FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Educational psychology

Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Although the terms "educational psychology" and "school psychology" are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment among the general population and sub-populations such as gifted children and those subject to specific disabilities. Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... The scope of social psychological research. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... It has been suggested that Organizing be merged into this article or section. ... Binet could be considered the first school psychologist A school psychologist is a certified practitioner who applies principles of clinical psychology and counseling to the diagnosis and treatment of students behavioral problems. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gifted education. ... Disabilities are limitations in activity and/or functioning that are attributable to permanent medical conditions in physical, mental, emotional, and/or sensory domains and, significantly, are also due to societal responses to those limitations. ...

Psychology
Portal • History
AREAS

Abnormal
Applied
Biological
Clinical
Cognitive
Developmental
Educational
Emotion
Evolutionary
Forensic
Health
Industrial/Org
Personality
Positive
Sensory
Social Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is an academic/ applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... Biological psychology, sometimes referred to as psychobiology or biopsychology, is a subfield of psychology. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated ev-psych or EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain certain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as evolved adaptations, i. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is the scientific study of human happiness. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ...

LISTS

Publications
Topics
Therapies This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... link title Headline text --Cknuth7 16:35, 3 April 2006 (UTC) This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...

view • talk

Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology and also between Engineering and Physics. Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialities within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom management. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. In universities, departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education, possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks.[1] Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is an academic/ applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the discovery and characterization of universal laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... Instructional design, also known as instructional systems design, is the analysis of learning needs and systemic development of instruction. ... Educational technology is the use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching. ... Organizational learning is an area of knowledge within organizational theory that studies models and theories about the way an organization learns and adapts. ... Special education is instruction that is modified or particularized for those students with special needs, such as learning differences, mental health problems, or specific disabilities (physical or developmental). ... Classroom management is a term used by many teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behaviour by students. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... The learning sciences is a program of interdisciplinary study that works to further scientific understanding of learning and teaching as well as engage in the design and implementation of learning innovations. ...

Contents

Social, moral and cognitive development

An abacus provides concrete experiences for learning abstract concepts.
An abacus provides concrete experiences for learning abstract concepts.

To understand the characteristics of learners in childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age, educational psychology develops and applies theories of human development. Often cast as stages through which people pass as they mature, developmental theories describe changes in mental abilities (cognition), social roles, moral reasoning, and beliefs about the nature of knowledge. Download high resolution version (1675x1793, 317 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1675x1793, 317 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the finite element analysis software, see ABAQUS. An abacus (plurals abacuses or abaci) is a calculating tool, often constructed as a wooden frame with beads sliding on wires. ... “Children” redirects here. ... Young Men Organization Teenager and Teen also redirect here. ... See Adult. ... 79 year old man (Paul Kruger in later life) For the song by Hole and Nirvana, see Old Age. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


For example, educational psychologists have researched the instructional applicability of Jean Piaget's theory of development, according to which children mature through four stages of cognitive capability. Piaget hypothesized that children are not capable of abstract logical thought until they are older than about 11 years, and therefore younger children need to be taught using concrete objects and examples. Researchers have found that transitions, such as from concrete to abstract logical thought, do not occur at the same time in all domains. A child may be able to think abstractly about mathematics, but remain limited to concrete thought when reasoning about human relationships. Perhaps Piaget's most enduring contribution is his insight that people actively construct their understanding through a self-regulatory process.[2] Cognitive development procesess and theories Cognitive development refers to ...how a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors (Straughan, 1999) Jean Piaget was a psychologist who believed there are stages of cognitive development that each...


Piaget proposed a developmental theory of moral reasoning in which children progress from a naive understanding of morality based on behavior and outcomes to a more advanced understanding based on intentions. Piaget's views of moral development were elaborated by Kohlberg into a stage theory of moral development. There is evidence that the moral reasoning described in stage theories is not sufficient to account for moral behavior. For example, other factors such as modeling (as described by the social cognitive theory of morality) are required to explain bullying. Moral reasoning is a study in psychology that overlaps with moral philosophy. ... Media:Example. ... Lawrence Kohlberg (October 25, 1927 – January 19, 1987) was born in Bronxville, New York. ... Kohlbergs stages of moral development are planes of moral adequacy conceived by Lawrence Kohlberg to explain the development of moral reasoning. ... The social cognitive theory of morality emphasizes a distinction between a child’s moral competence and moral performance. ... Bullying is the tormenting of others through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. ...


