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Encyclopedia > Edward IV of England
Edward IV
By the Grace of God, King of England
and France and Lord of Ireland.
Reign March 3, 146131 October, 1470
and April 11, 1471April 9, 1483
Coronation June 28, 1461
Born April 28, 1442
Rouen
Died April 9, 1483 (aged 40)
Westminster
Buried Windsor Castle
Predecessor Henry VI
Successor Edward V
Consort Elizabeth Woodville (c. 1437–1492)
Issue Elizabeth of York (1466–1503)
Edward V (1470 – c. 1483)
Richard, 1st Duke of York
(1473 – c. 1483)
Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount
Lisle
(illeg., d. 1542)
Royal House York
Father Richard, Duke of York (1411–1460)
Mother Cecily Neville (1415–1495)

Edward IV (April 28, 1442April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. edward iv, king of england This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The community of Rauma, Finland was granted its town rights. ... Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... Windsor castle, a thousand-year-old fortress transformed into a royal palace. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... Elizabeth Woodville or Wydville (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York and 1st Duke of Norfolk (17 August 1473–1483?) was the second son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville and, thus, the younger brother of King Edward V. In January 1478, when he was about 4 years old, he married... Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle, KG (died March 3, 1542) was an illegitimate son of King Edward IV of England. ... The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three of whom became English kings in the late 15th century. ... Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... Cecily Neville (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495), Duchess of York, was called the Rose of Raby (because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, England) and Proud Cis (because of her pride and a temper that went with it). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The community of Rauma, Finland was granted its town rights. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ...

Contents

Reign

Accession to the Throne

Edward of York was born on April 28, 1442, at Rouen in France, the second son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (who had a strong genealogical claim to the throne of England) and Cecily Neville. He was the eldest of the four sons who survived to adulthood. The Duke of York's assertion of his claim to the crown in 1460 was the key escalation of the conflict known as the Wars of the Roses. When his father was killed at the Battle of Wakefield, Edward inherited his claim. is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The community of Rauma, Finland was granted its town rights. ... Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... Cecily Neville (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495), Duchess of York, was called the Rose of Raby (because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, England) and Proud Cis (because of her pride and a temper that went with it). ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Wakefield took place at Wakefield, in West Yorkshire, on December 30, 1460, and was one of the major actions of the Wars of the Roses. ...


With the support of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick ("The Kingmaker"), Edward defeated the Lancastrians in a succession of battles. And whilst Henry VI and his militaristic queen, Margaret of Anjou, were campaigning in the north of England, Warwick gained control of the capital and had Edward declared king in London in 1461. Edward strengthened his claim with a decisive victory at the Battle of Towton in the same year, in the course of which the Lancastrian army was virtually wiped out. Richard Neville, jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick and suo jure 6th Earl of Salisbury (22 November 1428 – April 14, 1471), is known as Warwick the Kingmaker. Warwick was the richest man in England outside of the Royal Family. ... The House of Lancaster is a dynasty of English kings. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Margaret of Anjou (Marguerite dAnjou, March 23, 1429 – August 25, 1482) was the Queen consort of Henry VI of England from 1445 to 1471, and led the Lancastrian contingent, in the Wars of the Roses. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Battle of Towton in the Wars of the Roses was the bloodiest ever fought on British soil, with casualties believed to have been in excess of 20,000 (perhaps as many as 30,000) men. ...


Overthrow

Warwick, believing that he could continue to rule through Edward, pressed him to enter into a marital alliance with a major European power. Edward then alienated Warwick by secretly marrying Elizabeth Woodville, who had a large group of relatively poor but very ambitious Lancastrian relations. Although no threat to Warwick's own power, Warwick resented the influence this group had over the King and, with the aid of Edward's disaffected younger brother George, Duke of Clarence, the Earl led an army against Edward. Elizabeth Woodville or Wydville (c. ... George (Plantagenet), Duke of Clarence (October 21, 1449 - February 18, 1478) was the third son of Richard, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, and the brother of King Edward IV of England. ...


