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Encyclopedia > Edward III of England
Edward III
By the Grace of God, King of England
and France and Lord of Ireland
Reign 25 January 132721 June 1377
Coronation 1 February 1327
Born 13 November 1312(1312-11-13)
Windsor Castle
Died 21 June 1377 (aged 64)
Sheen Palace (See Richmond Palace)
Buried Westminster
Predecessor Edward II
Successor Richard II
Consort Philippa of Hainault
(c. 1314–1369)
Issue Edward, the Black Prince
(1330–1376)
Isabella of England (1332–1379)
Joan of England (1335–1348)
Lionel of Antwerp (1338–1368)
John of Gaunt (1340–1399)
Edmund of Langley (1342–1404)
Mary Plantagenet (1344–1362)
Margaret Plantagenet (1346–1361)
Thomas of Woodstock
(1355–1397)
Royal House Plantagenet
Father Edward II (1284–1327)
Mother Isabella of France (c.1295–1358)

Edward III (13 November 131221 June 1377) was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages. Restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II, he went on to transform the Kingdom of England into the most efficient military power in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in legislature and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death. He remained on the throne for 50 years; no English monarch had reigned for as long since Henry III, and none would again until George III. The Reign of King Edward III is a play attributed to William Shakespeare. ... Image File history File links Edward3. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 15 : Battle near Rozgoni Battle near Thebes Siege of Rostock begins Births November 13 - King Edward III of England Deaths June 19 - Piers Gaveston, favourite of Edward II of England September 7 - King Ferdinand IV of Castile Categories: 1312 ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Richmond is a suburb and the principal settlement of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south west London, England. ... A royal residence 1327-1649, on The Green, Richmond-upon-Thames, Surrey. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... Philippa of Hainault Philippa of Hainault (~1314 - August 15, 1369) was the Queen consort of Edward III of England. ... Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... Isabella Plantagenet, also known as Dame Isabella de Coucy (16 June 1332- either April 1379, or 1382), was the daughter of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... Joan of England (1335-1348) was the daughter of King Edward III of England and his queen, Philippa of Hainault. ... Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, (November 29, 1338 – October 7, 1368) was the second son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... John of Gaunt John of Gaunt John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (March 6, 1340 – February 3, 1399) was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (June 5, 1341 – August 1, 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of the five sons of the Royal couple who lived to adulthood. ... Mary Plantagenet (October 10, 1344 – 1362) Born in Waltham, Hampshire, the daughter of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... For other persons named Margaret Plantagenet, see Margaret Plantagenet (disambiguation). ... Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester (January 7, 1355 - September 8 (or 9), 1397) was the thirteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Queen Philippa. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Isabella returns to England with her son, Edward III. Jean Fouquet, 1455x1460. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 15 : Battle near Rozgoni Battle near Thebes Siege of Rostock begins Births November 13 - King Edward III of England Deaths June 19 - Piers Gaveston, favourite of Edward II of England September 7 - King Ferdinand IV of Castile Categories: 1312 ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Medieval Britain is a term used to suggest that there is a unity to the history of Great Britain from the 5th century withdrawal of Roman forces from the province of Britannia and the Germanic invasions, until the 16th century Reformations in the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... “George III” redirects here. ...


Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen, following the deposition of his father. When seventeen years old he led a coup against his regent, Roger Mortimer, and began his personal reign. After defeating, but not subjugating, the Kingdom of Scotland, he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1337, starting what would be known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the war went exceptionally well for England; the victories of Crécy and Poitiers led up to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny. Edward’s later years, however, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inertia and eventual bad health. Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (25 April 1287 – 29 November 1330), grandson of the 1st Baron Wigmore, was the best-known of his name. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Combatants Kingdom of England, Allied knights from Germany and Denmark France, Genoese Mercenaries, the Kingdoms of Navarre, Bohemia and the Balearic Islands Commanders Edward III of England Edward, the Black Prince Philip VI of France Strength about 12,000 30,000 to 40,000 Casualties 150-1,000 killed and... Several battles took place near Poitiers and are called Battle of Poitiers. ... The Treaty of Brétigny was a treaty signed on May 8, 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II (the Good) of France. ...


Edward III was a temperamental man, but also capable of great clemency. He was, in most ways, a conventional king, mainly interested in warfare. Highly revered in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by later Whig historians. This view has turned, and modern historiography credits him with many achievements. Whig history is a pejorative name given to a view of history that is shared by a number of eighteenth and nineteenth century British writers on historical subjects. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Edward was born at Windsor on November 13, 1312, and was thus called "Edward of Windsor" in his early years. The reign of his father, Edward II, was fraught with military defeat, rebellious barons and corrupt courtiers, but the birth of a male heir in 1312 temporarily strengthened Edward II's position on the throne.[1] To further this end, in what was probably an attempt by his father to shore up royal supremacy after years of discontent, Edward was created Earl of Chester at the age of only twelve days, and was given a full household of servants for his court, so he could live as if he were a full adult Nobleman independently of his father, less than two months later.[2] This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 15 : Battle near Rozgoni Battle near Thebes Siege of Rostock begins Births November 13 - King Edward III of England Deaths June 19 - Piers Gaveston, favourite of Edward II of England September 7 - King Ferdinand IV of Castile Categories: 1312 ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... The Earldom of Chester is one of the few palatine earldoms in England. ...


On 20 January 1327, when the young Edward was fourteen years old, the king was deposed by his queen, Isabella, and her consort Roger Mortimer. Edward, now Edward III, was crowned on 1 February, and a regency was set up for him, led by Isabella and Mortimer. Mortimer, the de facto ruler of England subjected the young king to constant disrespect and humiliation. is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician. ... Isabella returns to England with her son, Edward III. Jean Fouquet, 1455x1460. ... Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (25 April 1287 – 29 November 1330), grandson of the 1st Baron Wigmore, was the best-known of his name. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Regency may have several meanings: A regency may be a period of time when a regent holds power in the name of the current monarch, or in the name of the Crown itself, if the throne is vacant. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Mortimer knew his position was precarious, especially after Edward and his wife, Philippa of Hainault, had a son on 15 June 1330.[3] Mortimer used his power to acquire a number of noble estates and titles, many of them belonging to Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel. FitzAlan, who had remained loyal to Edward II in his struggle with Isabella and Mortimer, had been executed on 17 November 1326. However Mortimer's greed and arrogance caused him to be hated by many of the other nobles. All this was not lost on the young king. Philippa of Hainault Philippa of Hainault (~1314 - August 15, 1369) was the Queen consort of Edward III of England. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... Edmund Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel (1285 - November 17, 1326) was an English nobleman prominent in the contention between Edward II and his barons]] and second de facto Earl of Fitz-Alan line. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ...


