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Encyclopedia > Edvard Munch
The Scream. 1893. Oil, tempera and pastel on cardboard. Nasjonalgalleriet.
The Scream. 1893. Oil, tempera and pastel on cardboard. Nasjonalgalleriet.
Death in the Sickroom. c. 1895. Edvard Munch. Oil on canvas. 59 x 66 in. Nasjonalgalleriet in Oslo.
Death in the Sickroom. c. 1895. Edvard Munch. Oil on canvas. 59 x 66 in. Nasjonalgalleriet in Oslo.
The Dance of Life. 1899–1900. Edvard Munch. Oil on canvas, 49½ x 75 in. Nasjonalgalleriet
The Dance of Life. 1899–1900. Edvard Munch. Oil on canvas, 49½ x 75 in. Nasjonalgalleriet
'Vampire', an oil on canvas painting by Edvard Munch, 1894, private collection
'Vampire', an oil on canvas painting by Edvard Munch, 1894, private collection
Edvard Munch's Tomb, Oslo, Norway

Edvard Munch (IPA: [ˈmʉŋk], December 12, 1863January 23, 1944) was a Norwegian Symbolist painter, printmaker, and an important forerunner of Expressionistic art. Download high resolution version (500x637, 135 KB)Subject: Painting The Scream (1893) by Edvard Munch. ... Download high resolution version (500x637, 135 KB)Subject: Painting The Scream (1893) by Edvard Munch. ... For other uses, see The Scream (disambiguation). ... Nasjonalgalleriet, or The National Gallery in Oslo is the national art gallery of Norway. ... Download high resolution version (955x887, 127 KB) 1895. ... Download high resolution version (955x887, 127 KB) 1895. ... Nasjonalgalleriet, or The National Gallery in Oslo is the national art gallery of Norway. ... The Dance of Life. ... The Dance of Life. ... Nasjonalgalleriet, or The National Gallery in Oslo is the national art gallery of Norway. ... Image File history File links Munch_vampire. ... Image File history File links Munch_vampire. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1224x1632, 404 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Edvard Munch ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1224x1632, 404 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Edvard Munch ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... La mort du fossoyeur (The death of the gravedigger) by Carlos Schwabe is a visual compendium of Symbolist motifs. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Printmaking is a process for producing a work of art in ink; the work (called a print) is created indirectly, through the transfer of ink from the surface upon which the work was originally drawn or otherwise composed. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ...


His best-known painting, The Scream (1893), is one of the pieces in a series titled The Frieze of Life, in which Munch explored the themes of life, love, fear, death, and melancholy. As with many of his works, he painted several versions of it.[1] Similar paintings include Despair and Anxiety For other uses, see The Scream (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Melancholia (Greek μελαγχολια) was described as a distinct disease as early as the fifth and fourth centuries BC in the Hippocratic writings. ...


The Frieze of Life themes recur throughout Munch's work, in paintings such as The Sick Child (1886, portrait of his deceased sister Sophie), Love and Pain (1893-94) though more commonly known as "Vampire." Art critic Stanislaw Przybyszewski mistakenly interpreted the image as being vampiric in theme and content, and the description has since stuck, Ashes (1894), and The Bridge. The latter shows limp figures with featureless or hidden faces, over which loom the threatening shapes of heavy trees and brooding houses. Munch portrayed women either as frail, innocent sufferers (see Puberty and Love and Pain) or as the cause of great longing, jealousy and despair (see Separation, Jealousy and Ashes). Some say these paintings reflect the artist's sexual anxieties, though it could also be argued that they are a better representation of his turbulent relationship with love itself. Image:Sick Child. ... Image File history File links Munch_vampire. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 698 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (925 × 795 pixel, file size: 130 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1894. ...