The main part of the king's army (without Edward) was defeated at the Battle of Edgecote Moor, and Edward was subsequently captured at Olney. Warwick then attempted to rule in Edward's name, but the nobility, many of whom owed their preferments to the king, were restive and with the emergence of a counter rebellion, Warwick was forced to release Edward. At this point Edward did not seek to destroy either Warwick or Clarence, instead he sought reconciliation with them. The Battle of Edgecote Moor took place 6 miles northeast of Banbury (Oxfordshire), England on July 26, 1469 during the Wars of the Roses. ... Olney is a small town near Milton Keynes, England with a population of around 6,000 people. ...


In 1470, Warwick and Clarence rebelled again. This time they were defeated and forced to flee to France. There, they made an alliance with Margaret of Anjou, and Warwick agreed to restore Henry VI in return for French support in an invasion which took place in late 1470. This time, Edward was forced to flee when he learned Warwick's brother, John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu, had also switched to the Lancastrian side, making his military position untenable. John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu (~1431 - April 14, 1471) was a Yorkist leader in the Wars of the Roses, best-known for eliminating Lancastrian resistance in the north of England during the early part of the reign of Edward IV of England. ...


Restoration

Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne in an act known as the Readeption of Henry VI, and Edward took refuge in Burgundy. The rulers of Burgundy were his brother-in-law Charles, Duke of Burgundy and his sister Margaret of York. Despite the fact that Charles was initially unwilling to help Edward, the French declared war on Burgundy and so Charles decided to give his aid to Edward, and from there he raised an army to win back his kingdom. The Readeption is the technical term given to the restoration of Henry VI to the throne of England. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Charles the Bold Charles, called the Bold (French: Charles le Téméraire) (November 10, 1433 – January 5, 1477) was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. ... Margaret of York (May 3, 1446 - November 23, 1503) - also by marriage known as Margaret of Burgundy- was a daughter to Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, a sister of Kings Edward IV of England and Richard III of England, third wife to Charles the Bold, Duke...

English Royalty
House of York

Armorial of Plantagenet
Edward IV
   Elizabeth of York
   Edward V
   Richard, Duke of York

When he returned to England with a relatively small force he avoided capture by potentially hostile forces by stating his claim, just as Henry Bolingbroke had done seventy years earlier, that he merely desired to reclaim his dukedom. The city of York however closed its gates to him, but as he marched southwards he began to gather support, and Clarence (who had realised that his fortunes would be better off as brother to a king than under Henry VI) reunited with him. Edward then defeated Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and with Warwick dead, he eliminated the remaining Lancastrian resistance at the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471. The Lancastrian heir, Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, was killed either on the battlefield or shortly afterwards, and a few days later, on the night that Edward re-entered London, Henry VI, who was being held prisoner, was murdered in order to completely remove the Lancastrian opposition. The British monarchy is a shared monarchy; this article describes the monarchy from the perspective of the United Kingdom. ... The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three of whom became English kings in the late 15th century. ... Image File history File links Armoiries_Angleterre_1422. ... // Categories: | ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York and 1st Duke of Norfolk (17 August 1473–1483?) was the second son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville and, thus, the younger brother of King Edward V. In January 1478, when he was about 4 years old, he married... Henry IV of England, depicted in Cassells History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902 Henry IV King of England, Lord of Ireland. ... York is a city in North Yorkshire, England, at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss. ... The Battle of Barnet, which took place on April 14, 1471, was a decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, near the town of Barnet, 10 miles north of London. ... Combatants House of York House of Lancaster Commanders Edward IV of England Edmund Beaufort Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Tewkesbury in Gloucestershire, which took place on May 4, 1471, completed one phase of the Wars of the Roses. ... Edward of Westminster (October 13, 1453 – May 4, 1471) was the only Prince of Wales ever to die in battle. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ...