Shortly before his 18th birthday, Edward, with the help of a few trusted companions, staged a coup d'état at Nottingham castle (19 October 1330), resulting in the arrest of both his mother Isabella and Mortimer. Mortimer was sent to the Tower of London, and hanged a month later. Isabella was forced into retirement at Castle Rising. With this dramatic event, the personal reign of Edward effectively began. Coup redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Castle Rising, illustrated in Cassells History of England circa 1902 Castle Rising Castle, in Norfolk, was built in about 1150 by William dAubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel, who also owned Arundel Castle. ...


Early reign

English Royalty
House of Plantagenet

Armorial of Plantagenet
Edward III
   Edward, Prince of Wales
   Lionel, Duke of Clarence
   John, Duke of Lancaster
   Edmund, Duke of York
   Thomas, Duke of Gloucester
   Joan of England
   Isabella, Countess of Bedford
Grandchildren
    Richard II
    Philippa, Countess of Ulster
    Philippa, Queen of Portugal
    Elizabeth, Baroness Fanhope and Milbroke
    Henry IV
    Katherine, Queen of Castile
    Edward, Duke of York
    Richard, Earl of Cambridge
    Constance of York
    Anne, Countess of Eu

Edward chose to renew the military conflict with the Kingdom of Scotland in which his father and grandfather had engaged with varying success. Edward repudiated the Treaty of Northampton that had been signed during the regency, thus renewing claims of English sovereignty over Scotland and resulting in the Second War of Scottish Independence. This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Image File history File links England_Arms_1340. ... // Categories: | ... Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, (November 29, 1338 – October 7, 1368) was the second son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... John of Gaunt John of Gaunt John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (March 6, 1340 – February 3, 1399) was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (June 5, 1341 – August 1, 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of the five sons of the Royal couple who lived to adulthood. ... Thomas of Woodstock redirects here. ... Joan of England (1335-1348) was the daughter of King Edward III of England and his queen, Philippa of Hainault. ... Isabella Plantagenet, also known as Dame Isabella de Coucy (16 June 1332- either April 1379, or 1382), was the daughter of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... Philippa Plantagenet, (16 August 1355 – 5 January 1380/1381), Countess of Ulster sui juris, was the daughter and only child of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence and Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster. ... Philippa of Lancaster (1359 - July 19, 1415) was an English princess, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster by his wife and cousin Blanche of Lancaster. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Katherine of Lancaster (also known as Catherine Plantagenet and as Queen Catalina of Castile and Leon) (1372/1373 – 2 June 1418) was the daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his second wife, Constance of Castile. ... Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York and 1st Duke of Aumale (1373 - 25 October 1415) died by drowning in mud at the Battle of Agincourt, the major English casualty in that battle. ... Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (c. ... Constance of York (c. ... Anne of Gloucester (1383-October 16, 1438) was the eldest daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester and Eleanor de Bohun. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Prior to the Treaty of Edinbugh-Northampton, Edward II claimed he adhered to a truce, but he allowed English privateers to attack Flemish vessels trading with Scotland. ... The Second War of Scottish Independence began properly in 1333 when Edward III overturned the 1328 Treaty of Northampton, under which England recognised the legitimacy of the dynasty established by Robert Bruce. ...


Intending to regain what the English had conceded, he won back control of Berwick and secured a decisive English victory at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333 against the forces of the infant David II of Scotland. Edward III was now in a position to put Edward Balliol on the throne of Scotland and claim a reward of 2,000 librates of land in the southern counties - the Lothians, Roxburghshire, Berwickshire, Dumfriesshire, Lanarkshire and Peebleshire. Despite the victories of Dupplin and Halidon, the Bruce party soon started to recover and by the close of 1335 and the Battle of Culblean, the Plantagenet occupation was in difficulties and the Balliol party was fast losing ground. Berwick-upon-Tweed is a border town, now in England, formerly in Scotland. ... Combatants Scotland England Commanders Sir Archibald Douglas Edward III of England Strength 13,000 9,000 Casualties exact figure unknown, but very high exact figure unknown, but very low Battle of Halidon Hill (July 19, 1333) was fought during the second War of Scottish Independence. ... David II (March 5, 1324 – February 22, 1371) king of Scotland, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. ... Edward Balliol (c. ... Combatants Forces loyal to David Bruce Forces loyal to Edward Balliol Commanders Sir Andrew Murray, Guardian of Scotland David III Strathbogie, titular Earl of Atholl † Strength 1100 3000 Casualties unknown unknown. ...


At this time, in 1336, Edward III's brother John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall died. John of Fordun's Gesta Annalia is alone in claiming that Edward killed his brother in a quarrel at Perth. John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall (August 15, 1316–September 13, 1336) was the son of Edward II of England and Isabella of France. ... John of Fordun (d. ... Perth (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a royal burgh in central Scotland. ...


Although Edward III committed very large armies to Scottish operations, by 1337 the vast majority of Scotland had been recovered by David II, leaving only a few castles such as Edinburgh, Roxburgh and Stirling in Plantagenet possession. These installations were not adequate to impose Edward's rule and by 1338/9 Edward had moved from a policy of conquest to one of containment.


Edward's military problems, however, were on two fronts; the challenge from the French monarchy was of no less concern. The French represented a problem in three areas: first, they provided constant support to the Scottish through the Franco-Scottish alliance. Philip VI protected David II in exile, and supported Scottish raids in Northern England. Second, the French attacked several English coastal towns, leading to rumours in England of a full-scale invasion.[4] Finally, the English king's possessions in France were under threat—in 1337, Philip VI confiscated the duchy of Aquitaine and the county of Ponthieu. The Auld Alliance refers to a series of treaties, offensive and defensive in nature, between Scotland and France aimed specifically against an aggressive and expansionist England. ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... The north, the midlands and the south Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Ponthieu is a former province of northern France. ...


Instead of seeking a peaceful solution to the conflict by paying homage to the French king, Edward laid claim to the French crown as the only living male descendant of his deceased maternal grandfather, Philip IV. The French, however, invoked the Salic law of succession and rejected the claim, pronouncing Philip IV's nephew, Philip VI, the true heir (see below) and thereby setting the stage for the Hundred Years' War. “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ... This article is about the King of England. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ...


