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Encyclopedia > Edward Canby
Major General E.R.S Canby
Major General E.R.S Canby

Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (November 9, 1817April 11, 1873) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War and Indian Wars. Download high resolution version (525x739, 99 KB)Major General Edward R. S. Canby Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-B8172-6574 DLC Photo by Theo. ... Download high resolution version (525x739, 99 KB)Major General Edward R. S. Canby Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-B8172-6574 DLC Photo by Theo. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Native Americans Various (see text) Indian Wars is the name used by historians in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the United States and Native American peoples (Indians) of North America. ...

Contents

Early life

Canby was born in Piatt's Landing, Kentucky to Israel T. and Elizabeth (Piatt) Canby. He attended Wabash College, but transferred to the U.S. Military Academy, from which he graduated in 1839. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Infantry and served as the regimental adjutant. He married Louisa Hawkins at Crawfordsville, Indiana, August 1, 1839. Although often referred to as Edward Canby, a biographer has suggested that he was known as "Richard" during childhood and to some friends for most of his life. He was called "Sprigg" by fellow cadets at West Point, but during most of his career, he was generally referred to as E.R.S. Canby, sometimes signing his name "Ed.R.S. Canby." Piatts Landing was an early nineteenth century riverboat and ferry landing on the Ohio River in an area that has since been incorporated into the city of Union, in Boone County, Kentucky. ... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Louisa Hawkins Canby (1818-1889) Louisa Hawkins Canby, was nicknamed the “Angel of Santa Fe” in 1862 for her compassion toward sick, wounded, and freezing Confederate soldiers at Santa Fe, New Mexico. ... Crawfordsville is a city in Montgomery County, Indiana, United States. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Early military career

During his early career, he served in the Second Seminole War in Florida and saw combat during the Mexican-American War, where he received three brevet promotions, including to major for Contreras and Churubusco and lieutenant colonel for Belén Gates. He also served at various posts, including Upstate New York and in the adjutant general's office in California from 1849 until 1851, covering the period of the territory's transition to statehood. Against his own wishes, he was ordered to serve in what was supposed to be the civilian post of custodian of the California Archives from March 1850 until he left California in April 1851. The Archives included records of Spanish and Mexican governments in California as well as Mission records and land titles. Evidently, Canby had some knowledge of the Spanish language, which came in handy during this period. (The Filson Historical Society in Louisville, Kentucky holds what appears to be a document written in Canby's own hand in Spanish, in which he identifies himself as "Edwardo [sic] Ricardo S. Canby.") Osceola, Seminole leader, detail from an 1838 lithograph The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between the Seminole Native American tribe and the United States. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Gabriel Valencia Strength 8,500 20,000 Casualties 60 killed and wounded 700 killed 843 surrendered Gen Frontera dead Gen Salas, Nicolas Mendoza captured The Battle of Contreras (also known, particularly in Mexico, as the Battle of... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Manuel Rincón Strength 8,497 2,641 Casualties 133 killed 865 wounded 998 total total 263 dead 1,261 captured Gens Rincon & Anaya captured The Battles of Churubusco took place on August 20, 1847, in the... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... The Battle for Mexico City refers to the series of engagements from September 8 to September 15, 1847 in the general vicinity of Mexico City during the Mexican-American War. ... The areas highlighted in YELLOW and GREEN are those which are considered to be a bona fide part of Upstate New York from the perspective of New York City. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


He served in Wyoming and Utah (then both part of the Utah Territory) during the Utah War (1857-1858). During this period, Canby crossed paths with Captain Henry Hopkins Sibley (whom he may have known slightly at West Point) when the captain was court martialed and Canby served on the panel of judges. Sibley was acquitted. Subsequently, Canby wrote an endorsement for a teepee-like army tent that Sibley had invented. Both officers were later assigned to New Mexico where Canby coordinated a campaign against the Navajo in 1860, commanding Sibley in a futile attempt to capture and punish Navajos for "depredations" against the livestock of settlers. The campaign ended in frustration, with Canby and Sibley rarely so much as sighting Navajos, and then usually at a considerable distance that seemed impossible to close. The Utah Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1850 and 1896. ... Combatants United States Mormon settlers Commanders Albert Sidney Johnston Brigham Young John D. Lee Lot Smith Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Utah War was a 19th century armed conflict between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the United States federal government. ... Portrait of Henry Hopkins Sibley by Mathew Brady, ca. ...