Edward's two younger brothers, George, Duke of Clarence, and Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later King Richard III of England) were married to Isabella Neville and Anne Neville. They were both daughters of Warwick by Anne Beauchamp and rival heirs to the considerable inheritance of their still-living mother. Clarence and Gloucester were at loggerheads for much of the rest of his reign. Clarence was eventually found guilty of plotting against Edward and was imprisoned in the Tower of London. He was "privately executed" (later tradition states he was drowned in a vat of Malmsey wine) on February 18, 1478. George (Plantagenet), Duke of Clarence (October 21, 1449 - February 18, 1478) was the third son of Richard, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, and the brother of King Edward IV of England. ... King Richard III held the title of Duke of Gloucester from 1461 until his accession in 1483 The title Duke of Gloucester (pronounced gloss-ter) is a British royal title (after Gloucester), often conferred on one of the sons of the reigning monarch. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... Isabella Neville (1451-1476) was the younger daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the Kingmaker of the war of the roses. ... Anne Neville (June 11, 1456–March 16, 1485) was Queen consort of King Richard III of England 1483-1485. ... Anne Beauchamp (1426 - 1492) was the daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and the mother of a queen of England. ... Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ...


Later reign and death

Edward did not face any further rebellions after his restoration, as the Lancastrian line had virtually been extinguished, and the only rival left was Henry Tudor, who was living in exile. Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ...


In 1475, Edward declared war on France and came to terms with the Treaty of Picquigny which provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension thereafter of 50,000 crowns. He also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, brother of the Scottish king James III to take the Scottish throne in 1482, and despite the fact that when Gloucester invaded he was able to capture Edinburgh and James III, Albany reneged on his agreement with Edward, and Gloucester decided to withdraw from his position of strength in Edinburgh. However, Gloucester did recover Berwick-upon-Tweed. The Treaty of Picquigny was negotiated in 1475 between England and France. ... Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany (c. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... , Edinburgh (() pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second largest city. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ...


Edward fell ill at Easter 1483, but lingered on long enough to add some codicils to his will, the most important being his naming of his brother Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9 April 1483 and is buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded by his twelve-year-old son, Edward V of England. is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... St Georges Chapel, Windsor St. ... Windsor castle, a thousand-year-old fortress transformed into a royal palace. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ...


Overview

An extremely capable and daring military commander, Edward destroyed the House of Lancaster in a series of spectacular military victories; never once being defeated in the field. Despite his occasional (if serious) political setbacks - usually at the hands of his great Machiavellian rival, Louis XI - Edward was a popular and very able king. Whilst he lacked foresight and was at times cursed by bad judgement, he possessed an uncanny understanding of his most useful subjects, and the vast majority of those who served him remained unwaveringly loyal until his death. Louis XI Louis XI the Prudent (French: Louis XI le Prudent) (July 3, 1423 - August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed luniverselle aragne (old French for universal spider), was a King of France (1461 - 1483). ...


Domestically, Edward's reign saw the restoration of law and order in England (indeed, his royal motto was modus et ordo, or method and order). The latter days of Henry VI's government had been marked by a general breakdown in law and order, as well as a sizable increase in both piracy and banditry. Interestingly, Edward was also a shrewd and successful businessman and merchant, heavily investing in several corporations within the City of London. Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ...


Ultimately, despite his military and administrative genius, Edward's dynasty survived him by little more than two years. Edward also holds the tragic accolade of being one of the few male members of his dynasty to die of natural causes. Both Edward's father and brother were killed at the Battle of Wakefield, whilst his grandfather and another brother were executed for treason. The king's youngest brother, Richard, was famously killed in battle against Henry Tudor at Bosworth Field. The fate of Edward's two sons is unknown. Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... Edmund, Earl of Rutland (May 17, 1443 – December 31, 1460) was the fourth child and second surviving son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville. ... The Battle of Wakefield took place at Wakefield, in West Yorkshire, on December 30, 1460, and was one of the major actions of the Wars of the Roses. ... Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (c. ... George, Duke of Clarence (21 October 1449 – 18 February 1478) was the third son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of kings Edward IV and Richard III of England. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483 by Sir John Everett Millais, 1878, part of the Royal Holloway picture collection The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (November 4, 1470 – 1483-5?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (17 August 1473...