In the war against France, Edward built alliances and fought by proxy through minor French princes. In 1338, Louis IV named him vicar-general of the Holy Roman Empire, and promised his support. These measures, however, produced few results; the only major military gain made in this phase of the war was the English naval victory at Sluys on 24 June 1340, where 16,000 French soldiers and sailors died. Emperor Louis IV Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (1282 – October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and crowned as... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Edward III of England Hugues Quiéret, Nicolas Béhuchet Strength 250 ships 190 ships Casualties Unknown 20 000 (Europe: A History by Norman Davies) Most ships captured The naval Battle of Sluys was fought on 24 June 1340 as one of... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ...


Meanwhile, the fiscal pressure on the kingdom caused by Edward's expensive alliances led to discontent at home. In response he returned unannounced on 30 November 1340. Finding the affairs of the realm in disorder, he purged the royal administration.[5] These measures did not bring domestic stability, however, and a standoff ensued between the king and John Stratford, the Archbishop of Canterbury. is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... John de Stratford (d. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


Edward, at the Parliament of England of April 1341, was forced to accept severe limitations to his financial and administrative prerogatives. Yet, in October of the same year, the king repudiated this statute, and Archbishop Stratford was politically ostracised. The extraordinary circumstances of the 1341 parliament had forced the king into submission, but under normal circumstances the powers of the king in medieval England were virtually unlimited, and Edward took advantage of this.[6] The English parliament in front of the King, c. ...


Fortunes of war

After much inconclusive campaigning on Continental Europe, Edward decided to stage a major offensive in 1346, sailing for Normandy with a force of 15,000 men.[7] His army sacked the city of Caen and marched across northern France. On 26 August he met the French king's forces in pitched battle at Crécy and won a decisive victory. Meanwhile, back home, the returned David II was defeated and captured at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October. With his northern border pacified, Edward saw an opportunity to stage a major offensive against France and laid siege to the town of Calais. The town fell in August of 1347. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the battle in 1346 during the Hundred Years War. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Kingdom of England, Allied knights from Germany and Denmark France, Genoese Mercenaries, the Kingdoms of Navarre, Bohemia and the Balearic Islands Commanders Edward III of England Edward, the Black Prince Philip VI of France Strength about 12,000 30,000 to 40,000 Casualties 150-1,000 killed and... Combatants Scotland England Commanders David II of Scotland William Zouche, Archbishop of York Strength 12,000 3,000-3,500 Casualties 7,000 Unknown but very low The Battle of Nevilles Cross took place near Durham, England on October 17, 1346. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


After the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV in October of 1347 his son Louis V, Duke of Bavaria negotiated with Edward to compete against the new German king Charles IV, but Edward finally decided in May 1348 not to run for the German crown. Louis V, Duke of Bavaria, called the Brandenburger (May 1315 – 18 September 1361 in Zorneding near Munich) (German: Ludwig V der Brandenburger, Herzog von Bayern, Markgraf von Brandenburg) was Duke of Bavaria, Margrave of Brandenburg and Count of Tyrol. ... Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ...


In 1348, the Black Death struck Europe with full force, killing a third or more of England's population.[8] This loss of manpower, and subsequently of revenues, meant a halt to major campaigning. The great landowners struggled with the shortage of manpower and the resulting inflation in labour cost. Attempting to cap wages, the king and parliament responded with the Ordinance of Labourers (1349) and the Statute of Labourers (1351). The plague did not, however, lead to a full-scale breakdown of government and society, and recovery was remarkably swift.[9] This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Ordinance of Labourers was a piece of legislation consisting of regulations and price controls issued by King Edward III of England in June 18, 1349. ... The Statute of Labourers was a law enacted by the English parliament under King Edward III in 1351 in response to a labour shortage. ...


In 1356, while the king was fighting in the north, his oldest son, the Black Prince, won a great victory at the Battle of Poitiers. Greatly outnumbered, the English forces not only routed the French but captured the French king, John II. After a succession of victories, the English held great possessions in France, the French king was in English custody, and the French central government had almost totally collapsed. Whether Edward's claim to the French crown originally was genuine or just a political ploy,[10] it now seemed to be within reach. Yet a campaign in 1359, meant to complete the undertaking, was inconclusive. In 1360, therefore, Edward accepted the Treaty of Brétigny, whereby he renounced his claims to the French throne but secured his extended French possessions. Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... Several battles took place near Poitiers and are called Battle of Poitiers. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... The Treaty of Brétigny was a treaty signed on May 8, 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II (the Good) of France. ...


Later reign

Edward III and the Black Prince
Edward III and the Black Prince

While Edward's early reign had been energetic and successful, his later years were marked by inertia, military failure and political strife. The day-to-day affairs of the state had less appeal to Edward than military campaigning, so during the 1360s Edward increasingly relied on the help of his subordinates, in particular William Wykeham. A relative upstart, Wykeham was made Lord Privy Seal in 1363 and Lord Chancellor in 1367, though due to political difficulties connected with his inexperience the Parliament forced him resign to the chancellorship in 1371.[11] Image File history File links Edward_III_Black_Prince_14thc. ... Image File history File links Edward_III_Black_Prince_14thc. ... Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 Events and Trends William Langland writes Piers Plowman Categories: 1360s ... William of Wykeham (1320 – September 27, 1404), Bishop of Winchester, Chancellor of England, founder of Winchester College and of New College, Oxford, and builder of a large part of Windsor Castle, was born in Wickham, Hampshire. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... // Early Chancellors of England Angmendus (605) Cenmora (?) Bosa (?) Swithulplus (?) St. ...


Compounding Edward's difficulties were the deaths of his most trusted men, some from the 1361–62 recurrence of the plague. William Montacute, Edward's companion in the 1330 coup, was dead by 1344. William de Clinton, who had also been with the king at Nottingham, died in 1354. One of the earls of 1337, William de Bohun, died in 1360, and the next year Henry of Grosmont, perhaps the greatest of Edward's captains, gave in to what was probably plague. Their deaths left the majority of the magnates younger and more naturally aligned to the princes than to the king himself. William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury, 3rd Baron Montacute (1301-1344) was an English nobleman. ... William de Clinton, 1st Earl of Huntingdon and Lord High Admiral, was the younger son of Baron Clinton of Marstock. ... William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (~1310 - 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander. ... Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster (c. ...