Developmental theories are sometimes presented not as shifts between qualitatively different stages, but as gradual increments on separate dimensions. Development of epistemological beliefs (beliefs about knowledge) have been described in terms of gradual changes in people's belief in: certainty and permanence of knowledge, fixedness of ability, and credibility of authorities such as teachers and experts. People develop more sophisticated beliefs about knowledge as they gain in education and maturity.[3]


Individual differences and disabilities

An example of an item from a cognitive abilities test.
An example of an item from a cognitive abilities test.

Each person has an individual profile of characteristics, abilities and challenges that result from learning and development. These manifest as individual differences in intelligence, creativity, cognitive style, motivation, and the capacity to process information, communicate, and relate to others. The most prevalent disabilities found among school age children are attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disability, dyslexia, and speech disorder. Less common disabilities include mental retardation, hearing impairment, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and blindness. Image File history File links FiguralRelation. ... Image File history File links FiguralRelation. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... Look up Creativity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cognitive Style Cognitive style is a term used in cognitive psychology to describe the way individuals think, perceive and remember information, or their preferred approach to using such information to solve problems. ... It has been suggested that Base motive be merged into this article or section. ... Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (sometimes referred to as ADD for those without hyperactivity) is thought to be a neurological disorder, always present from childhood, which manifests itself with symptoms such as hyperactivity, forgetfulness, poor impulse control, and distractibility. ... In the United States and Canada, the term learning disability (LD) is used to refer to a range of neurological conditions that affect one or more of the ways that a person takes in, stores, or uses information. ... This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Mental retardation is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. ... Hearing impairment is a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception due to physiological or psychological factors. ...


Although theories of intelligence have been discussed by philosophers since Plato, intelligence testing is an invention of educational psychology, and is coincident with the development of that discipline. Continuing debates about the nature of intelligence revolve on whether intelligence can be characterized by a single, scalar factor (Spearman's general intelligence), multiple factors (as in Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence and Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences), or whether it can be measured at all. In practice, standardized instruments such as the Stanford-Binet IQ test and the WISC are widely used in economically developed countries to identify children in need of individualized educational treatment. Children classified as gifted are often provided with accelerated or enriched programs. Children with identified deficits may be provided with enhanced education in specific skills such as phonological awareness. PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Factor analysis is a statistical technique that originated in psychometrics. ... Charles Edward Spearman (September 10, 1863 - September 7, 1945) was an English psychologist known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for Spearmans rank correlation coefficient. ... The general intelligence factor (abbreviated g) is a controversial construct used in the field of psychology (see also psychometrics) to quantify what is common to the scores of all intelligence tests. ... Robert J. Sternberg (8 December 1949-) is the Dean of Arts and Sciences at Tufts University and is the former IBM Professor of Psychology and Education at Yale University. ... The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence was formulated by Robert J. Sternberg, a prominent figure in the research of human intelligence. ... It has been suggested that Naturalist Intelligence be merged into this article or section. ... Multiple intelligences is a psychological and educational theory put forth by psychologist Howard Gardner, which suggests that an array of different kinds of intelligence exists in human beings. ... The development of the Stanford-Binet IQ test initiated the modern field of intelligence testing. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gifted education. ... Phononological awareness is often confused with phonics but it is really a precursor to phonics. ...


Learning and cognition

Two fundamental assumptions that underlie formal education systems are that students (a) retain knowledge and skills they acquire in school, and (b) can apply them in situations outside the classroom. But are these assumptions accurate? Research has found that, even when students report not using the knowledge acquired in school, a considerable portion is retained for many years and long term retention is strongly dependent on the initial level of mastery.[4] One study found that university students who took a child development course and attained high grades showed, when tested 10 years later, average retention scores of about 30%, whereas those who obtained moderate or lower grades showed average retention scores of about 20%.[5] There is much less consensus on the crucial question of how much knowledge acquired in school transfers to tasks encountered outside formal educational settings, and how such transfer occurs.[6] Some psychologists claim that research evidence for this type of far transfer is scarce,[7][8] while others claim there is abundant evidence of far transfer in specific domains.[9] Several perspectives have been established within which the theories of learning used in educational psychology are formed and contested. These include Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Social Cognitivism, and Constructivism. This section summarizes how educational psychology has researched and applied theories within each of these perspectives. Overview The Theory of Transfer of Learning was introduced by Thorndike and Woodworth (1901). ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do—including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ... In educational psychology, social cognitivism is a learning theory based on the assumption that people learn by watching what others do. ... Constructivism, an area of learning theory, is an approach to teaching, which values developmentally appropriate practices where the learning is child-initiated, child-directed and where the teacher plays a supporting role in the learning. ...