Ancestors

Edward's ancestors in three generations
Edward IV of England Father:
Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York
Paternal Grandfather:
Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York
Paternal Grandmother:
Anne de Mortimer
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Alianore de Holland
Mother:
Cecily Neville
Maternal Grandfather:
Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland
Maternal Great-grandfather:
John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Maud Percy
Maternal Grandmother:
Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland
Maternal Great-grandfather:
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Katherine Swynford

Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (c. ... Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (June 5, 1341 – August 1, 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of the five sons of the Royal couple who lived to adulthood. ... Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York (c. ... Anne Mortimer (December 27, 1390 - September, 1411) was the daughter of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (1373-1398) and Eleanor de Holland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cecily Neville (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495), Duchess of York, was called the Rose of Raby (because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, England) and Proud Cis (because of her pride and a temper that went with it). ... Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland (c. ... John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby was born in 1328 at Castle Raby and died 17 October 1388. ... Beaufort coat of arms Joan Bearfort and mother, Katherine Swynfords tomb 1640 drawing of the tombs of Joan Bearfort and mother, Katherine Swynford in Lincoln Cathedral before the tombs were despoiled in 1644 by the Roundheads. ... John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 – February 3, 1399) was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... Coat of arms designed for Katherine Swynford: three gold Catherine wheels (roet means wheel) on a red background. ...

Children

Edward IV had ten legitimate children by Elizabeth Woodville, though only seven survived him: Elizabeth Woodville or Wydville (c. ...

Edward had numerous mistresses, the best known of whom is Jane Shore (whose name in actuality was Elizabeth). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Mary of York (August 11, 1467 - May 23, 1482) was the second daughter of Edward IV of England and his Queen consort Elizabeth Woodville. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October 29 - Battle of Brusthem: Charles the Bold defeats Liege Beginning of the Sengoku Period in Japan. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Portuguese fortify Fort Elmina on the Gold Coast Tizoc rules the Aztecs Diogo Cão, a Portuguese navigator, becomes the first European to sail up the Congo. ... Cecily of York (March 20, 1469 - August 24, 1507) was the third daughter of Edward IV of England and his Queen consort Elizabeth Woodville. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1507 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... Margaret Plantagenet (April 10, 1472 - December 11, 1472) was the fifth child and fourth daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York and 1st Duke of Norfolk (17 August 1473–1483?) was the second son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville and, thus, the younger brother of King Edward V. In January 1478, when he was about 4 years old, he married... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... Anne of York (November 2, 1475 - November 23, 1511) was the seventh child and fifth daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 5<sup>Superscript text</sup>7<!-- Comment --><blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class=class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |-{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk by Hans Holbein. ... George Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford (March, 1477 - March, 1479) was the eighth child and third son of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville. ... Catherine of York (August 14, 1479 - November 15, 1527) was the ninth child and sixth daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Bridget of York (November 10, 1480 - 1517) was the tenth child and seventh daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... Jane Shore (c. ...


He reportedly had several illegitimate children:

  • By Lady Eleanor Talbot
    • Edward de Wigmore (d. 1468). Reportedly died as an infant along with his mother.
  • By Elizabeth Lucy or Elizabeth Waite.
  • By unknown mother. Recent speculations suggests them as children by Lucy or Waite.
    • Grace Plantagenet. She is known to have been present at the funeral of her stepmother Elizabeth Woodville in 1492.
    • Mary Plantagenet, married Henry Harman of Ellam, son of Thomas and Elizabeth Harman and widower of Agness.
    • A daughter said to have been the first wife of John Tuchet, 6th Baron Audley.