The king's second son, Lionel of Antwerp, attempted to forcefully subdue the largely autonomous Anglo-Irish lords in Ireland. The venture failed, and the only lasting mark he left were the suppressive Statutes of Kilkenny in 1366.[12] Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, (November 29, 1338 – October 7, 1368) was the second son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... The term Hiberno-Norman is used of those Norman lords who settled in Ireland, admitting little if any real fealty to the Anglo-Norman settlers in England. ... The Statutes of Kilkenny were a notorious series of thirty-five acts passed at Kilkenny in 1367, aimed at curbing the alarming decline of the Hiberno-Norman Lordship of Ireland. ...


In France, meanwhile, the decade following the Treaty of Brétigny was one of relative tranquillity, but on 8 April 1364 John II died in captivity in England, after unsuccessfully trying to raise his own ransom at home. He was followed by the vigorous Charles V, who enlisted the help of the capable Constable Bertrand du Guesclin.[13] In 1369, the French war started anew, and Edward's younger son John of Gaunt was given the responsibility of a military campaign. The effort failed, and with the Treaty of Bruges in 1375, the great English possessions in France were reduced to only the coastal towns of Calais, Bordeaux and Bayonne.[14] April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 - 1364 - 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 See also: 1364 state leaders Events Charles V becomes King of France. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 21, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France from 1364 to 1380 and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... The Constable of France (French connétable de France, from Latin comes stabulari for count of the stables), as the First Officer of the Crown, was one of the original five Great Officers of the Crown of France (along with seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor) and Commander in Chief of... Statue of Bertrand du Guesclin in Dinan Bertrand du Guesclin at the Saint-Denis Basilica, near Paris Bertrand du Guesclin (c. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... John of Gaunt John of Gaunt John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (March 6, 1340 – February 3, 1399) was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ...


Military failure abroad and the associated fiscal pressure of campaigning led to political discontent at home. The problems came to a head in the parliament of 1376, the so-called Good Parliament. The parliament was called to grant taxation, but the House of Commons took the opportunity to address specific grievances. In particular, criticism was directed at some of the king's closest advisers. Lord Chamberlain William Latimer and Lord Steward John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby were dismissed from their positions. Edward's mistress, Alice Perrers, who was seen to hold far too much power over the aging king, was banished from court.[15] The Good Parliament is the name traditionally given to the English Parliament of 1376. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is one of the chief officers of the Royal Household in the United Kingdom, and is to be distinguished from the Lord Great Chamberlain, one of the Great Officers of State. ... William Latimer, (c. ... almLord Steward or Lord Steward of the Household, in England, an important official of the Royal Household. ... John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby was born in 1328 at Castle Raby and died 17 October 1388. ... Alice Perrers (c. ...


Yet the real adversary of the Commons, supported by powerful men such as Wykeham and Edmund de Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, was John of Gaunt. Both the king and the Black Prince were by this time incapacitated by illness, leaving Gaunt in virtual control of government. Gaunt was forced to give in to the demands of parliament, but by its next convocation, in 1377, most of the achievements of the Good Parliament were reversed.[16] Edmund de Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March and jure uxoris Earl of Ulster (1351? – 27 December 1381) was son of Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, by his wife Philippa, daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury. ...


Edward himself, however, did not have much to do with any of this; after around 1375 he played a limited role in the government.[17] Around 29 September 1376 he fell ill with a large abscess. After a brief period of recovery in February, the king died of a stroke (some sources say gonorrhea[18]) at Sheen on 21 June.[19] He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II of England, son of the Black Prince, since the Black Prince himself had died on 8 June 1376. Despite his earlier popularity, Edward died a lonely death: is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ... The clap redirects here. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ...

In his last moments at Shene, Edward was forsaken by all his servants and even by Alice Perrers, after she had robbed him of the rings on his fingers. One priest alone came to the King's bedside, and Edward, in tears, receiving a crucifix from him, kissed it and died, June 21, 1377.

Edith Thompson and Edward Augustus Freeman, History of England[20]

Achievements of the reign

Edward III depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902)

Download high resolution version (963x1052, 150 KB)Edward III of England Illustration from Cassells History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902 Scan by Tagishsimon, 23rd June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible... Download high resolution version (963x1052, 150 KB)Edward III of England Illustration from Cassells History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902 Scan by Tagishsimon, 23rd June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible...

Legislation

The middle years of Edward's reign was a period of significant activity. Perhaps the best known piece of legislation was the Statute of Labourers of 1351, which addressed the labour shortage problem caused by the Black Death. The statute fixed wages at their pre-plague level and checked peasant mobility by asserting that lords had first claim on their men's services. In spite of concerted efforts to uphold the statute, it eventually failed due to competition among landowners for labour.[21] The law has been described as an attempt "to legislate against the law of supply and demand", making it doomed to failure.[22] Nevertheless, the labour shortage had created a community of interest between the smaller landowners of the House of Commons and the greater landowners of the House of Lords. The resulting attempts at suppression of the labour force angered the peasants, leading to the Peasants' Revolt of 1381.[23] The Statute of Labourers was a law enacted by the English parliament under King Edward III in 1351 in response to a labour shortage. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler (also spelt Tighler) killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe...


The reign of Edward III coincided with the so-called Babylonian Captivity of the papacy at Avignon. During the wars with France, opposition emerged in England against perceived injustices by a papacy largely controlled by the French crown. Heavy papal taxation of the English Church was suspected to be financing the nation's enemies, while the practice of provisions—the Pope providing benefices for clerics, often non-resident aliens—caused resentment in an increasingly xenophobic English population. The statutes of Provisors and Praemunire, of 1350 and 1353 respectively, aimed to amend this by banning papal benefices, as well as limiting the power of the papal court over English subjects.[24] The statutes did not, however, sever the ties between the king and the Pope, who were equally dependent upon each other. It was not until the Great Schism in 1378 that the English crown was able to free itself completely from the influence of Avignon. The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Praemunire (an error, from Latin præmonere, to pre-admonish or forewarn), was an offence in English law that took its name from the introductory words of the writ of summons issued to the defendant to answer the charge, Præmunire facias A.B., &c. ... Historical map of the Western Schism: red is support for Avignon, blue for Rome The Western Schism or Papal Schism (also known as the Great Schism of Western Christianity) was a split within the Catholic Church (1378 - 1417). ...