Contents

Biography

Youth

Edvard Munch was born in Ådalsbruk/Løten, Norway, and grew up in Kristiania (now Oslo). He was related to painter Jacob Munch (1776–1839) and historian Peter Andreas Munch (1810–1863). He lost his mother, Laura Cathrine Munch, née Bjølstad, to tuberculosis in 1868, and his older and favorite sister Sophie (Johanne Sophie b. 1862) to the same disease in 1877. Ultimately his father, Christian Munch, died young, as well, in 1889. Munch also had a brother, (Peter) Andreas (b. 1865) and two younger sisters (Laura Cathrine b. 1867, Inger Marie b. 1868). After their mother's death, the Munch siblings were raised by their father, who instilled in his children a deep-rooted fear by repeatedly telling them that if they sinned in any way, they would be doomed to hell without chance of pardon. One of Munch's younger sisters was diagnosed with mental illness at an early age. Munch himself was also often ill. Of the five siblings only Andreas married, but he died a few months after the wedding. He would later say, "Sickness, insanity and death were the angels that surrounded my cradle and they have followed me throughout my life." Ã…dalsbruk is a village in the municipality of Løten, Norway. ... County Hedmark Landscape Hedemarken Municipality NO-0415 Administrative centre Løten Mayor (2003) Martin Skramstad (Sp) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 252 369 km² 362 km² 0. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... Peter Andreas Munch (1810 - 1863) (usually known as P. A. Munch) was a Norwegian historian, known for his work on the medieval history of the nation that had recently regained its independence. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ...


Studies and influences

In 1879, Munch enrolled in a technical college to study engineering, but frequent illnesses interrupted his studies. In 1880, he left the college to become a painter. In 1881, he enrolled at the Royal School of Art and Design of Kristiania. His teachers were sculptor Julius Middelthun and naturalistic painter Christian Krohg. Institute of Technology is also the name of a vocational school in California. ... Naturalism in art refers to the depiction of realistic objects in a natural setting. ... Christian Krohg (August 13, 1852 - October 16, 1925), was a Norwegian naturalist painter, author and journalist. ...


While stylistically influenced by the postimpressionists, Munch's subject matter is symbolist in content, depicting a state of mind rather than an external reality. Munch maintained that the impressionist idiom did not suit his art. Interested in portraying not a random slice of reality, but situations brimming with emotional content and expressive energy, Munch carefully calculated his compositions to create a tense atmosphere. Post-Impressionism is a term applied to a number of painters of the late 19th and early 20th centuries whose style developed out of or reacted against that of the Impressionists. ... La mort du fossoyeur (The death of the gravedigger) by Carlos Schwabe is a visual compendium of Symbolist motifs. ... See also Impressionist (entertainment): A girl with a watering can by Renoir, 1876 Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, which began as a private association of Paris-based artists who exhibited publicly in 1874. ...


Maturity

Munch's means of expression evolved throughout his life. In the 1880s, his idiom was both naturalistic, as seen in Portrait of Hans Jæger, and impressionistic, as in (Rue Lafayette). In 1892, Munch formulated his characteristic, and original, Synthetist aesthetic, as seen in Melancholy, in which colour is the symbol-laden element. Painted in 1893, The Scream is his most famous work.[2] Naturalism in art refers to the depiction of realistic objects in a natural setting. ... This article is about the art movement. ... Synthetism is a style of painting that developed out of Cloisonnism. ...


During the 1890s, Munch favoured a shallow pictorial space, a minimal backdrop for his frontal figures. Since poses were chosen to produce the most convincing images of states of mind and psychological conditions (Ashes), the figures impart a monumental, static quality. Munch's figures appear to play roles on a theatre stage (Death in the Sick-Room), whose pantomime of fixed postures signify various emotions; since each character embodies a single psychological dimension, as in The Scream, Munch's men and women appear more symbolic than realistic.


In 1892, the Union of Berlin Artists invited Munch to exhibit at its November exhibition. His paintings evoked bitter controversy, and after one week the exhibition closed. In Berlin, Munch involved himself in an international circle of writers, artists and critics, including the Swedish dramatist August Strindberg. August Strindberg Portrait of August Strindberg by Richard Bergh   (January 22, 1849 – May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ...


While in Berlin at the turn of the century, Munch experimented with a variety of new media (photography, lithography, and woodcuts), in many instances re-working his older imagery. Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Lithography stone and mirror-image print of a map of Munich. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface...


