, ed. Edward Said: A Critical Reader (London: Blackwell, 1993). ISBN 1-55786-229-X. Some say it was acknowledged as early as 1989
  10. ^ Qtd. in "Commentary: 'Scholar' Deliberately Falsified Record in Attack on Said," Counterpunch September 1, 1999, accessed February 10, 2006.
  11. ^ Edward Said, "Defamation, Zionist-style," Al-Ahram Weekly August 26 - Sept. 1 1999, accessed February 10, 2006.
  12. ^ Edward Said, "Freud, Zionism, and Vienna" Al-Ahram Weekly March 15-21 2001, accessed October 31, 2006.
  13. ^ Amritjit Singh, Interviews with Edward W. Said (Oxford: UP of Mississippi, 2004) 19 & 219. ISBN 1-57806-366-3.
  14. ^ Keith Windschuttle, "Edward Said's "Orientalism revisited," The New Criterion January 17, 1999, accessed January 19, [1999].
  15. ^ Edward W. Said, "Islam Through Western Eyes," The Nation April 26, 1980, first posted online January 1, 1998, accessed December 5, 2005.
  16. ^ A. L. Tibawi, "English-speaking Orientalists: A Critique of Their Approach to Islam and Arab Nationalism", Islamic Quarterly 8 (1964): 25-45
  17. ^ Anouar Malek-Abdel, "L’orientalisme en crise", Diogène 44 (1963): 109-41
  18. ^ "Bilan des études mohammadiennes", Revue Historique 465.1 (1963)
  19. ^ Richard William Southern, Western views of Islam in the Middle Ages (1978; Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1962).
  20. ^ Ernest Gellner, "The Mightier Pen? Edward Said and the Double Standards of Inside-out Colonialism", rev. of Culture and Imperialism, by Edward Said, Times Literary Supplement February 19, 1993: 3-4.
  21. ^ Mark F. Proudman, "Disraeli as an Orientalist: The Polemical Errors of Edward Said," Journal of the Historical Society, 5[4] December 2005
  22. ^ Robert Irwin For Lust of Knowing: The Orientalists and Their Enemies (London: Allen Lane, 2006) 159-60, 281-2.
  23. ^ Bernard Lewis, "The Question of Orientalism", in Islam and the West (London 1993) 99–118; Robert Irwin, For Lust of Knowing: The Orientalists and Their Enemies (2003; London: Allen Lane, 2006.
  24. ^ Aijaz Ahmad, In Theory: Classes, Natures, Literatures (London: Verso, 1992); Malcolm Kerr, rev. of Orientalism, by Edward Said, International Jour. of Middle Eastern Studies 12 (Dec. 1980): 544-47; and Martin Kramer, "Said’s Splash", Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America, Policy Papers 58 (Washington, D.C.: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2001). ISBN 0-944029-49-3. Kramer observes in "Said's Splash" that "Fifteen years after publication of Orientalism, the UCLA historian Nikki Keddie (whose work Said had praised in Covering Islam) allowed that the book was 'important and in many ways positive.' But she also thought it had had 'unfortunate consequences'"; in an interview published in Approaches to the History of the Middle East, ed. Nancy Elizabeth Gallagher (London: Ithaca Press, 1994) 144-45, as cited & qtd. by Kramer, Keddie says:

    "I think that there has been a tendency in the Middle East field to adopt the word "orientalism" as a generalized swear-word essentially referring to people who take the "wrong" position on the Arab-Israeli dispute or to people who are judged too "conservative." It has nothing to do with whether they are good or not good in their disciplines. So "orientalism" for many people is a word that substitutes for thought and enables people to dismiss certain scholars and their works. I think that is too bad. It may not have been what Edward Said meant at all, but the term has become a kind of slogan." The London Review of Books (or LRB) is a twice-monthly British literary magazine. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Counterpunch can refer to: In traditional typography, a counterpunch is a type of punch used to create the negative space in or around a character. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Commentary, a monthly magazine founded by the American Jewish Committee in 1945, bills itself as Americas premier monthly magazine of opinion. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... CounterPunch is a biweekly newsletter published in the United States that covers politics from a left-wing perspective. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Criterion is a New York-based magazine, a journal of art and cultural criticism. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Martin Kramer (b. ...

  25. ^ Said, Orientalism 87–88, 336; Ibn Warraq, Debunking Edward Said.
  26. ^ Irwin, For Lust of Knowing 8, 150–166.
  27. ^ O.P. Kejariwal, The Asiatic Society of Bengal and the Discovery of India’s Past (Delhi: Oxford UP, 1988) ix-xi, 221-233.
  28. ^ Said, "Afterword" to the 1995 ed. of Orientalism 347, as cited by Irwin, For Lust of Knowing 3–8; cf. Kaizaad Navroze Kotwal, "Steven Spielberg's Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom as Virtual Reality: The Orientalist and Colonial Legacies of Gunga Din," The Film Journal no. 12 (April 2005).
  29. ^ D.A. Washbrook, "Orients and Occidents: Colonial Discourse Theory and the Historiography of the British Empire", in Historiography, vol. 5 of The Oxford History of the British Empire 607.
  30. ^ See Terry Eagleton, Rev. of For Lust of Knowing: The Orientalists and Their Enemies, by Robert Irwin (London: Penguin, 2003). ISBN 0-7139-9415-0. New Statesman Bookshop November 1, 2003.
  31. ^ Gyan Prakash, “Writing Post-Orientalist Histories of the Third World: Perspectives from Indian Historiography,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 32.2 (1990): 383-408.
  32. ^ Nicholas Dirks, Castes of Mind (Princeton: Princeton UP, 2001).
  33. ^ Ronald Inden, Imagining India (New York: Oxford UP, 1990).
  34. ^ Homi K. Bhaba, Nation and Narration (New York & London: Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 1990).
  35. ^ Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics (London: Methuen, 1987).
  36. ^ Andrew N. Rubin, "Techniques of Trouble: Edward Said and the Dialectics of Cultural Philology," The South Atlantic Quarterly, 102.4 (2003): 862-876.
  37. ^ Review of Dangerous Knowledge by Robert Irwin
  38. ^ Said, Edward."Resources of hope ," Al-Ahram Weekly April 2, 2003, accessed April 26, [2007].
  39. ^ Malise Ruthven, "Edward Said: Controversial Literary Critic and Bold Advocate of the Palestinian Cause in America," The Guardian September 26, 2003, accessed March 1, 2006.
  40. ^ Sunnie Kim. "Edward Said Accused of Stoning in South Lebanon", Columbia Daily Spectator, July 19, 2000. Retrieved on 2007-05-30. 
  41. ^ Karen W. Arenson. "Columbia Debates a Professor's 'Gesture'", The New York Times, October 19, 2000. 
  42. ^ Rpt. in Edward Said, "Thinking Ahead", Media Monitors April 1, 2002, accessed August 26, 2006.
  43. ^ Edward Said, "Worldly Humanism v. the Empire-builders," CounterPunch August 4, 2003, accessed December 12, 2005.
  44. ^ Edward Said, "Orientalism, an Afterward." Raritan 14:3 (Winter 1995).
  45. ^ Michael Kennedy, "A duet for solo voice". Telegraph, 23 February 2003.

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Edward W. Said (291 words)
Edward W. Said, the late University Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Columbia University, was for many years the magazine's classical music critic as well as a contributing writer.
Known both for his groundbreaking research in the field of comparative literature and his incisive political commentary, Said was one of the most prominent intellectuals in the United States.
In 1948, Said and his family were dispossessed from Palestine and settled in Cairo.
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