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Encyclopedia > Edward Jenner
'Edward Jenner'
Edward in the prime of his studies
Edward in the prime of his studies
Born May 17, 1749
Berkeley, Gloucestershire
Died 26 January 1823 (aged 73)
Berkeley, Gloucestershire
Nationality United Kingdom
Alma mater St George's, University of London
Doctoral advisor John Hunter
Known for smallpox vaccine

Edward Jenner, FRS, (May 17, 1749January 26, 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. He is famous as the first doctor to introduce and study the smallpox vaccine, although Benjamin Jesty, a farmer, earlier had vaccinated with cowpox to induce immunity to smallpox. It is believed that Jenner discovered it independently. Image File history File links Edward_Jenner2. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Berkeley (pronounced ) is a town between the south bank of the River Severn and the M5 motorway in Gloucestershire, England, at grid reference ST685992. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Berkeley (pronounced ) is a town between the south bank of the River Severn and the M5 motorway in Gloucestershire, England, at grid reference ST685992. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... St Georges, University of London (SGUL) is a specialist medical college of the University of London. ... Engraving of John Hunter (1728 – 1793) taken from the original portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, which is in the Royal College of Surgeons. ... Smallpox vaccine being administered. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Berkeley (pronounced ) is a town between the south bank of the River Severn and the M5 motorway in Gloucestershire, England, at grid reference ST685992. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Smallpox vaccine being administered. ... Benjamin Jesty was a farmer at Yetminster in Dorset, England. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... This article is about the disease. ...

Contents

Early life

Jenner trained in Chipping Sodbury, Gloucestershire as an apprentice to Dr. Ludlow, a surgeon, for eight years from the age of 14. In 1770 Jenner went up to London to study surgery and anatomy under the surgeon John Hunter and others at St George's, University of London. Hunter was a noted experimentalist, and later a fellow of the Royal Society. Chipping Sodbury School ROOLZ Chipping Sodbury is a market town in South Gloucestershire, England, founded in the 12th century by William Crassus. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Engraving of John Hunter (1728 – 1793) taken from the original portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, which is in the Royal College of Surgeons. ... St Georges, University of London (SGUL) is a specialist medical college of the University of London. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...


William Osler records that Jenner was a student to whom Hunter repeated William Harvey's advice, very famous in medical circles (and characteristically Enlightenment), "Don't think, try". Jenner therefore was early noticed by men famous for advancing the practice and institutions of medicine. Hunter remained in correspondence with him over natural history and proposed him for the Royal Society. Returning to his native countryside, by 1773 he became a successful general practitioner and surgeon, practicing in purpose-built premises at Berkeley. Sir William Osler Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian-born physician. ... This article is about William Harvey, the English doctor. ... A general practitioner (GP), family physician or family practitioner (FP) is a medical doctor who provides primary care. ...


Jenner and others formed a medical society in Rodborough, Gloucestershire, meeting to read papers on medical subjects and dine together. Jenner contributed papers on angina pectoris, ophthalmia and valvular disease of the heart and commented on cowpox. He also belonged to a similar society which met in Alveston, near Bristol.[1] Ophthalmia means inflammation of the eye. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ...


He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1788, following a careful study combining observation, experiment and dissection into a description of the previously misunderstood life of the cuckoo in the nest. For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Cuculus canorus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes, which also includes the roadrunners, the anis, the coucals, and the Hoatzin. ...

Common Cuckoo
Common Cuckoo

Jenner's description of the newly-hatched cuckoo pushing its host's eggs and fledglings from the nest was confirmed in the 20th century[2] when photography became feasible. Having observed the behaviour, he demonstrated an anatomical adaptation for it—the baby cuckoo has a depression in its back which is not present after 12 days of life, in which it cups eggs and other chicks to push them out of the nest. It had been assumed that the adult bird did this, but the adult does not remain in the area for sufficiently long. His findings were published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1787. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1260x834, 53 KB) Cuculus canorus, http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1260x834, 53 KB) Cuculus canorus, http://www. ...