One of his great supporters in Berlin was Walter Rathenau, later the German foreign minister, who greatly contributed to his success. Walter Rathenau Walther Rathenau (September 29, 1867–June 24, 1922) was a German industrialist and politician who served as Foreign Minister of Germany. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ...


In the autumn of 1908, Munch's anxiety became acute and he entered the clinic of Dr. Daniel Jacobson. The therapy (including electric shock therapy) Munch received in hospital changed his personality, and after returning to Norway in 1909 he showed more interest in nature subjects, and his work became more colourful and less pessimistic. Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ...


Later life

In the 1930s and 1940s, the Nazis labeled his work "degenerate art", and removed his work from German museums. This deeply hurt Munch, who had come to feel Germany was his second homeland. The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Joseph Goebbels, Adolf Hitler and Adolf Ziegler visit the entartete Kunst exhibition. ...


Munch built himself a studio and simple house at Ekly estate, at Skøyen, Oslo, and spent the last decades of his life there.[3] He died there on January 23, 1944, about a month after his 80th birthday. Skøyen is a railway station located in Oslo, Norway and is part of Drammenbanen. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"From my rotting body, flowers shall grow and I am in them and that is eternity."
—Edvard Munch

While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existing for an infinite, i. ...

Legacy

When Munch died he left 1,008 paintings, 15,391 prints, 4,443 drawings and watercolors, and six sculptures to the city of Oslo which built the Munch Museum at Tøyen.[citation needed] The museum houses the broadest collection of his works in the world. His works are also represented in major museums and galleries in Norway and abroad. After the Cultural Revolution in the People's Republic of China ended, Munch was the first Western artist to have his pictures exhibited at the National Gallery in Beijing. Self portrait, 1895 Edvard Munch (Løten, December 12, 1863 - Ekely (near Oslo), January 23, 1944) was a Norwegian Expressionist painter and printmaker. ... Gamle Oslo is a borough of the city of Oslo, Norway. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to... “Peking” redirects here. ...


One version of The Scream was stolen in 1994, another in 2004. Both have since been recovered, but one version sustained damage during the theft which was too extensive to repair completely.


In October 2006, the colour woodcut Two people. The lonely (To mennesker. De ensomme) set a new record for his prints when it was sold at an auction in Oslo for 8.1 million NOK (1.27 million USD). It also set a new record for the highest price paid in auction in Norway. [1] October 2006 is the tenth month of that year and has yet to occur. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... ISO 4217 Code NOK User(s) Norway Inflation 2. ... USD redirects here. ...


Munch appears on the Norwegian 1,000 Kroner note along with pictures inspired by his artwork. [2] ISO 4217 Code NOK User(s) Norway Inflation 2. ...


Frieze of Life — A Poem about Life, Love and Death

Madonna
Madonna

In December 1893, Unter den Linden in Berlin held an exhibition of Munch's work, showing, among other pieces, six paintings entitled Study for a Series: Love. This began a cycle he later called the Frieze of Life — A Poem about Life, Love and Death. Frieze of Life motifs such as The Storm and Moonlight are steeped in atmosphere. Other motifs illuminate the nocturnal side of love, such as Rose and Amelie and Vampire. In Death in the Sickroom (1893), the subject is the death of his sister Sophie. The dramatic focus of the painting, portraying his entire family, is dispersed in a series of separate and disconnected figures of sorrow. In 1894, he enlarged the spectrum of motifs by adding Anxiety, Ashes, Madonna and Women in Three Stages. Download high resolution version (1097x1422, 522 KB)Edvard Munch - Madonna (1894-1895) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with copyright terms of life of the author plus 50 years. ... Download high resolution version (1097x1422, 522 KB)Edvard Munch - Madonna (1894-1895) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with copyright terms of life of the author plus 50 years. ... A view of Unter den Linden, showing the linden trees for which it is named Unter den Linden (in English: Under the Lindens), is a street in the centre of Berlin, the capital of Germany. ... Edvard Munchs Madonna Madonna is a famous painting by the Norwegian expressionist Edvard Munch. ...