Other legislation of importance includes the Treason Act of 1351. It was precisely the harmony of the reign that allowed a consensus on the definition of this controversial crime.[25] Yet the most significant legal reform was probably that concerning the Justices of the Peace. This institution began before the reign of Edward III, but by 1350, the justices had been given the power not only to investigate crimes and make arrests, but also to try cases, including those of felony. With this, an enduring fixture in the administration of local English justice had been created.[26] The Treason Act 1351 is an Act of the English Parliament which attempted to codify all existing forms of Treason. ... A justice of the peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ...


Parliament and taxation

Parliament as a representative institution was already well established by the time of Edward III, but the reign was nevertheless central to its development. During this period membership in the English baronage, formerly a somewhat indistinct group, became restricted to those who received a personal summons to parliament.[27] This happened as parliament gradually developed into a bicameral institution. Yet it was not in the House of Lords, but in the House of Commons that the greatest changes took place. The widening of political power can be seen in the crisis of the Good Parliament, where the Commons for the first time—albeit with noble support—was responsible for precipitating a political crisis. In the process, both the procedure of impeachment and the office of the Speaker were created. Even though the political gains were of only temporary duration, this parliament represented a watershed in English political history. The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... For other uses, see Baron (disambiguation). ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-06-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Image:WashingtonDC Capitol USA2. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ...


The political influence of the Commons originally lay in its right to grant taxes. The financial demands of the Hundred Years' War were enormous, and the king and his ministers tried different methods of covering the expenses. The king had a steady income from crown lands, and could also take up substantial loans from Italian and domestic financiers. To finance warfare on Edward III's scale, however, the king had to resort to taxation of his subjects. Taxation took two primary forms: levy and customs. The levy was a grant of a proportion of all moveable property, normally a tenth for towns and a fifteenth for farmland. This could produce large sums of money, but each such levy had to be approved by parliament, and the king had to prove the necessity.[28] The customs therefore provided a welcome supplement, as a steady and reliable source of income. An 'ancient duty' on the export of wool had existed since 1275. Edward I had tried to introduce an additional duty on wool, but this unpopular maltolt, or 'unjust exaction', was soon abandoned. Then, from 1336 onwards, a series of schemes aimed at increasing royal revenues from wool export were introduced. After some initial problems and discontent, it was agreed through the Ordinance of the Staple of 1353 that the new customs should be approved by parliament, though in reality they became permanent.[29] In the United Kingdom, the Crown Estate is a property portfolio associated with the monarchy. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting customs duties and for controlling the flow of animals and goods (including personal effects and hazardous items) in and out of a country. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... The Statute of the Staple was a statue passed in 1353 by the parliament of England. ...


Through the steady taxation of Edward III's reign, parliament—and in particular the Commons—gained political influence. A consensus emerged that in order for a tax to be just, the king had to prove its necessity, it had to be granted by the community of the realm, and it had to be to the benefit of that community. In addition to imposing taxes, parliament would also present petitions for redress of grievances to the king, most often concerning misgovernment by royal officials. This way the system was beneficial for both parties. Through this process the commons, and the community they represented, became increasingly politically aware, and the foundation was laid for the particular English brand of constitutional monarchy.[30] Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Chivalry and national identity

The Great Seal of Edward III

Central to Edward III's policy was reliance on the higher nobility for purposes of war and administration. While his father had regularly been in conflict with a great portion of his peerage, Edward III successfully created a spirit of camaraderie between himself and his greatest subjects. The Great Seal of Edward III (second version, in use 1327-1340), photographed in the Ashmolean Museum. ... The Great Seal of Edward III (second version, in use 1327-1340), photographed in the Ashmolean Museum. ...


Both Edward I and Edward II had conducted a policy of limitation, allowing the creation of few peerages during the sixty years preceding Edward III's reign. The young king reversed this policy when, in 1337, as a preparation for the imminent war, he created six new earls on the same day.[31] At the same time, Edward expanded the ranks of the peerage upwards, by introducing the new title of duke for close relatives of the king. For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... This article is about the nobility title. ...


Furthermore, Edward bolstered the sense of community within this group by the creation of the Order of the Garter, probably in 1348. A plan from 1344 to revive the Round Table of King Arthur never came to fruition, but the new order carried connotations from this legend by the circular shape of the garter. Polydore Vergil tells of how the young Joan of Kent, Countess of Salisbury —the king's favourite at the time—accidentally dropped her garter at a ball at Calais. King Edward responded to the ridicule of the crowd by tying the garter around his own knee with the words honi soit qui mal y pense—shame on him who thinks ill of it.[32] The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... King Arthur presides the Round Table. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... Polydore Vergil or Virgil (c. ... Joan, Countess of Kent, Princess of Wales (September 29, 1328 – August 7, 1385) is known to history as The Fair Maid of Kent, and was the wife and cousin of Edward, the Black Prince. ...


This reinforcement of the aristocracy must be seen in conjunction with the war in France, as must the emerging sense of national identity. Just like the war with Scotland had done, the fear of a French invasion helped strengthen a sense of national unity, and nationalise the aristocracy that had been largely Anglo-French since the Norman conquest. Since the time of Edward I, popular myth suggested that the French planned to extinguish the English language, and like his grandfather had done, Edward III made the most of this scare.[33] As a result, the English language experienced a strong revival; in 1362, a statute ordered the English language to be used in law courts and, the year after, Parliament was for the first time opened in English.[34] At the same time, the vernacular saw a revival as a literary language, through the works of William Langland, John Gower and especially Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Langlands Dreamer: from an illuminated initial in a Piers Plowman manuscript held at Corpus Christi College, Oxford William Langland is the conjectured author of the 14th-century English dream-vision Piers Plowman. ... John Gower shooting the world, a sphere of earth, air, and water (from an edition of his works c. ... For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... Chaucer redirects here. ...


Yet the extent of this Anglicisation must not be exaggerated. The statute of 1362 was in fact written in the French language and had little immediate effect, and parliament was opened in that language as late as 1377.[35] The Order of the Garter, though a distinctly English institution, included also foreign members such as the John V, Duke of Brittany and Sir Robert of Namur.[36] Edward III—himself bilingual—viewed himself as legitimate king of both England and France, and could not show preferential treatment for one part of his domains over another. This does not cite any references or sources. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... John V (in French Jean V) (1339 – November 1, 1399), known as the Conqueror, was duke of Brittany and count of Montfort, from 1345 to his death. ... Namur (Dutch: Namen) is a province of Wallonia and of Belgium. ...


