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Encyclopedia > Educational technology

Educational technology is a field of study within education. The term educational technology is often associated with, and encompasses, instructional technology and learning technology. While instructional technology covers technology used within the processes of learning, educational technology includes other systems used in the process of delivering education, such as registration or library systems. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // History of instructional technology Instructional technology was born as a military response to the problems of a labor shortage during WWII in the United States. ...

Educational technology is not restricted to the education of children, nor to the use of high technology. The particular case of the meaningful use of high-technology to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms and higher education is known as technology integration. High tech refers to high technology, technology that is at the cutting-edge and the most advanced currently available. ... K-12 (Pronounced Kay through twelve or just Kay twelve) is the North American designation for primary and secondary education. ... Technology Integration is a term used by educators to describe effective uses of technology by teachers and students in K-12 and university classrooms. ...



One of the earliest fields of study within educational technology was instructional systems design (ISD). This was developed by the United States military during World War II, in order to train large numbers of people more effectively. In a common ISD model, the ADDIE Model, the steps involved are: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Instructional design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. ... The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. ...

More recently several universities have opened tracks for graduate programs in the field of Educational Technology.[1][2][3][4]

Theories and practices

Three main theoretical schools or philosphical frameworks have been present in the educational technology literature. These are Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Constructivism. Each of these schools of thought are still present in todays literature but have evolved as the Psychology literature has evolved. Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... The word cognitivism is used in several ways: In ethics, cognitivism is the philosophical view that ethical sentences express propositions, and hence are capable of being true or false. ... Constructivism may refer to: constructivism (mathematics), a view on mathematical proofs constructivism (art), an artistic movement in Russia from 1914 onward constructivism (learning theory) constructivism, an approach to language acquisition in linguistics Constructivism in international relations constructivist epistemology, the philosophical view This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles... Psychological science redirects here. ...


This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century with the animal learning experiments of Edward Thorndike. Many Psychologists like B. F. Skinner, and Ivan Pavlov used these theories to describe and experiment with human learning. While still very useful this philosophy of learning has lost favor with many educators. But Behavior learning theory (e.g Classical Conditioning and Operant conditioning) is still very useful to explain lower level unconscious implicit memory and learning. Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 - August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), Ph. ... For other uses, see Pavlov (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that eye blink conditioning be merged into this article or section. ... Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. ... Procedural memory is the long-term memory of skills and procedures, or how to knowledge. ...


Cognitive science has changed how educators view learning. Since the Cognitive Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, learning theory has undergone a great deal of change. Much of the empirical framework of Behaviorism was retained even though a new paradigm was begun. Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning. Cognitivists consider how human memory works to promote learning. So for example how the natural physiological processes of encoding information into short term memory and long term memory become important to educators. Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as primary or active memory, is that part of memory which stores a limited amount of information for a limited amount of time (roughly 30-45 seconds). ... Long-term memory (LTM) is memory that lasts from days to years. ...

Once memory theories like the Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley's Working memory model were established as a theoretical framework in Cognitive Psychology, new cognitive frameworks of learning began to emerge during the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. Today researchers are concentrating on topics like Cognitive load and Information Processing Theory. These theories of learning are very useful as they guide the design of instructional technologies. A corrected visual representation of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model. ... Working memory is a theoretical framework within cognitive psychology that refers to the structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Cognitive Load is a term (used in psychology and other fields of study) that refers to the level of effort associated with problem solving, thinking and reasoning (including perception, memory, language, etc. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ...


Constructivism (learning theory) while not a theory, is an educational philosophy that many educators began to consider in the 1990s. One of the primary tenets of this philosophy is that learners construct their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality or others with different perspectives. For other uses, see Constructivism. ...

Constructivist learning environments require students to utilize their prior knowledge and experiences to formulate new, related, and/or adaptive concepts in learning. Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. Educators, from the constructivist’s perspective, must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught.

Jonassen (1997) suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more advanced learners. Educators utilizing technology when teaching with the Constructivist perspective should choose technologies that reinforce prior learning perhaps in a problem-solving environment.