Around the turn of the century, Munch worked to finish the Frieze. He painted a number of pictures, several of them in larger format and to some extent featuring the Art Nouveau aesthetics of the time. He made a wooden frame with carved reliefs for the large painting Metabolism (1898), initially called Adam and Eve. This work reveals Munch's preoccupation with the "fall of man" myth and his pessimistic philosophy of love. Motifs such as The Empty Cross and Golgotha (both c. 1900) reflect a metaphysical orientation, and also echo Munch's pietistic upbringing. The entire Frieze showed for the first time at the secessionist exhibition in Berlin in 1902. Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... The Berlin Secession (Berliner Secession) was an art associaiton founded by Berlin artists in 1898 as an alternative to the conservative state-run Association of Berlin Artists. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


List of major works

  • 1892 - Evening on Karl Johan
  • 1893 - The Scream
  • 1894 - Ashes
  • 1894-95 - Madonna
  • 1895 - Puberty
  • 1895 - Self-Portrait with Burning Cigarette
  • 1895 - Death in the Sickroom
  • 1899-1900 - The Dance of Life
  • 1899-1900 - The Dead Mother
  • 1940-42 - Self Portrait: Between Clock and Bed

For other uses, see The Scream (disambiguation). ... Edvard Munchs Madonna Madonna is a famous painting by the Norwegian expressionist Edvard Munch. ...

See also

Edvard Munch is a 1973 biographical film about the Norwegian Expressionist painter Edvard Munch, written and directed by Peter Watkins. ... Edvard Munchs Madonna Madonna is a famous painting by the Norwegian expressionist Edvard Munch. ...

Notes

  1. ^ In a note in his diary, Munch described his inspiration for the image. “I was walking along a path with two friends — the sun was setting — suddenly the sky turned blood red. I paused, feeling exhausted, and leaned on the fence — there was blood and tongues of fire above the blue-black fjord and the city — my friends walked on, and I stood there trembling with anxiety. I sensed an infinite scream passing through nature.” –Edward Munch (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Scream)
  2. ^ Some art historians believe that the red sky in the background of The Scream reflects the unusually intense sunsets seen throughout the world following the 1883 eruption of the Indonesian volcano Krakatoa.
  3. ^ Chipp, H.B. Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, page 114. University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-05256-0

This article is an overview of the history of art worldwide. ... Cumulus humilis indicates a good day ahead. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... For the 1969 film about the Krakatoa eruption, see Krakatoa, East of Java. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ...

References

Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ...

Further reading

  • Sue Prideaux, Behind the Scream (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006) Winner of the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for Biography, 2006
  • Reinhold Heller, Munch. His life and work (London: Murray, 1984).
  • Gustav Schiefler, Verzeichnis des graphischen Werks Edvard Munchs bis 1906 (Berlin: Bruno Cassirer, 1907).
  • Gustav Schiefler, Edvard Munch. Das graphische Werk 1906–1926 (Berlin: Euphorion, 1928).
  • J. Gill Holland The Private Journals of Edvard Munch: We Are Flames Which Pour out of the Earth (University of Wisconsin Press 2005)
  • Edward Dolnick The Rescue Artist: A True Story of Art, Thieves, and the Hunt for a Missing Masterpiece (HarperCollins, 2005) (Recounts the 1994 theft of The Scream from Norway's National Gallery in Oslo, and its eventual recovery.)

Sue Prideaux, is an English novelist and biographer. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... Founded in 1919, the James Tait Black Memorial Prizes are among the oldest and most prestigious book prizes awarded for literature written in the English Language. ... Edward Dolnick is an American writer, formerly the chief science writer at the Boston Globe. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Edvard Munch
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NAME Munch, Edvard
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Norwegian Symbolist painter, printmaker
DATE OF BIRTH December 12, 1863
PLACE OF BIRTH Ådalsbruk/Løten, Norway
DATE OF DEATH January 23, 1944
PLACE OF DEATH Skøyen, Oslo

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