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Encyclopedia > Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon

Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 16099 December 1674) was an English historian, statesman and grandfather of two queens regnant, Mary II and Anne. February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... An historian is someone who writes history, a written accounting of the past. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England and Ireland and Queen of Scots on 8 March 1702. ...

Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon

Hyde was the third son of Henry Hyde of Dinton and Purton, Wiltshire, a member of a family for some time established at Norbury, Cheshire. He entered Magdalen Hall, Oxford, (now Hertford College, Oxford, where his portrait hangs in the hall) in 1622, having been rejected by Magdalen College, and graduated BA in 1626. Intended originally for holy orders in the Church of England, the death of two elder brothers made him his father's heir, and in 1625 he entered the Middle Temple to study law. His abilities were more conspicuous than his industry, and at the bar his time was devoted more to general reading and to the society of eminent scholars and writers than to the study of law treatises. Image File history File links WH_1st_Earl_of_Clarendon. ... Image File history File links WH_1st_Earl_of_Clarendon. ... Dinton is a village in Wiltshire, England. ... Purton is a small village with a current population of about (error on population). ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... Norbury is a civil parish in the Crewe and Nantwich district of the non-metropolitan county of Cheshire. ... Magdalen College (pronounced maudlin) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... College name Hertford College Named after Elias de Hertford Established 1282 Sister College None Principal Dr John Landers JCR President Stephanie Johnston Undergraduates 376 Graduates 224 Homepage Boatclub Hertford College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... College name Magdalen College Latin name Collegium Beatae Mariae Magdalenae Named after Mary Magdalene Established 1458 Sister college Magdalene College, Cambridge President Professor David Clary FRS JCR President Jessica Jones Undergraduates 395 MCR President Eloise Scotford Graduates 230 Location of Magdalen College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Magdalen College (pronounced... Part of Middle Temple c. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ...


This time was not wasted. In later years Clarendon declared "next the immediate blessing and providence of God Almighty" that he "owed all the little he knew and the little good that was in him to the friendships and conversation...of the most excellent men in their several kinds that lived in that age." These included Ben Jonson, Selden, Waller, Hales, and especially Lord Falkland; and from their influence and the wide reading in which he indulged, he doubtless drew the solid learning and literary talent which afterwards distinguished him. Benjamin Jonson (circa June 11, 1572 – August 6, 1637) was an English Renaissance dramatist, poet and actor. ... John Selden (December 16, 1584 - November 30, 1654) was an English jurist, legal antiquary and oriental scholar. ... Edmund Waller (March 3, 1606 – October 21, 1687) was an English poet. ... Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland (c. ...


In 1629 he married his first wife, Anne, daughter of Sir George Ayliffe of Grittenham, who died six months afterwards; and secondly, in 1634, Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas Aylesbury, Master of Requests. From this second marriage came a daughter, Anne. In 1633 he was called to the bar, and obtained quickly a good position and practice. His marriages had gained for him influential friends, and in December 1634 he was made keeper of the writs and rolls of the common pleas; while his able conduct of the petition of the London merchants against Portland earned Laud's approval. The Master of Requests was a Great Officer of State in Scotland. ... Lady Anne Hyde (March 1637 – March 31, 1671), daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, became the first wife of James, Duke of York (the future King James II of England), and the mother of two British queens, Mary II and Anne. ... William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ...


In 1640 Hyde was returned to the Short Parliament and then again in the Long Parliament, he was at first a moderate critic of King Charles I, but gradually moved over towards the royalist side, championing the Church of England and opposing the execution of the Earl of Strafford, Charles's primary advisor. Following the Grand Remonstrance of 1641, Hyde became an informal advisor to the King. The Short Parliament (April-May, 1640) of King Charles I is so called because it lasted only three weeks. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford in an Armour, 1639, by Sir Anthony van Dyck. ... The Grand Remonstrance was a list of 204 grievances, mostly religious, by the English Parliament against King Charles I of England during the Long Parliaments reign during the English Civil War. ...


During the Civil War, Hyde served in the King's council as Chancellor of the Exchequer, and was one of the more moderate figures in the royalist camp. By 1645 his moderation had alienated him from the King, and he was made guardian to the Prince of Wales, with whom he fled to Jersey in 1646. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British cabinet minister responsible for all financial matters. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ...


Hyde was not closely involved with Charles II's attempts to regain the throne in 1649 to 1651. It was during this period that Hyde began to write his great history of the Civil War. Hyde rejoined the exiled king in the latter year, and soon became his chief advisor; Charles named him Lord Chancellor in 1658. On the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, he returned to England with the King and became even closer to the royal family through the marriage of his daughter, Anne, to the king's brother James, Duke of York, the heir-presumptive. Their two daughters, Mary II and Anne would each one day reign in her own right. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Members of the British Royal Family This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... Lady Anne Hyde (March 1637 – March 31, 1671), daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, became the first wife of James, Duke of York (the future King James II of England), and the mother of two British queens, Mary II and Anne. ... James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England and Ireland and Queen of Scots on 8 March 1702. ...