Instructional technique and technologies

Problem Based Learning and Inquiry-based learning are active learning instructional techniques used to teach learners. Technology can be incorporated into project, problem, inquiry based learning as they all have a similar educational philosophy. All three are student centered, typically involving real world scenarios in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. Both the process students engage in and end products of all the learning theories can be implemented with a number of technological tools. Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical concept of active learning in tertiary education, but is currently being adapted for use in K-12 education. ... Inquiry based learning describes a range of philosophical, curricular and pedagogical approaches to teaching. ... Active learning, as the name suggests, is a type of instruction which some teachers employ to involve pupils during the learning process. ...

Learners should be guided during the instructional process, but after initial instruction has taken place these more active techniques may be used. Quite often an instructor will introduce material through a lecture and then offer a think quest or web quest as reinforcement. These teaching strategies would be beneficial because they provide students with a structured presentation of the problem or project. During the first phase students begin the inquiry process, they can brainstorm using web mapping software or an interactive whiteboard to record their initial thoughts and create a plan of action. Both of these products promote student interaction and input into the developmental process.

Thinkers in this Area

Stephen Downes
Karl Fisch
Ian Jukes
Jamie McKenzie
Scott McLeod
Alan November
Seymour Papert
Marc Prensky
Will Richardson
Gary Stager
David Warlick

Stephen Downes (April 6, 1959 –) is a designer and theorist in the fields of online learning and new media. ... Alan November at BLC 2007 Alan November is an American educator and educational consultant. ... Marc Prensky is an internationally acclaimed speaker, writer, consultant, and designer in the critical areas of education and learning. ... Will Richardson is the author of the highly ranked and read edublog Weblogged and author of the book, Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms. ...

This is an area where new thinkers are coming to the forefront everyday. Many of the ideas spread from theorists, researchers, and experts through their blogs. Extensive lists of educational bloggers by area of interest are available at Steve Hargadon's SupportBloggers site or at the movingforward wiki started by Scott McLeod. Many of these blogs are recognized each year through the edublogger awards where these thinkers are recognized by their peers. This epistemology dates back to the early 1970's, but due to the increase in the amount of technological resources in schools it is an area of study that is growing and changing rapidly. This, combined with Web 2.0 technologies has lead to a huge increase in the amount of information available on this topic and the number of educators formally and informmally discussing it. Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... On September 30, 2005, OReilly wrote a piece summarizing the subject. ...

Other interests

Educational technology and the humanities

Research from the Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI) [1] indicates that inquiry and project-based approaches, combined with a focus on curriculum, effectively supports the infusion of educational technologies into the learning and teaching process. Below are some promising practices and emerging applications specifically related to learning and technology within humanities disciplines:

  • Social Studies - Under Construction -Global Studies and Citizenship
  • English Language Arts - Under Construction - Changing Space of Text and Reading


Learned societies concerned with educational technology include:

The Association for Educational Communications and Technology is an academic and professional association dedicated to the effective use of technology in education. ... The Association for Learning Technology (ALT) is a United Kingdom professional body and scholarly association. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