Perkin Warbeck, an impostor claimant to the English throne, who claimed to be Edward's son Richard of Shrewsbury, reportedly resembled Edward. There is unconfirmed speculation that Warbeck could have been another of Edward's illegitimate sons. Lady Eleanor Talbot (died 1468) was a daughter of John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury. ... Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle, KG (died March 3, 1542) was an illegitimate son of King Edward IV of England. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Alternate uses: see widow (typesetting). ... Contemporary painting of Warbeck Perkin Warbeck (c. ... An impostor is a person who pretends to be somebody else, often to try to gain financial or social advantages through social engineering, but just as often for purposes of espionage or law enforcement. ...


Successors

Edward IV's eldest son was invested with the title of Prince of Wales at the age of seven months. At the age of three, he was sent by his father to Ludlow Castle as nominal head of the Council of Wales and the Marches, a body that had originally been set up to help the future Edward II of England in his duties as Prince of Wales. The prince was accompanied to Ludlow by his mother and by his uncle, Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, who carried out many of the administrative duties associated with the presidency of the Council. The king visited his son occasionally at Ludlow, though, as far as is known, he never ventured into Wales itself. It is clear that he intended this experience of government to prepare his son for the throne. The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... Ludlow Castles gatehouse Ludlow Castle is a large, now ruined castle which dominates the town of Ludlow in Shropshire, England. ... The Council of the Marches was an English regional administrative body (similar to the Council of the North) covering all of Wales and the English counties known as the Welsh Marches. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Anthony Rivers, 2nd Earl Rivers (1442?- June 25, 1483) was an English nobleman, courtier, and writer. ...


Although his son was quickly barred from the throne and replaced by Richard of Gloucester, Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth of York, later became the Queen consort of Henry VII of England. (Elizabeth's son was Henry VIII of England.) The grounds for Titulus Regius, passed to justify the accession of Richard III, were that Edward had been contracted to marry another woman prior to his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville. Lady Eleanor Butler (a young widow, daughter of John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury) and Edward were alleged to have been precontracted; both parties were dead by this time, but a clergyman (named only by Philippe de Commines as Robert Stillington, Bishop of Bath and Wells), claimed to have carried out the ceremony. The declaration was repealed shortly after Henry VII assumed the throne, because it illegimitized Elizabeth of York, who was to be his queen. Titulus Regius (the Title of King in Latin) is a famous act of the English Parliament, issued in early 1484, by which the title of King of England was given to Richard III of England. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Lady Eleanor Talbot (died 1468) was a daughter of John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury. ... John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury (1384/90 – 17 July 1453) was an important English military commander during the Hundred Years War. ... Philippe de Commines (or de Commynes or Philip de Comines) (1447-1511) was a French-speaking Fleming in the courts of Burgundy and France, a diplomat, and a writer, and he has been called the first truly modern writer (Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve) and the first critical and philosophical historian... Robert Stillington was Bishop of Bath and Wells and Lord Chancellor of England. ... The Bishop of Bath and Wells is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Bath and Wells in the Province of Canterbury. ...


The final fate of Edward IV's legitimate sons, Edward V and Richard, Duke of York, is unknown. Speculation on the subject has given rise to the "Princes in the Tower" mystery. The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483 by Sir John Everett Millais, 1878, part of the Royal Holloway picture collection The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (November 4, 1470 – 1483-5?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (17 August 1473...


Was Edward illegitimate?

Evidence of Edward's illegitimacy remains subjective and disputed amongst modern historians. Despite some concerns raised by some scholars, it was, and still essentially is, generally accepted that the issue was raised as propaganda to support Richard III. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (550x834, 125 KB) Edward IV Plantagenet Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (550x834, 125 KB) Edward IV Plantagenet Source: http://www. ...