He married Catherine Kingscote (died 1815 from tuberculosis) in March 1788 having met her when balloons were hot science, and he and other Fellows were experimenting with them. His trial balloon descended into Kingscote Park, owned by Anthony Kingscote, Catherine being one of his three daughters. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... A hot air balloon is prepared for flight by inflation of the envelope with propane burners. ...


In 1792, he obtained his M.D. from the University of St Andrews. Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ...


Smallpox

Around this time smallpox was greatly feared, as one in three of those who contracted the disease died, and those who survived were commonly badly disfigured. Voltaire, a few years later, recorded that 60% of people caught smallpox, with 20% of the population dying of it. In the years following 1770 there were at least six people in England and Germany (Sevel, Jensen, Jesty 1774, Rendall, Plett 1791) who had successfully tested the possibility of using the cowpox vaccine as an immunisation for smallpox in humans. For example, Dorset farmer, Benjamin Jesty, had successfully induced immunity in his wife and two children with cowpox during a smallpox epidemic in 1774, but it was not until Jenner's work some twenty years later that the procedure became widely understood. Indeed it is generally believed that Jenner was unaware of Jesty's success and arrived at his conclusions independently. This article is about the disease. ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Benjamin Jesty was a farmer at Yetminster in Dorset, England. ... Immunity against some infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial. ...

Jenner's Initial Theory
In fact he thought the initial source of infection was a disease of horses, called "the grease", and that this was transferred to cows by farmworkers, transformed, and then manifested as cowpox. From that point on he was correct, the complication probably arose from coincidence.

Noting the common observation that milkmaids did not generally get smallpox, Jenner theorized that the pus in the blisters which milkmaids received from cowpox (a disease similar to smallpox, but much less virulent) protected the milkmaids from smallpox. He may have had the advantage of hearing stories of Benjamin Jesty and perhaps others deliberately arranging cowpox infection of their families and of a reduced risk in those families. Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Benjamin Jesty was a farmer at Yetminster in Dorset, England. ...


On May 14, 1796, Jenner tested his theory by inoculating James Phipps, a young boy of 8 years old, with material from the cowpox blisters of the hand of Sarah Nelmes, a milkmaid who had caught cowpox from a cow called Blossom ([1]). Phipps was the 17th case described in Jenner's first paper on vaccination. is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... James Phipps was the first person to be administered the cow-pox vaccine by Edward Jenner. ...


Jenner inoculated Phipps with cowpox pus in both arms on one day, by scraping the pus from Nelmes' blisters onto a piece of wood then transferring this to Phipps' arms. This produced a fever and some uneasiness but no great illness. Later, he injected Phipps with variolous material, which would have been the routine attempt to produce immunity at that time. No disease followed. Jenner reported that later the boy was again challenged with variolacious material and again showed no sign of infection. Obsolete: inoculation against smallpox using material from a vesicle or lesion of a person with smallpox. ...

Known: that smallpox was more dangerous than variolation and cowpox less dangerous than variolation.

The hypothesis tested: That infection with cowpox would give immunity to smallpox.

The test: If variolation failed to produce an infection, Phipps was shown to be immune to smallpox.

The consequence: Immunity to smallpox could be induced much more safely.

He continued his research and reported it to the Royal Society, who did not publish the initial report. After improvement and further work, he published a report of twenty-three cases. Some of his conclusions were correct, and some erroneous—modern microbiological and microscopic methods would make this easier to repeat. The medical establishment, as cautious then as now, considered his findings for some time before accepting them. Eventually vaccination was accepted, and in 1840 the British government banned variolation and provided vaccination free of charge. (See Vaccination acts) The UK Vaccination Acts of 1840, 1853 and 1898 reflect the continuing argument over vacination policy in the UK. They were followed by legislation in the USA and other countries. ...


Jenner's continuing work on vaccination prevented his continuing his ordinary medical practice. He was supported by his colleagues and the King in petitioning Parliament and was granted £10,000 for his work on vaccination. In 1806 he was granted another £20,000 for his continuing work.


In 1803 in London he became involved with the Jennerian Institution, a society concerned with promoting vaccination to eradicate smallpox. In 1808, with government aid, this society became the National Vaccine Establishment. Jenner became a member of the Medical and Chirurgical Society on its foundation in 1805, and subsequently presented to them a number of papers. This is now the Royal Society of Medicine. 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the disease. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Logo and Coat of Arms of the Society. ...