See also

Education Portal

Instructional technology ,Instructional theory, Learning theory (education), Educational psychology, Educational research, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, M-learning, E-learning, Flexible Learning, Mind Map, E-learning, M-learning, Habituation, Sleep-learning, Metacognition, Overlearning, Operant conditioning, Observational learning, Zone of proximal development, Bloom's taxonomy, Cooperative learning, See also: Human Performance Technology Instructional Systems Design, ADDIE Model, Mind map, Distance education, SCORM, Blended learning, Mnemonic, Project-based learning, Information mappingAssistive technology, Educational animationComputer-adaptive test, Educational evaluation, Rubrics (education), Usability testing Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_bookcase. ... // History of instructional technology Instructional technology was born as a military response to the problems of a labor shortage during WWII in the United States. ... Instructional theory is a discipline that focuses on how to structure material for promoting the education of humans, particularly youth. ... In education and psychology, learning theories help us understand the process of learning. ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Educational research is research which investigates the behaviour of pupils, students, teachers, and other participants in schools and other educational institutions. ... Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) is a framework to understand and describe the kinds knowledge needed by a teacher for effective technology Integration. ... M-learning, or mobile learning, now commonly abbreviated to mLearning, has different meanings for different communities. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A hand-drawn mind map A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... M-learning, or mobile learning, now commonly abbreviated to mLearning, has different meanings for different communities. ... In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. ... Sleep-learning (also known as hypnopædia) attempts to convey information to a sleeping person, typically by playing a sound recording to them in their sleep. ... Metacognition refers to thinking about cognition (memory, perception, calculation, association, etc. ... Overlearning is a pedagogical concept according to which newly acquired skills should be practiced well beyond the point of initial mastery, leading to automaticity. ... Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. ... Observational learning or social learning is learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating behavior observed in others. ... Lev Vygotskys notion of zone of proximal development (зона ближайшего развития), often abbreviated ZPD, is the gap between a learners current or actual development level determined by independent problem-solving and the learners emerging or potential level of development. ... There are three components in the taxonomy proposed by Benjamin Bloom et al. ... Cooperative learning was proposed in response to traditional curriculum-driven education. ... Human Performance Technology (HPT) - also known as Human Performance Improvement (HPI) uses a wide range of interventions that are drawn from many other disciplines including, total quality management, process improvement, behavioral psychology, instructional systems design, organizational development, and human resources management (ISPI, 2007). ... Instructional design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. ... The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. ... A hand-drawn mind map A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea. ... // Distance Education is a field of expertise exploring situations in which the learner and the teacher are separated in time, space or both. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blended learning refers to using multiple approaches to teaching. ... For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... Project based learning is a pedagogic approach that intends to bring about deep learning by allowing learners to encounter problem solving opportunities in the context of a complex, open-ended project. ... Information mapping is a technique of dividing and labeling information for easy comprehension, use and recall. ... Assistive Technology (AT) is a generic term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices and the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. ... Educational animations are animations produced for the specific purpose of fostering learning. ... A computer-adaptive test (CAT) is a form of test that adapts to the testees ability level. ... By evaluating the information above I have found out that there are many ways of developing tourism in the world and how tourism industry works and its background about tourism. ... In the classroom, a rubric is a set of criteria and standards (linked to learning objectives) that is used to grade a student assessment (paper, project, essay, etc). ... Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some human-made object (such as a web page, a computer interface, a document, or a device) for its intended purpose, i. ...


is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Look up Educational technology in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Bednar, M. R., & Sweeder, J. J. (2005). Defining and applying idea technologies: A systematic, conceptual framework for teachers. Computers in the Schools, 22(3/4).
  • Januszewski, Alan (2001). Educational Technology: The Development of a Concept. Libraries Unlimited. ISBN 1-56308-749-9. 
  • Jonassen, D. (1997). Instructional design models for well-structured and ill-structured problem-solving learning outcomes. Educational Technology Research & Development, 45, 65–94.
  • Kumar, K L (1997). Educational Technology: A Practical Textbook for Students, Teachers, Professionals and Trainers. New Delhi: New Age International. ISBN 81-224-0833-8. 
  • Encyclopedia of Educational Technology, a comprehensive resource of articles about Educational Technology, published by the Department of Educational Technology, San Diego State University
  • L Low & M O'Connell, Learner-Centric Design of Digital Mobile Learning, Queensland University of Technology, 2006.
  • Professor Brian J. Ford, Absolute Zeno, Laboratory News p 16, January 2006.
  • McKenzie, Jamie (2006). [2] Inspired Writing and Thinking.
  • Mishra, P. & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for integrating technology in teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
  • Monahan, Torin (2005). Globalization, Technological Change, and Public Education. New York: Routledge: ISBN 0-415-95103-8.
  • Soni, S K (2004). An Information Resource on Educational Technology for:Technical & Vocational Education and TRaining (TVET). Sarup & Sons Publishers,Location- New Delhi, e-mail <sarupandsonsin@hotmail.com. ISBN 81-7625-506-8. 
  • Jonassen, D H (2006). Modeling with Technology: Mindtools for Conceptual Change. OH: Merrill/Prentice-Hall. 

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... San Diego State University (SDSU), founded in 1897 as San Diego Normal School, is the largest and oldest higher education facility in the greater San Diego area (generally the City and County of San Diego), and is part of the California State University system. ...


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