In his time, it was noted that Edward IV resembled his father little, especially in terms of his (then) exceptional height of 6 feet 4 inches when compared to the other members of the House of York, who were not well known for their height. Questions about his paternity were raised during Edward's own reign, for example by Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick in 1469, and repeated by Edward's brother, George, shortly before his execution in 1478, but with no evidence; it must be noted that in propaganda wars, such as these, many statements were used that perhaps had no basis in truth (for example, Henry VI's heir, Edward of Westminster, was purported to have been a bastard of Margaret of Anjou and the Duke of Somerset). It was suggested that the real father may have been an archer called Blaybourne. Richard Neville, jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick and suo jure 6th Earl of Salisbury (22 November 1428 – April 14, 1471), is known as Warwick the Kingmaker. Warwick was the richest man in England outside of the Royal Family. ... George, Duke of Clarence (21 October 1449 – 18 February 1478) was the third son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of kings Edward IV and Richard III of England. ... Edward of Westminster (October 13, 1453 – May 4, 1471) was the only Prince of Wales ever to die in battle. ... It has been suggested that Primitive Archery be merged into this article or section. ...


Prior to his succession, on June 22, 1483, Richard III declared that Edward was illegitimate, and three days later the matter was addressed by parliament. In Titulus Regius (the text of which is believed to come word-for-word from the petition presented by Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham to the assembly which met on June 25, 1483, to decide on the future of the monarchy), Richard III is described as "the undoubted son and heir" of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and "born in this land" — an oblique reference to his brother's birth at Rouen and baptism in circumstances which could have been considered questionable. Dominic Mancini says that Cecily Neville, mother of both Edward IV and Richard III, was herself the basis for the story: when she found out about Edward's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, in 1464, "Proud Cis" flew into a rage. Mancini reported that the Duchess, in her anger, offered to declare him a bastard. However, this is not supported in contemporary sources, but is most likely reflective of contemporary opinion. According to Polydore Vergil, Duchess Cecily, "being falsely accused of adultery, complained afterwards in sundry places to right many noble men, whereof some yet live, of that great injury which her son Richard had done her." If she had indeed complained — as would befit a high-ranking lady of renowned piety, as she had been regarded — these petitions may have had some effect: the allegations were dropped and never again pursued. Richard III's claim to the throne is generally believed to be based upon his claim that Edward IV's children were illegitimate. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... Titulus Regius (the Title of King in Latin) is a famous act of the English Parliament, issued in early 1484, by which the title of King of England was given to Richard III of England. ... Henry Stafford Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (4 September 1454–2 November 1483) played a major role in Richard III of Englands rise and fall. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... Dominic Mancini was an Italian who visited England during 1483 and left behind an account of the events he witnessed. ... Cecily Neville (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495), Duchess of York, was called the Rose of Raby (because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, England) and Proud Cis (because of her pride and a temper that went with it). ... Elizabeth Woodville or Wydville (c. ...


The matter is also raised in William Shakespeare's Richard III, in the following lines from Act 3 Scene 5: Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ...

Tell them, when that my mother went with child
Of that unsatiate Edward, noble York
My princely father then had wars in France
And, by just computation of the time,
Found that the issue was not his begot

It is to be noted, however, that many of Shakespeare's issues were for the sake of drama, including that of his perception of Richard III himself — that immortalized image of Richard as the "crook-backed monster." Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire Hundred Years War Edwardian â€“ Breton Succession â€“ Castilian â€“ Two Peters â€“ Caroline â€“ Lancastrian The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337...


In a 2004 television documentary, it was noted that, from 14 July to 21 August 1441 (the approximate time of conception for Edward, who was born in April 1442), Edward's father was on campaign at Pontoise, several days march from Rouen (where Cecily of York was based). This was taken to suggest that the Duke of York could not have been available to conceive Edward. Furthermore, the christening celebration of Edmund, Earl of Rutland, the second son of Richard and Cecily, was a lavish and expensive affair, while the christening of the couple's firstborn son Edward was a low key and private affair in a small chapel in Rouen. This could be interpreted as indicating that the couple had more to celebrate together at the birth of Edmund. For more details about this theory, see the TV programme Britain's Real Monarch. Edmund, Earl of Rutland (May 17, 1443 – December 31, 1460) was the fourth child and second surviving son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville. ... Britains Real Monarch was an historical documentary presented by Tony Robinson shown on Channel 4 on January 3, 2004, and again on November 20, 2004. ...