Assessment and character

Edward III enjoyed unprecedented popularity in his own lifetime, and even the troubles of his later reign were never blamed directly on the king himself.[37] Edward's contemporary Jean Froissart wrote in his Chronicles that "His like had not been seen since the days of King Arthur".[38] This view persisted for a while, but, with time, the image of the king changed. The Whig historians of a later age preferred constitutional reform to foreign conquest and discredited Edward for ignoring his responsibilities to his own nation. In the words of Bishop Stubbs: Jean Froissart (~1337 - ~1405) was one of the most important of the chroniclers of medieval France. ... Froissarts Chronicle was written in French by Jean Froissart. ... Whig history is a pejorative name given to a view of history that is shared by a number of eighteenth and nineteenth century British writers on historical subjects. ... William Stubbs (June 21, 1825 - April 22, 1901) was an English historian and Bishop of Oxford. ...

Edward III was not a statesman, though he possessed some qualifications which might have made him a successful one. He was a warrior; ambitious, unscrupulous, selfish, extravagant and ostentatious. His obligations as a king sat very lightly on him. He felt himself bound by no special duty, either to maintain the theory of royal supremacy or to follow a policy which would benefit his people. Like Richard I, he valued England primarily as a source of supplies.

William Stubbs, The Constitutional History of England[39]

Influential as Stubbs was, it was long before this view was challenged. In a 1960 article, titled "Edward III and the Historians", May McKisack pointed out the teleological nature of Stubbs judgement. A medieval king could not be expected to work towards the future ideal of a parliamentary monarchy; rather his role was a pragmatic one—to maintain order and solve problems as they arose. At this, Edward III excelled.[40] Edward had also been accused of endowing his younger sons too liberally and thereby promoting dynastic strife culminating in the Wars of the Roses. This claim was rejected by K.B. McFarlane, who argued that this was not only the common policy of the age, but also the best.[41] Later biographers of the king such as Mark Ormrod and Ian Mortimer have followed this historiographical trend. However, the older progressive view has not completely been neglected; as recently as 2001, Norman Cantor described Edward III as an "avaricious and sadistic thug" and a "destructive and merciless force."[42] May McKisack (1900-1981) was a British mediaeval historian. ... Teleology (telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in nature or human creations. ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... Kenneth Bruce McFarlane (1903-1966) was the 20th centurys most influential historian of late medieval England. ... Norman F. Cantor (born in Winnipeg, Canada on November 19, 1929, died in Miami, Florida, United States on September 18, 2004) was a historian who specialized in the medieval period. ...


From what we know of Edward's character, he could be impulsive and temperamental, as was seen by his actions against Stratford and the ministers in 1340–41.[43] At the same time, he was well-known for his clemency; Mortimer's grandson was not only absolved, but came to play an important part in the French wars, and was eventually made a knight of the Garter.[44] Both in his religious views and his interests, he was a conventional man. His favourite pursuit was the art of war, and, as such, he conformed to the medieval notion of good kingship.[45] He seems to have been unusually devoted to his wife, Queen Philippa. Much has been made of Edward's sexual licentiousness, but there is no evidence of any infidelity on the king's part before Alice Perrers became his lover, and, by that time, the queen was already terminally ill.[46] This devotion extended to the rest of the family as well; in contrast to so many of his predecessors, Edward never experienced opposition from any of his five adult sons.[47] Roger de Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March (1328 – February 26, 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years War. ... Philippa of Hainault Philippa of Hainault (~1314 - August 15, 1369) was the Queen consort of Edward III of England. ...


Family Tree

Philip III
(1270–1285)
 
 
Philip IV
(1285–1314)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Charles of Valois
(† 1325)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Louis X
(1314–1316)
Philip V
(1316–1322)
Charles IV
(1322–1328)
Isabella
 
Edward II Philip VI
(1328–1350)
 
 
 
 
Edward III

See here for a comprehensive family tree of British monarchs. Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... Charles III of Valois (March 12, 1270 – December 16, 1325) was the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. ... Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... Philip V (17 November 1293 – 3 January 1322), called the Tall (French: le Long), was King of France and Navarre (as Philip II) and Count of Champagne from 1316 to his death, and the second to last of the House of Capet. ... Charles IV of France, also Charles I of Navarre, called the Fair (French: le Bel) (11 December 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage. ... Isabella returns to England with her son, Edward III. Jean Fouquet, 1455x1460. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Philip VI of France Philip VI of Valois (French: Philippe VI de Valois; 1293 – August 22, 1350) was the King of France from 1328 to his death, and Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois 1325–1328. ... This is the British monarchs family tree, from James I of England (and Scotland) to Elizabeth, the present queen. ...


Ancestry

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. John of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Henry III of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Isabella of Angoulême
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Edward I of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Eleanor of Provence
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Beatrice of Savoy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Edward II of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Alfonso IX of Leon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Ferdinand III of Castile
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Berenguela of Castile
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Eleanor of Castile
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Simon de Dammartin, Count of Ponthieu
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Jeanne of Dammartin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Marie of Ponthieu, Countess of Montreuil
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Edward III of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Louis IX of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Philip III of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Marguerite of Provence
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Philip IV of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. James I of Aragon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Isabella of Aragon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Violant of Hungary
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Isabella of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Theobald I of Navarre
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Henry I of Navarre
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Margaret of Bourbon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Joan I of Navarre
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Robert I of Artois
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Blanche of Artois
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Matilda of Brabant
 
 
 
 
 
 