Returning to London in 1811 he observed a significant number of cases of smallpox after vaccination occurring. He found that in these cases the severity of the illness was notably diminished by the previous vaccination. In 1821 he was appointed Physician Extraordinary to King George IV, a considerable national honour, and was made Mayor of Berkeley and Justice of the Peace. He continued his interests in natural history. In 1823, the last year of his life, he presented his Observations on the Migration of Birds to the Royal Society. George IV King of the United Kingdom George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762–26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom and Hanover from 29 January 1820. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


He was found in a state of apoplexy on 25 January 1823, with his right side paralysed. He never rallied, and died of what was apparently a stroke (he had suffered a previous stroke) on 26 January 1823, aged 73. He was survived by one son and one daughter, his elder son having died of tuberculosis at the age of 21. Apoplexy is an old-fashioned medical term, generally used interchangeably with cerebrovascular accident (CVA or stroke) but having other meanings as well. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Legacy

In 1980, the World Health Organization declared smallpox an eradicated disease. This was the result of coordinated public health efforts by many people, but vaccination was an essential component. Although it was declared eradicated, some samples still remain in laboratories in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia in the United States, and State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia. WHO redirects here. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... The Vector State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, also known as the Vector Institute, is a highly sophisticated biological research center in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia. ... Koltsovo was founded in 1979 as a settlement near Novosibirsk for employees of the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology (Vector). ...


Monuments

Bronze in Kensington Gardens
Bronze in Kensington Gardens
  • Jenner's house is now a small museum housing among other things the horns of the cow Blossom. It lies in the Gloucestershire village of Berkeley.
  • The word vaccination comes from the Latin vaccinia, cowpox, from vacca, cow.
  • Jenner was buried in the chancel of the parish church of Berkeley.
  • A statue, by Robert William Sievier, was erected in the nave of Gloucester Cathedral.
  • A statue was erected in Trafalgar Square, later moved to Kensington Gardens.[1]
  • Near the small Gloucestershire village of Uley, Downham Hill is locally known as 'Smallpox Hill', with a possible connection to Jenner's local work with the disease.[citation needed]
  • St George's, University of London has a wing named after him as well as a bust of him.[3]
  • A small grouping of villages in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, United States, were named in honour of Jenner by early 19th century English settlers, including what are now the towns of Jenners, Jenner Township, Jenner Crossroads and Jennerstown, Pennsylvania. The towns collectively have a population of about 6000.

Image File history File links Jenner-statue-by-lachlan-mvc-006f. ... Image File history File links Jenner-statue-by-lachlan-mvc-006f. ... Berkeley (pronounced ) is a town between the south bank of the River Severn and the M5 motorway in Gloucestershire, England, at grid reference ST685992. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Robert William Sievier FRS (1794-1865 was a notable English engraver, sculptor and later inventor of the 19th century. ... Gloucester Cathedral from the north east in 1828. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ... See also Kensington Gardens, South Australia, a suburb of Adelaide, Australia Kensington Gardens, once the private gardens of Kensington Palace, is one of the Royal Parks of London, lying immediately to the west of Hyde Park. ... Map sources for Uley at grid reference ST790984 Uley (pronounced ) is a village in the county of Gloucestershire, England. ... St Georges, University of London (SGUL) is a specialist medical college of the University of London. ... Somerset County is a county located in the state of Pennsylvania. ... Jenner Township is a township located in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. ... Jennerstown is a borough in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, United States. ...

Publications

  • 1798 An Inquiry Into the Causes and Effects of the Variolæ Vaccinæ
  • 1799 Further Observations on the Variolœ Vaccinœ
  • 1800 A Continuation of Facts and Observations relative to the Variolœ Vaccinœ 40pgs
  • 1801 The Origin of the Vaccine Inoculation 12pgs

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Child receiving an oral polio vaccine. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Royal College of Physicians. JENNER, Edward (1749-1823). AIM25 Archives.
  2. ^ The Jenner Museum. Edward Jenner and the Cuckoo.
  3. ^ St George's, University of London. Our History.