Civil War

At the start of the Civil War, Canby was in command of Fort Defiance, New Mexico Territory. He was promoted to colonel of the 19th U.S. Infantry on May 14, 1861, and the following month commanded the Department of New Mexico. Although subsequently defeated by Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley in February of 1862 at the Battle of Valverde, his troops eventually forced the Confederates to retreat to Texas after the decisive Union victory at the Battle of Glorieta Pass. (This battle, however, was fought under the command of Col. John P. Slough of the Colorado Volunteers in direct disobedience of Canby's order not to engage the Confederates directly.) Immediately following this battle, Canby was promoted to brigadier general on March 31, 1862. Recombining the forces he had earlier divided, Canby set off in pursuit of the retreating Confederate army, but he soon gave up the chase and allowed them to reach Texas. Shortly after the failure of the Confederate invasion of New Mexico, Canby was relieved of his command by Gen. James H. Carleton and reassigned to the east. Fort Defiance (Navajo Tséhootsooí) is a census-designated place located in Apache County, Arizona. ... The New Mexico Territory became an organized territory of the United States on September 9, 1850, and it existed until New Mexico became the 47th state on January 6, 1912. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Valverde is a province of the Dominican Republic. ... Official language(s) English (de facto) See also languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John P. Slough John M. Chivington Charles L. Pyron William R. Scurry Strength Northern Division, Army of New Mexico 4th, 5th, and 7th Texas Cavalry Regiment, artillery, and a company of independent volunteers Casualties 142 189 The Battle of Glorieta... John Potts Slough (1829-1867) was a politician, lawyer, Union general and Chief Justice of New Mexico. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... James Henry Carleton was an officer in the Union army during the Civil War. ...


After a period of clerical duty, Canby became "commanding general of the city and harbor of New York" on July 17, 1863. This asignment immediately followed the New York Draft Riots. He remained in that post until November 9, not only restarting the draft, but overseeing a prisoner of war camp in New York Harbor. He then went to work in the office of the Secretary of War, unofficially describing himself in correspondence as an "Assistant Adjutant General." (Looking back on Canby's record, a twentieth century Adjutant General, Edward F. Witsell, described Canby's position as "similar to that of an Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.") In May 1864, Canby was promoted to major general and returned to the West, where he commanded the Military Division of Western Mississippi. He was wounded in the hip and groin by a sharpshooter while aboard the gunboat USS Cricket on the White River, Arkansas, on November 8, 1864. Canby commanded the Union forces assigned to conduct the campaign of Mobile in the spring of 1865, culminating in the Battle of Fort Blakely, which led to the fall of Mobile in April 1865. Canby accepted the surrender of the Confederate forces under General Richard Taylor in Citronelle, Alabama, on May 4, 1865, and those under General E. Kirby Smith west of the Mississippi River on May 26, 1865. Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Federal troops firing at the oncoming mob. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The White River is a 722-mile-long river that flows through the US states of Arkansas and Missouri. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Battle of Fort Blakely took place from April 2-9, 1865 in Baldwin County, Alabama, as part of the Mobile Campaign of the Main Western Theater. ... Nickname: The Azalea City Coordinates: Country US State Alabama County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Mayor Sam Jones Area    - City 412. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Canby's achievement in New Mexico had largely been in his planning an overall defensive strategy. He and his opponent, Sibley, both had limited resources. Though Canby was a little better supplied, he saw that defending the entire territory from every possible attack would stretch his forces too thinly. Realizing that Sibley had to attack along a river, especially since New Mexico was in the middle of a long drought, Canby made the best use of his forces by only defending against two possible scenarios: an attack along the Rio Grande and an attack by way of the Pecos and Canadian rivers. Moreover, the latter defensive force could easily be shifted to protect Fort Union if the enemy attacked by way of the Rio Grande, which they did. Canby also took initiative in persuading the governors of both New Mexico and Colorado to raise volunteer units to supplement regular Federal troops; the Colorado troops proved helpful at both Valverde and Glorieta (although Manuel Chavez, a colonel with the New Mexico volunteers played a crucial role in the latter engagement). It was Sibley's campaign to win or lose, and in spite of occasional superior soldiering by Confederate troops and junior commanders, Sibley's sluggishness and vacillation in executing an extremely risky plan led to an almost inevitable Confederate collapse.


Canby was generally regarded as a great administrator, but opinion was mixed as to whether or not he was a great warrior. Ulysses S. Grant thought him not aggressive enough. In a telling incident, Grant sent Canby an order to "destroy [the enemy's] railroads, machine-shops, &c." Ten days later, Grant reprimanded him for requesting men and materials to build railroads. "I wrote... urging you to... destroy railroads, machine-shops, &c., not to build them," Grant said pointedly. The story is instructive regarding Canby's character: although he could be a destroyer when he felt he had to be, he clearly preferred the role of builder. Today, he might be considered a "policy wonk" because he was expert in the minutiae of administration. If someone had a question about army regulations or even Constitutional law affecting the military, Canby was the man to see. Grant himself came to appreciate this in peace time, once complaining vigorously when President Andrew Johnson proposed to assign Canby away from the capital where Grant considered him irreplaceable. Ulysses S Grant was awesome because he won the war Ulysses S. Grant[1] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and politician who was elected as the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Policy wonk is a term of art of politics, meaning an expert with a detailed knowledge of current or potential government policies, administrative matters, and the effects of policy and programs. ... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ...