This article is about the King of England. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Statue of Isabella of Angoulême, in front of the city hall of Angoulême Isabella of Angoulême (fr. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (or Raymond) (1195 - 19 August 1245), Count of Provence and Forcalquier, was the son of Alfonso I, Count of Provence and Gersenda II of Sabran. ... For other Eleanors of England, see Eleanor of England (disambiguation). ... Beatrice of Savoy (1198-1266), was the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and Marguerite of Geneva. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Alfonso IX of León (August 15, 1171 â€“ September 23 or 24, 1230; ruled from 1188–1230), first cousin of Alfonso VIII of Castile, and numbered next to him as being a junior member of the family, is said by Ibn Khaldun to have been called the Baboso or Slobberer... United arms of Castile and León which Ferdinand first used. ... Berenguela (or Berengaria) (1180 – November 8, 1246), was briefly queen of Castile and León. ... For other Eleanors of England, see Eleanor of England (disambiguation) Eleanor of Castile (1241 – 28 November 1290) was the first Queen consort of Edward I of England. ... Jeanne of Dammartin or Joan of Dammartin (b. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... Marguerite Berenger of Provence (St. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... James I of Aragon. ... Isabella of Aragon (1247 – January 28, 1271), infanta of Aragon, was, by marriage, Queen consort of France in the Middle Ages from 1270 to 1271. ... Violant of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary, c. ... Isabella returns to England with her son, Edward III. Jean Fouquet, 1455x1460. ... Theobald I (French: Thibaud or Thibault, Spanish: Teobaldo) (May 30, 1201 – 1253), called the Troubadour, the Chansonnier, and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1235. ... Henry I the Fat (French: Henri le Gros, Spanish: Enrique el Gordo) (c. ... Jeanne (or Joan or Johanna) of Navarre (c. ... Robert I the Good (1216 – February 8, 1250) was Count of Artois. ... Blanche de Navarre (c. ...

Issue

Arms of Edward III and his sons, Trinity College Cambridge.
Arms of Edward III and his sons, Trinity College Cambridge.
Name Birth Death
Edward, the Black Prince 15 June 1330 8 June 1376
Isabella 16 June 1332 1379
Joan 1333 2 September 1348
William of Hatfield 16 February 1337 8 July 1337
Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence 29 November 1338 7 October 1368
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster 24 June 1340 3 February 1399
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 5 June 1341 1 August 1402
Blanche 1342 1342
Mary 10 October 1344 1362
Margaret July 20, 1346 1361
William of Windsor 24 June 1348 5 September 1348
Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester 7 January 1355 8/9 September 1397

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1561x587, 168 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Edward III of England Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1561x587, 168 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Edward III of England Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Edward III and the Black Prince Edward III of England is often described as the ancestor of the British upper-middle class (Burkes Presidential Families of the USA, 1981) because he has many millions of living descendants, mostly through his sons John of Gaunt and Lionel of Antwerp. ... Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... Isabella Plantagenet, also known as Dame Isabella de Coucy (16 June 1332- either April 1379, or 1382), was the daughter of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events November 7 - Lucerne joins the Swiss Confederation with Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden. ... Joan of England (1335-1348) was the daughter of King Edward III of England and his queen, Philippa of Hainault. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall. ... Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, (November 29, 1338 – October 7, 1368) was the second son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Ashikaga Takauji granted title of Shogun by the emperor of Japan. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... John of Gaunt John of Gaunt John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (March 6, 1340 – February 3, 1399) was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (June 5, 1341 – August 1, 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of the five sons of the Royal couple who lived to adulthood. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Queens College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... Mary Plantagenet (October 10, 1344 – 1362) Born in Waltham, Hampshire, the daughter of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events English king Edward III introduces three new gold coins, the florin. ... For other persons named Margaret Plantagenet, see Margaret Plantagenet (disambiguation). ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Thomas of Woodstock redirects here. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Portuguese king Afonso IV sends three men to kill Ines de Castro, beloved of his son prince Pedro - Pedro revolts and incites a civil war. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ For an account of Edward II's later years, see Fryde, Natalie (1979). The Tyranny and Fall of Edward II, 1321–1326. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22201-X.
  2. ^ Mortimer, The Perfect King - The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation, 1.
  3. ^ Ormrod, Reign of Edward III, 6.
  4. ^ Ormrod, Reign of Edward III, 9.
  5. ^ Fryde, N.M. (1978). "Edward III's removal of his ministers and judges, 1340–1", British Institute of Historical Research 48, pp. 149–61.
  6. ^ Ormrod, Reign of Edward III, 16.
  7. ^ McKisack, Fourteenth Century, 132.
  8. ^ Hatcher, J. (1977). Plague, Population and the English Economy, 1348–1530. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-21293-2.
  9. ^ Prestwich, Plantagenet England, 553.
  10. ^ For a discussion of this question, see Prestwich, Plantagenet England, 307–10.
  11. ^ Ormrod, "Reign of Edward III", 90–4; Ormrod, "Edward III", DNB.
  12. ^ McKisack, Fourteenth Century, 231.
  13. ^ Ormrod, "Reign of Edward III", 27.
  14. ^ McKisack, Fourteenth Century, 145.
  15. ^ Ormrod, "Reign of Edward III", 35–7; McKisack, Fourteenth Century, 387–94.
  16. ^ The earlier belief that Gaunt "packed" parliament in 1377 is no longer widely held. See Wedgewood, J.C. (1930). "John of Gaunt and the packing of parliament", English Historical Review 45, pp. 623–5.
  17. ^ Ormrod, "Edward III", DNB.
  18. ^ Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague, 38
  19. ^ Ormrod, "Edward III", DNB.
  20. ^ Thompson, E. and Freeman, E.A. History of England, p. 110.
  21. ^ McKisack, Fourteenth Century, 335.
  22. ^ Hanawalt, B. (1986). The Ties That Bound: Peasant Families in Medieval England Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 139. ISBN 0-19-503649-2.
  23. ^ Prestwich, M. (1981). "Parliament and the community of the realm in the fourteenth century", in Art Cosgrove and J.I. McGuire (eds.) Parliament & Community, p. 20.
  24. ^ McKisack, Fourteenth Century, 280–81.
  25. ^ McKisack, Fourteenth Century, 257.
  26. ^ Musson and Ormrod, Evolution of English Justice, 50–54.
  27. ^ McKisack, Fourteenth Century, 186–7.
  28. ^ Brown, Governance, 70–1.
  29. ^ Brown, Governance, 67–9, 226–8.
  30. ^ Harriss, King, Parliament and Public Finance, 509–17.
  31. ^ K.B. McFarlane (1973). The Nobility of Later Medieval England, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 158-9. ISBN 0-19-822362-5.
  32. ^ McKisack, Fourteenth Century, 251-2. Another candidate for the owner of the original garter was her mother-in-law Catherine Grandisson, the Dowager Countess of Salisbury.
  33. ^ Prestwich, Three Edwards, 209–10.
  34. ^ McKisack, Fourteenth Century, 524.
  35. ^ Prestwich, Plantagenet England, 556.
  36. ^ McKisack, Fourteenth Century, 253; Prestwich, Plantagenet England, 554.
  37. ^ Ormrod, Reign of Edward III, 37.
  38. ^ Ormrod, Reign of Edward III, 38.
  39. ^ Stubbs, William. The Constitutional History of England, quoted in McKisack, Edward III and the historians, p. 3.
  40. ^ McKisack, Edward III and the historians, 4–5.
  41. ^ K.B. McFarlane (1981). England in the fifteenth century, London: Hambledon Press, p. 238. ISBN 0-9506882-5-8.
  42. ^ Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague, 37, 39.
  43. ^ Prestwich, Plantagenet England, 289.
  44. ^ McKisack, Fourteenth Century, 255.
  45. ^ Ormrod, Reign of Edward III, 44; Prestwich, Plantagenet England, 290–1.
  46. ^ Mortimer, Perfect King, 400–1; Prestwich, Three Edwards, 241.
  47. ^ Prestwich, Plantagenet England, 290.