In 1660, Hyde was raised to the peerage as Baron Hyde, of Hindon in the County of Wiltshire, and the next year was created Viscount Cornbury and Earl of Clarendon. He served as Chancellor of the University of Oxford from 1660-1667. Hindon is a medium-sized village in Wiltshire, United Kingdom, 16 miles west of Salisbury and 7 miles south of Warminster. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ...


As Lord Chancellor, it is commonly though that Clarendon was the author of the "Clarendon Code", designed to preserve the supremacy of the Church of England. However, he was not very heavily involved with the drafting and actually disapproved of much of its content. It was merely named after him, as he was a chief minister. In the most general sense, penal is the body of laws that are enforced by the State in its own name and impose penalties for their violation, as opposed to civil law that seeks to redress private wrongs. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


In 1663, the Earl of Clarendon was one of eight Lords Proprietors given title to a huge tract of land in North America which became the Province of Carolina. However, he began to fall out of favour with the king, and the military setbacks of the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665 to 1667 led to his downfall. Clarendon was impeached, in part, for blatant violations of habeas corpus; sending prisoners out of England to places like Jersey, and holding them there without the benefit of trial. He was impeached by the House of Commons, and forced to flee to France in November, 1667. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Carolina Colony grants Haystack of 1663 and 1665 The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1729, was a North American British colony. ... The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... In common law, habeas corpus (/heɪbiəs kɔɹpəs/) is the name of a legal action or writ by means of which detainees can seek relief from unlawful imprisonment. ...


He spent the rest of his life in exile, working on the History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England, his classic account of the English Civil War. (The proceeds from this book's publication were instrumental in building the Clarendon Building at Oxford.) He died in Rouen on 9 December 1674. Shortly after his death, his body was returned to England, and he is buried in Westminster Abbey. The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... The Clarendon Building in Oxford, England, stands in the ceremonial center of the University of Oxford, near the Bodleian Library and the Sheldonian Theatre. ... Rouen Cathedral The entrance to Rouen Cathedral The Church of Jean dArc Abbey church of Saint-Ouen, (chevet) in Rouen Rouen, medieval house Rue St-Romain on a rainy day in Rouen Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Clarendon's sons, Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl of Clarendon, and Lawrence Hyde, Earl of Rochester, were major political figures in their own right. Clarendon's two cousins, Richard Rigby, Secretary of Jamaica and his son, Richard Rigby, Secretary of Ireland and Paymaster of the Army, were also successful politicians in the succeeding generations. Henry Hyde, (1638-1709), was the son of Edward Hyde, the 1st Earl of Clarendon, and his wife Frances Aylesbury. ... Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester (March, 1641 - May 2, 1711), was an English statesman and writer. ...


His daughter Lady Anne Hyde married the future James VII of Scotland and II of England, and was the mother of two queens regnant - Mary II of England and Anne of England Lady Anne Hyde (1637 - March 31, 1671), daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, became the first wife of James, Duke of York (the future King James II of England), and the mother of two British queens, Mary II and Anne. ... James VII and II (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Anne Queen of Great Britain and Ireland Anne (6 February 1665–1 August 1714), became Queen of England and Scotland on 8 March 1702. ...


See also

A drawing of Clarendon House published in 1829. ...

External links

Honorary Titles
Preceded by
The Viscount Falkland
Lord Lieutenant of Oxfordshire
1663–1667
Succeeded by
The Viscount Saye and Sele
Political offices
Preceded by
Sir John Colepeper
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1643–1646
Succeeded by
Sir Anthony Ashley-Cooper
Preceded by
Sir Edward Herbert
Lord Chancellor
1658–1667
Succeeded by
Orlando Bridgeman
(Lord Keeper)
Preceded by
The Lord Cottington
(Lord High Treasurer)
First Lord of the Treasury
1660
Succeeded by
The Earl of Southampton
(Lord High Treasurer)
Peerage of England
Preceded by
New Creation
Earl of Clarendon
1661-1674
Succeeded by
Henry Hyde
Preceded by
New Creation
Baron Hyde
1660-1674

  Results from FactBites:
 
Edward Hyde Clarendon - LoveToKnow 1911 (5410 words)
EDWARD HYDE CLARENDON, 1ST Earl Of (1609-1674), English historian and statesman, son of Henry Hyde of Dinton, Wiltshire, a member of a family for some time established at Norbury, Cheshire, was born on the 18th of February 1609.
Hyde strongly opposed Charles II.'s ignominious surrender to the Covenanters, the alliance with the Scots, and the Scottish expedition, desiring to accomplish whatever was possible there through Montrose and the royalists, and inclined rather to an attempt in Ireland.
Clarendon wrote humbly to the king asking for pardon, and that the prosecution might be prevented, but Charles had openly taken part against him, and, though desiring his escape, would not order or assist his departure for fear of the Commons.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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