It should be noted that Canby was born in Kentucky and that his father had once owned slaves. Some of Canby's cousins fought for the Confederacy, and one of these was taken prisoner of war. The man's father wrote to Canby asking the general to use his influence to parole his son, but Canby declined on the grounds that he felt he was not entitled to use his influence to benefit family members. Later, when Canby was a military governor during Reconstruction, he declined to favor relatives who had become carpetbaggers in his jurisdiction. In United States history, the term carpetbagger was a term for Northerners (Yankees) who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. ...


Post War assignments

After the war, Canby served as commander of various military departments, remaining in charge in Louisiana from 1864 to May 1866; the Department of Washington (that is, Delaware, Maryland, the District of Columbia, and Alexandria and Fairfax Counties in Virginia) from June 1866 until August 1867, when he was appointed to command the Second Military District comprising North and South Carolina. In August 1868, he briefly resumed command in Washington, but was off to the Fifth Military District in November. There he focused primarily on the reconstruction of Texas. He left Texas for Virginia, the First Military District, in April 1869, serving there until July 1870. Each of these postings occurred during Reconstruction and put Canby at the center of conflicts between Republicans and Democrats, whites and blacks, state and federal governments. New state constitutions were either being written, ratified or put into effect in each district that he commanded, and he could not help but offend one side or the other (and often both). Nevertheless, Charles W. Ramsdell called Canby "vigorous and firm, but just." Even political opponents like Jonathan Worth, governor of North Carolina, admitted that Canby was sincere and honest. The Second Military District existed in the American South during the Reconstruction era that followed the American Civil War. ... The 5th Military District was a temporary administrative unit set up during the Reconstruction period following the American Civil War. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... // Reconstruction was the process in U.S. history that attempted to resolve the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and slavery were destroyed. ...


Final assignment and death

On July 21, 1870, Canby was awarded an honorary doctor of laws degree by Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. In August, he was posted to command the Pacific Northwest. One of the problems he soon faced was that the Modoc tribe, which had previously lived in northern California, had been compelled to live on the same reservation in Oregon with the Klamath tribe with whom they did not get along. The government would not give them their own reservation in California, so the Modocs returned to their old territory illegally. In 1872, the Modoc War broke out. The Modocs, entrenched in Captain Jack's Stronghold south of Tule Lake, resisted army attacks, fighting to a stalemate. July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Wesleyan University, founded in 1831, is a private, liberal arts university in Middletown, Connecticut. ... Nickname: Forest City Coordinates: NECTA Hartford Region Midstate Region Incorporated (town) 1651 Incorporated (city) 1784 Consolidated 1923 Government type Mayor-council Mayor Sebastian N. Giuliano Area    - City 42. ... The Pacific Northwest from space This page is about the region that includes parts of Canada and the US. For the US only region, see Northwestern United States The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... For other uses, see Modoc (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The Modoc War, or Modoc Campaign (also known as the Lava Beds War), was an armed conflict between the Native American Modoc tribe and the United States Army in southern Oregon and northern California from 1872–1873 . ... Captain Jacks Stronghold, named for Modoc chief Captain Jack, is a part of Lava Beds National Monument. ... Tule Lake was an internment camp in northern California used in the Japanese-American internment during World War II. It was one of the largest and most notorious of the camps, and did not close until after the war, in 1946. ...


General Canby had received conflicting orders from Washington as to whether to make peace or war on the Modocs, and he expressed conflicting impulses about the matter himself. Since war was not working, the federal government authorized a peace commission and assigned Canby a key position on it. The purpose of the commission was undermined by the fact that there were many lines of communication between the Modocs and whites. At one point, someone in touch with the Modoc leader Captain Jack, alleged that the governor of Oregon intended to hang nine Modocs, apparently without trial, as soon as they surrendered. This caused the Modocs to break off scheduled talks. This frustrated and infuriated Canby because, as far as he was concerned, his own authority trumped the governor's and made the threat irrelevant because Canby had no intention of allowing the Modocs to be molested if they surrendered, especially without a trial. For the music group, see Captain Jack (music). ...