May McKisack (1900-1981) was a British mediaeval historian. ... Kenneth Bruce McFarlane (1903-1966) was the 20th centurys most influential historian of late medieval England. ...

References

General

King

  • McKisack, M. (1960). "Edward III and the historians". History 45. 
  • Mortimer, Ian (2006). The Perfect King: The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-07301-X. 
  • Ormrod, W.M. (1987). "Edward III and his family". Journal of British Studies 26. 
  • Ormrod, W.M. (1987). "Edward III and the recovery of royal authority in England, 1340–60". History 72. 
  • Ormrod, W.M. (1990). The Reign of Edward III. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04876-9. 
  • Ormrod, W.M. (2006). "Edward III (1312–1377)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved on 2006-05-31. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Reign

Nicholson, R., Edward III and The Scots. OUP, 1965. Brown, C., The Second Scottish War of Independence, Tempaus, 2001.

  • Bothwell, J.S. (2001). The Age of Edward III. York: The Boydell Press. ISBN 1-903153-06-9. 
  • McKisack, M. (1959). The Fourteenth Century: 1307–1399. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-821712-9. 
  • Prestwich, M.C. (1980). The Three Edwards: War and State in England 1272–1377. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-77730-0. 
  • Prestwich, M.C. (2005). Plantagenet England: 1225–1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822844-9. 
  • Waugh, S.L. (1991). England in the Reign of Edward III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31090-3. 
  • Ziegler, Phillip (1969). Black Death. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-211085-7. 

War

  • Allmand, Christopher (1988). The Hundred Years War: England and France at War c.1300-c.1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-26499-5. 
  • Ayton, Andrew (1994). Knights and Warhorses: Military Service and the English Aristocracy Under Edward III. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-568-5. 
  • Curry, Anne (1993). The Hundred Years' War. Basingstoke: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-53175-2. 
  • Fowler, K.H. (1969). The King's Lieutenant: Henry of Grosmont, First Duke of Lancaster, 1310–1361. London: Elek. ISBN 0-236-30812-2. 
  • Rogers (ed.), C.J. (1999). The Wars of Edward III: Sources and Interpretations. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-646-0. 
  • Rogers, C.J. (2000). War Cruel and Sharp: English Strategy under Edward III, 1327–1360. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-804-8. 

Chivalry

  • Bothwell, J. (1997). "Edward III and the "New Nobility": largesse and limitation in fourteenth-century England". English Historical Review 112. 
  • Vale, J. (1982). Edward III and Chivalry: Chivalric Society and its Context, 1270–1350. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-170-1. 

Parliament

  • Harriss, G.L. (1975). King, Parliament and Public Finance in Medieval England to 1369. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822435-4. 
  • Richardson, H.G. and G.O. Sayles (1981). The English Parliament in the Middle Ages. London: Hambledon Press. ISBN 0-9506882-1-5. 

Law and administration

  • Brown, A.L. (1989). The Governance of Late Medieval England 1272–1461. London: Edward Arnold. ISBN 0-8047-1730-3. 
  • Musson, A. and W.A. Omrod (1999). The Evolution of English Justice. Basingstoke: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-67670-X. 

External links

  • Edward III of England at Genealogics
  • The Medieval Sourcebook has some good sources relating to the reign of Edward III:
    • The Ordinance of Labourers, 1349
    • The Statute of Laborers, 1351
    • Thomas Walsingham’s account of the Good Parliament of 1376.
  • Man of War: Edward III, King of England (myArmoury.com article)
Edward III of England
Born: 13 November 1312 Died: 21 June 1377
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Edward II
King of England
25 January 132721 June 1377
Succeeded by
Richard II
English royalty
Preceded by
Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk
Heir to the English Throne
as heir apparent

13 November 1312 - 25 January 1327
Succeeded by
John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
Edward II
Lord of Ireland
13271377
Succeeded by
Richard II
French nobility
Preceded by
Edward II
Duke of Aquitaine
13251362
Succeeded by
Edward, the Black Prince
Count of Ponthieu
13601369
Succeeded by
James
Created by the
Treaty of Bretigny
Lord of Aquitaine
13601369
Merged with the
French Crown
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Charles IV
— TITULAR —
English pretender to France
13401360
13691377
Reason for succession failure:
Capetian Succession Failure
Succeeded by
Richard II
Family information
Edward I of England
House of Plantagenet
Edward II of England Edward III of England
Eleanor of Castile
House of Burgundy
Philip IV of France
House of Capet
Isabella of France
Joan I of Navarre
House of Champagne
Notes & References
Persondata
NAME Edward III of England
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English monarch
DATE OF BIRTH 13 November 1312
PLACE OF BIRTH Windsor, Berkshire, England
DATE OF DEATH 21 June 1377
PLACE OF DEATH Sheen, London, England

  Results from FactBites:
 
Edward III of England - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2056 words)
Edward III was crowned on 25 January 1327, at the age of 14, and married Philippa of Hainault in 1328.
Edward III quartered his coat of arms with "France Ancient", the Azure semé-de-lis (a blue shield with a tight pattern of small golden fleur de lis of the French royal house), and it remained a part of the English Coat of Arms until removed by George III.
Edward died of a stroke in 1377 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Encyclopedia4U - Edward III of England - Encyclopedia Article (957 words)
Edward III was crowned on January 25, 1327 after reaching majority and was declared King of France on January 26, 1340.
Edward III's third son was Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, whose heir was a female who married a Mortimer, then a Mortimer woman married a York man, so the Lionel/Mortimer line merged into the York line.
Edward III's fifth son was Edmund of Langley, Duke of York.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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