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Encyclopedia > Edward M. House

Edward Mandell House (July 26, 1858March 28, 1938) was an American diplomat, politician and presidential advisor from the time of World War I until well into the 1930s. Commonly known by the honorific title of Colonel House, he had a relationship of enormous personal influence with President Woodrow Wilson as his foreign policy advisor. July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia Serbia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States. ...


Born to a wealthy Texas landholding family, House was educated in New England prep schools and went on to study at Cornell University in 1877, but was forced to drop out when his father died. Returning to Texas, House ran his family's business. He eventually sold the cotton plantations, and invested in banking. In 1892 he supported the gubernatorial candidacy of James Hogg, and when he won office, House became progressively more involved in politics as a Bourbon Democrat who favored conservative business and banking interests. He was a supporter of all the governors from 1894 to 1906 but moved to New York City about 1902. In 1912 Colonel House published anonymously a novel called Philip Dru: Administrator, in which the title character leads the democratic western U.S. in a civil war against the plutocratic East, and becomes the dictator of America. Dru as dictator imposes a series of reforms that resemble the Bull Moose platform of 1912 and then vanishes. [Lash pp 230-35] Cornell redirects here. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... In politics, Governor of Texas is the title given to the chief executive of the state of Texas. ... James Stephen Jim Hogg (March 24, 1851-March 3, 1906 was a Texas lawyer and statesman, and the first native to become Governor of Texas. ... Bourbon Democrat was a term used in the United States from 1876 to 1904 to refer to a conservative or reactionary member of the Democratic Party, especially one who supported President Grover Cleveland in 1884–1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the 1912 election. ...


He became a close friend and supporter of New Jersey governor Woodrow Wilson in 1911, and helped him win the Democratic presidential nomination in 1912. He became an intimate of Wilson without holding any title and helped him set up his administration. House was even provided living quarters within the White House. After Wilson's first wife died in 1914 the President was even closer to House. However, Wilson's second wife disliked House and his position weakened. House threw himself into world affairs, promoting Wilson's goal of brokering a peace to end World War I. He was enthusiastic but lacked deep insight into European affairs and was misled by British diplomats. After the sinking of the Lusitania on 7 May 1915, tension escalated with Germany and U.S. neutrality was precarious. House decided the war was an epic battle between democracy and autocracy; he argued the United States ought to help Britain and France win a limited Allied victory. However, Wilson still insisted on neutrality. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia Serbia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, 120 AD Lusitania was an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal, except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho (part of Hispania Tarraconensis), and part of modern day western Spain, the present autonomous communities of Extremadura... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


House played a major role in shaping wartime diplomacy. Wilson had House assemble the "Inquiry" — a team of academic experts to devise efficient postwar solutions to all the world's problems. In September 1918 Wilson gave House the responsibility for preparing a constitution for a League of Nations. In October 1918, when Germany petitioned for peace based on the Fourteen Points, Wilson charged House with working out details of an armistice with the Allies. The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ...


Colonel House served on the League of Nations Commission on Mandates with Lord Milner and Lord Robert Cecil of Great Britain, M. Simon of France, Viscount Chinda of Japan, Guglielmo Marconi for Italy and George Louis Beer as adviser. Throughout 1919, House urged Wilson to work with Senator Henry Cabot Lodge to achieve ratification of the Versailles Treaty. Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner (23 March 1854 - 13 May 1925), was British statesman and colonial administrator. ... This article or section should include material from Robert Cecil 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, previously known as Lord Robert Cecil (September 14, 1864 - November 24, 1958) was a lawyer, politician and diplomat whose decades of service to the League... Although Guglielmo Marconi is widely credited as the Inventor of Radio, for some this title is controversial, and competing claims are reviewed in History of radio and Invention of Radio. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Henry Cabot Lodge Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924), was an American statesman and Republican politician, and noted historian. ... Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ...


However the conference revealed serious policy disagreements between Wilson and House. Even worse were personality conflicts. Wilson had become much more intolerant and systematically broke with one after another of his closest advisors. When Wilson returned home in February 1919, House took his place on the Council of Ten where he negotiated compromises unacceptable to Wilson. In mid-March, Wilson returned to Paris and lost confidence in House, relegating him to the sidelines.


In the 1920s House strongly supported U.S. membership in the League of Nations and the World Court, the Permanent Court of International Justice. In 1932 he supported Franklin D. Roosevelt withot joining the inner circle. He became disillusioned with the New Deal but did so privately. The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ... The World Court refers collectively to the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) and its successor the International Court of Justice (ICJ). ... The Permanent Court of International Justice was the international court of the League of Nations established in 1922. ... FDR redirects here. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ...


References

  • George, Alexander L. (1964). Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House: A Personality Study. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-21144-4. a controversial study
  • Godfrey Hodgson. Woodrow Wilson's Right Hand : The Life of Colonel Edward M. House (2006), the standard biography
  • Lasch, Christopher. The New Radicalism in America, 1889-1963: The Intellectual as a Social Type (1965)
  • Charles E. Neu. "House, Edward Mandell"; American National Biography 2000. online
  • Arthur Walworth, Wilson and His Peacemakers: American Diplomacy at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 (1986)

Primary sources

  • Edward Mandell House & Charles Seymour. What Really Happened at Paris, 1921
  • Edward House, The Intimate Papers of Colonel House ed by Charles Seymour, ed. (1926-28)
  • Link, Arthur C. ed. The Papers of Woodrow Wilson (69 vol), included hundreds of letters and memoranda between House and Wilson

External links


 
 

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