On April 11, 1873, after months of false starts and aborted meetings, Canby went to another parlay, unarmed and with some hope of final resolution; however, Judge E. Steele of Yreka, California maintained that when he warned Canby that the Modocs were volatile and apt to kill the peace commissioners at the slightest provocation, Canby replied, "I believe you are right, Mr. Steele, and I shall regard your advice, but it would not be very well for the general in command to be afraid to go where the peace commissioners would venture." The talks were held midway between the army encampment and Captain Jack's Stronghold near Tule Lake. Two members of Canby's party brought concealed weapons, but, as it turned out, even more of the Modocs were armed. Frustrated by the negotiations, Captain Jack, leader of the Modocs, along with Ellen's Man, one of his lieutenants, shot Canby twice in the head and cut his throat. He was the first, and only, general killed during the Indian Wars. Other members of Canby's party were killed, including Reverend Eleazar Thomas. Others were wounded. According to Jeff C. Riddle, author of Indian History of the Modoc War (1914), Canby provoked Captain Jack by claiming that he had no authority to withdraw the 1,000 troops he had positioned nearby. (Riddle was the son of Frank Riddle, Canby's interpreter at the talks.) April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... Combatants Native Americans Various (see text) Indian Wars is the name used by historians in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the United States and Native American peoples (Indians) of North America. ...


Following Canby's death, there was a severe backlash against the Modocs. Eastern newspapers called for blood vengeance. (All except for one paper in Georgia that headlined the story: "Captain Jack and Warriors Revenge the South By Murdering General Canby, One of Her Greatest Oppressors." In contrast, citizens of Richmond, Virginia, where Canby had actually served as military governor, met on April 18 to express their appreciation of Canby and sorrow at his death.) E.C. Thomas, son of the murdered peace commissioner, demonstrated the extent and limitation of moderation when he accepted the inevitability and even desirability of reprisals against Captain Jack and his men, but reminded people that his father's memory would be dishonored by generalized malice toward Native Americans: "To be sure, peace will come through war, but not by extermination." Eventually, Captain Jack and others were tried for murder and executed. The Modocs were sent to reservations.


After services were performed on the West Coast, Canby was returned to Indiana and buried in Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis, Indiana on May 23, 1873. Attending the final funeral service in Indianapolis were at least four Union generals: William Tecumseh Sherman, Philip Sheridan, Lew Wallace, and Irvin McDowell, the last two serving among the pall bearers. A reporter noted that, although the funeral procession was generally reserved, "more than once, expressions of hatred toward the Modoc" marred the silence. Location in the state of Indiana Coordinates: County Marion Founded 1821  - Mayor Bart Peterson (D) Area    - City  372 sq mi (963. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... General Sherman redirects here. ... Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Lew Wallace Lewis Lew Wallace (April 10, 1827 – February 15, 1905) was a lawyer, governor, Union general in the American Civil War, American statesman, and author, best remembered for his historical novel Ben-Hur. ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ...


In recognition of his assassination, Canby's Cross monument was erected in Lava Beds National Monument. The towns of Canby in Clackamas County, Oregon, Canby in Yellow Medicine County, Minnesota, and Canby in Modoc County, California, are named for him. Canbys Cross Canbys Cross is located in Lava Beds National Monument. ... Lava Beds National Monument, located in Siskiyou and Modoc Counies, California, is the site of the largest concentration of lava tube caves in the United States. ... Canby is a city in Clackamas County, Oregon, United States. ... Clackamas County (IPA: ) is a county located in the state of Oregon. ... Canby is a city in Yellow Medicine County, Minnesota, United States. ... Yellow Medicine County is a county located in the state of Minnesota. ... Canby is a town in California with a population of 413 people. ... Modoc County is a county located in Californias far northeast corner, bounded by Oregon to the north and Nevada to the east. ...


Movie trivia

Colonel Canby is mentioned in the script of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, Sergio Leone's stylish Spaghetti Western, although Canby never appears as a character. (His opponent, General Sibley, does appear briefly.) The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (Italian: ) is a 1966 Italian epic spaghetti Western directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood, Lee Van Cleef and Eli Wallach in the title roles. ... Sergio Leone (January 3, 1929 – April 30, 1989) was an Italian film director who is considered by many to be on the short list of the greatest film directors of all time. ... Movie poster for Once Upon a Time in the West Spaghetti Western is a nickname for a broad sub-genre of Western film that emerged in the mid-1960s, so named because most of them were produced by Italian studios. ...


References

  • Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J.: Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Heyman, Max L., Jr.: Prudent Soldier: A Biography of Major General ERS Canby, 1817-1873, Frontier Military Series III, Glendale, CA: The Arthur H. Clark Co., 1959.
  • Filson Historical Society Library: MS #118. "Canby, Edward Richard Sprigg, 1819[sic]-1873. Papers, 1837-1873." AC214 (1 box, 146 items).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Edward Canby at AllExperts (1415 words)
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (November 9 1817 – April 11 1873) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War and Indian Wars.
Canby became "commanding general of the city and harbor of New York" on July 17 1863.
Canby was buried in Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis, Indiana on May 23, 1873.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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