College building by Denys Lasdun The Royal College of Physicians of London is the oldest medical institution in England was founded in 1518 and is one of the most active of all medical professional organisations. ... St Georges, University of London (SGUL) is a specialist medical college of the University of London. ...

References

  • Papers at the Royal College of Physicians
  • Baron, John M.D. F.R.S., "The Life of Edward Jenner MD LLD FRS", Henry Colburn, London, 1827.
  • Edward Jenner, the man and his work. BMJ 1949 E Ashworth Underwood
  • Cartwright, Keith (2005), “From Jenner to modern smallpox vaccines.”, Occupational medicine (Oxford, England) 55 (7): 563, 2005 Oct, PMID:16251374, doi:10.1093/occmed/kqi163, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16251374> 
  • Riedel, Stefan (2005), “Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination.”, Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center) 18 (1): 21-5, 2005 Jan, PMID:16200144, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16200144> 
  • Tan, S Y (2004), “Edward Jenner (1749-1823): conqueror of smallpox.”, Singapore medical journal 45 (11): 507-8, 2004 Nov, PMID:15510320, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15510320> 
  • van Oss, C J (2000), “Inoculation against smallpox as the precursor to vaccination.”, Immunol. Invest. 29 (4): 443-6, 2000 Nov, PMID:11130785, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11130785> 
  • Gross, C P & Sepkowitz, K A, “The myth of the medical breakthrough: smallpox, vaccination, and Jenner reconsidered.”, Int. J. Infect. Dis. 3 (1): 54-60, PMID:9831677, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9831677> 
  • Willis, N J (1997), “Edward Jenner and the eradication of smallpox.”, Scottish medical journal 42 (4): 118-21, 1997 Aug, PMID:9507590, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9507590> 
  • Theves, G (1997), “[Smallpox: an historical review]”, Bulletin de la Société des sciences médicales du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg 134 (1): 31-51, 1997, PMID:9303824, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9303824> 
  • Kempa, M E (1996), “[Edward Jenner (1749-1823)--benefactor to mankind (100th anniversary of the first vaccination against smallpox)]”, Pol. Merkur. Lekarski 1 (6): 433-4, 1996 Dec, PMID:9273243, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9273243> 
  • Baxby, D (1996), “The Jenner bicentenary: the introduction and early distribution of smallpox vaccine.”, FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 16 (1): 1-10, 1996 Nov, PMID:8954347, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8954347> 
  • Larner, A J (1996), “Smallpox.”, N. Engl. J. Med. 335 (12): 901; author reply 902, 1996 Sep 19, PMID:8778627, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8778627> 
  • Aly, A & Aly, S (1996), “Smallpox.”, N. Engl. J. Med. 335 (12): 900-1; author reply 902, 1996 Sep 19, PMID:8778626, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8778626> 
  • Magner, J (1996), “Smallpox.”, N. Engl. J. Med. 335 (12): 900, 1996 Sep 19, PMID:8778624, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8778624> 
  • Kumate-Rodríguez, J, “[Bicentennial of smallpox vaccine: experiences and lessons]”, Salud pública de México 38 (5): 379-85, PMID:9092091, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9092091> 
  • Budai, J (1996), “[200th anniversary of the Jenner smallpox vaccine]”, Orvosi hetilap 137 (34): 1875-7, 1996 Aug 25, PMID:8927342, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8927342> 
  • Rathbone, J (1996), “Lady Mary Wortley Montague's contribution to the eradication of smallpox.”, Lancet 347 (9014): 1566, 1996 Jun 1, PMID:8684145, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8684145> 
  • Baxby, D (1996), “The Jenner bicentenary; still uses for smallpox vaccine.”, Epidemiol. Infect. 116 (3): 231-4, 1996 Jun, PMID:8666065, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8666065> 
  • Cook, G C (1996), “Dr William Woodville (1752-1805) and the St Pancras Smallpox Hospital.”, Journal of medical biography 4 (2): 71-8, 1996 May, PMID:11616267, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11616267> 
  • Baxby, D, “Jenner and the control of smallpox.”, Transactions of the Medical Society of London 113: 18-22, PMID:10326082, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10326082> 
  • Dunn, P M (1996), “Dr Edward Jenner (1749-1823) of Berkeley, and vaccination against smallpox.”, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 74 (1): F77-8, 1996 Jan, PMID:8653442, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8653442> 