Several counter-arguments to this theory have been raised:

  1. The Duke could have returned to Rouen from Pontoise, or Edward could have been premature.
  2. It was Edward IV that could claim the Crown from Henry VI by right of conquest, whether he was a legitimate child or not.
  3. Edward IV could also claim senior line as Richard, Duke of York never contested his paternity. Under English common law a child born to a married woman is presumed to be her husband's unless the husband denies paternity.
  4. After Edward IV became king, Clarence was subjected to a bill of attainder--i.e. stripped of his properties and inheritance rights--for committing treason against his brother, the king. This attainder also barred Clarence's children from succeeding to the throne, working corruption of blood. (Proponents of the belief that Edward was illegitimate counter this by arguing that Edward was not the rightful king and therefore an attainder enacted by him had no validity.)

The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... A bill of attainder (also known as an act or writ of attainder) is an act of legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime, and punishing them, without benefit of a trial. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Edward IV in fiction

Edward IV features as a character in:

  • The plays Henry VI, Part 2, Henry VI, Part 3, and Richard III, by William Shakespeare
  • The plays King Edward IV, Part 1 and King Edward IV, Part 2, by Thomas Heywood, a contemporary of Shakespeare's.
  • The Rose of York: Love & War by Sandra Worth (noted for its meticulous research by the Richard III Society)
  • The Innocent, The Exiled and The Beloved (released as The Uncrowned Queen) by Australian novelist, Posie Graeme-Evans
  • The Raven and the Rose by Virginia Henley (a fictional illegitimate child of Edward IV is the main character)

The play we know as King Henry VI Part II was originally known as The First Part of the Contention betwixt the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster. ... Henry VI Part III is the third of William Shakespeares plays set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England, and prepares the ground for one of his best-known and most controversial plays: the tragedy of King Richard III (Richard III of England). ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Thomas Heywood (died approx. ... Sandra Worth is a Canadian author of fiction, and a U.S. citizen with strong ties to England. ... The Richard III Society was founded in 1924 by Liverpool surgeon S. Saxon Barton. ... Posie Graeme-Evans was born in England, the daughter of a novelist and an RAF pilot. ... Virgina Henley is a successful author of Medieval, Renaissance and other period piece romance novels. ...

References

Edward IV of England
House of York
Cadet branch of the House of Plantagenet
Born: 1442 28 April
Died: 1483 9 April
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Henry VI
King of England
1461 – 1483
Succeeded by
Edward V
Lord of Ireland
1461 – 1483
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Richard Plantagenet
Duke of York
1460 – 1461
Merged
in Crown
Earl of Cambridge
1460 – 1461
Earl of March
1460 – 1461
Earl of Ulster
Direct ancestry
Richard of Cambridge Richard
Duke of York
Edward IV of England
Anne de Mortimer
Mortimer
Ralph of Westmoreland Cecily of Westmoreland
Joan Beaufort
References
1. Van de Pas, Leo. Genealogics.org (2007).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biography of Edward IV of England (1929 words)
Edward was born on April 28, 1442, at Rouen in France, the eldest son of Richard, Duke of York (a leading claimant to the throne of England) and Cecily Neville.
Edward's two younger brothers, George, Duke of Clarence, and Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later King Richard III of England), who were married to Warwick's two daughters, were at loggerheads for much of the rest of his reign.
Edward died suddenly in 1483 and is buried in Windsor Castle.
Edward IV of England - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2522 words)
Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471.
Edward of York was born on April 28, 1442, at Rouen in France, the second son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (a leading claimant to the throne of England) and Cecily Neville.
Edward's two younger brothers, George, Duke of Clarence, and Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later King Richard III of England) were married to Isabella Neville and Anne Neville.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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