  • Meynell, E (1995), “French reactions to Jenner's discovery of smallpox vaccination: the primary sources.”, Social history of medicine : the journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine / SSHM 8 (2): 285-303, 1995 Aug, PMID:11639810, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11639810> 
  • Bloch, H (1993), “Edward Jenner (1749-1823). The history and effects of smallpox, inoculation, and vaccination.”, Am. J. Dis. Child. 147 (7): 772-4, 1993 Jul, PMID:8322750, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8322750> 
  • Roses, D F (1992), “From Hunter and the Great Pox to Jenner and smallpox.”, Surgery, gynecology & obstetrics 175 (4): 365-72, 1992 Oct, PMID:1411896, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1411896> 
  • Turk, J L & Allen, E (1990), “The influence of John Hunter's inoculation practice on Edward Jenner's discovery of vaccination against smallpox.”, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 83 (4): 266-7, 1990 Apr, PMID:2187990, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2187990> 
  • Poliakov, V E (1985), “[Edward Jenner and vaccination against smallpox]”, Meditsinskaia sestra 44 (12): 49-51, 1985 Dec, PMID:3912642, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3912642> 
  • Hammarsten, J F; Tattersall, W & Hammarsten, J E (1979), “Who discovered smallpox vaccination? Edward Jenner or Benjamin Jesty?”, Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 90: 44-55, 1979, PMID:390826, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/390826> 
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  • Wynder, E L (1974), “A corner of history: Jenner and his smallpox vaccine.”, Preventive medicine 3 (1): 173-5, 1974 Mar, PMID:4592685, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4592685> 
  • Andreae, H (1973), “[Edward Jenner, initiator of cowpox vaccination against human smallpox, died 150 years ago]”, Das Offentliche Gesundheitswesen 35 (6): 366-7, 1973 Jun, PMID:4269783, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4269783> 
  • Friedrich, I (1973), “[A cure for smallpox. On the 150th anniversary of Edward Jenner's death]”, Orvosi hetilap 114 (6): 336-8, 1973 Feb 11, PMID:4567814, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4567814> 
  • MacNalty, A S (1968), “The prevention of smallpox: from Edward Jenner to Monckton Copeman.”, Medical history 12 (1): 1-18, 1968 Jan, PMID:4867646, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4867646> 
  • Udovitskaia, E F (1966), “[Edward Jenner and the history of his scientific achievement. (On the 170th anniversary of the discovery of smallpox vaccination)]”, Vrachebnoe delo 11: 111-5, 1966 Nov, PMID:4885910, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4885910> 
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Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Lancet may refer to: A lancet is a medical instrument, similar to a scalpel but with a double-edged blade. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... This article is about the year. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... This article is about the year. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Jenner, Edward
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English doctor, introduced and studied the smallpox vaccine
DATE OF BIRTH May 17, 1749
PLACE OF BIRTH Gloucestershire
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Edward Jenner - LoveToKnow 1911 (2477 words)
EDWARD JENNER (1749-1823), English physician and discoverer of vaccination, was born at Berkeley, Gloucestershire, on the 17th of May 1749.
Jenner concluded at once that this was due to an accidental contamination of the vaccine with variolous matter, and a visit to London in the spring of 1799 convinced him that this was the case.
Jenner was led, by the language of the chancellor of the exchequer when his grant was proposed, to attempt practice in London, but after a year's trial he returned to Berkeley.
Edward Jenner (1304 words)
Jenner was born in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, on 17 May 1749, the son of a vicar.
Jenner could not explain why the method worked, as he did not have access to the germ theory work of the French chemist Louis Pasteur; it was not until the 1860s and 1870s that Pasteur, and the German chemist Robert Koch made the discoveries that would provide the link between germs and disease in humans.
Jenner's idea was too radical for many in the medical profession, and his status as a country doctor meant that many city doctors looked down on him.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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