Behavioral perspective

Applied behavior analysis, a set of techniques based on the behavioral principles of operant conditioning, is effective in a range of educational settings.[10] For example, teachers can improve student behavior by systematically rewarding students who follow classroom rules with praise, stars, or tokens exchangeable for sundry items.[11][12] Despite the demonstrated efficacy of awards in changing behavior, their use in education has been criticized by proponents of self-determination theory, who claim that praise and other rewards undermine intrinsic motivation. There is evidence that tangible rewards decrease intrinsic motivation in specific situations, such as when the student already has a high level of intrinsic motivation to perform the goal behavior.[13] But the results showing detrimental effects are counterbalanced by evidence that, in other situations, such as when rewards are given for attaining a gradually increasing standard of performance, rewards enhance intrinsic motivation.[14] Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a systematic process of studying and modifying observable behavior through a manipulation of the environment. ... Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. ... Self-determination theory (SDT) is a general theory of human motivation concerned with the development and functioning of personality within social contexts. ... Intrinsic motivation is evident when people engage in an activity for its own sake, without some obvious external incentive present. ...


Cognitive perspective

Among current educational psychologists, the cognitive perspective is more widely held than the behavioral perspective perhaps because its flexibly admits causally related mental constructs such as traits, beliefs, memories, motivations and emotions. Cognitive theories posit memory structures that are thought to determine how information is perceived, processed, stored, retrieved and forgotten. Among the memory structures theorized by cognitive psychologists are separate but linked visual and verbal systems described by Allan Paivio's dual coding theory. Educational psychologists have used dual coding theory and cognitive load theory to explain how people learn from multimedia presentations.[15] Trait theory is an approach to personality theory in psychology. ... Belief is assent to a proposition. ... In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... It has been suggested that Base motive be merged into this article or section. ... Its over and done But the heartache lives on inside And who is the one your clinging to instead of me tonight And where are you now Now that I need you Tears on my pillow Wherever you go Cry me a river that leads to your oceans Youll never... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Information retrieval (IR) is the science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching for metadata which describe documents, or searching within databases, whether relational stand-alone databases or hypertext networked databases such as the Internet or World Wide Web or intranets, for text, sound, images or... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Allan Paivio is an emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario. ... Dual-coding theories are general theories of cognition that provide a unifying framework for literacy, for reading. ... Cognitive Load is a term (used in psychology and other fields of study) that refers to the level of effort associated with problem solving, thinking and reasoning (including perception, memory, language, etc. ... ...

Three experiments reported by Krug, Davis and Glover demonstrated the advantage of delaying a 2nd reading of a text passage by one week (distributed) compared with no delay between readings (massed).
Three experiments reported by Krug, Davis and Glover[16] demonstrated the advantage of delaying a 2nd reading of a text passage by one week (distributed) compared with no delay between readings (massed).

The spaced learning effect, a cognitive phenomenon strongly supported by psychological research, has broad applicability within education.[17] For example, students have been found to perform better on a test of knowledge about a text passage when a second reading of the passage is delayed rather than immediate (see figure).[16] Educational psychology research has confirmed the applicability to education of other findings from cognitive psychology, such as the benefits of using mnemonics for immediate and delayed retention of information.[18] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (931x566, 10 KB) Summary This image shows results from a series of three experiments on massed versus distributed reading reported by Krug, Davis and Glover (1990). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (931x566, 10 KB) Summary This image shows results from a series of three experiments on massed versus distributed reading reported by Krug, Davis and Glover (1990). ... A mnemonic (AmE [] or BrE []) is a memory aid. ...


Problem solving, regarded by many cognitive psychologists as fundamental to learning, is an important research topic in educational psychology. A student is thought to interpret a problem by assigning it to a schema retrieved from long term memory. When the problem is assigned to the wrong schema, the student's attention is subsequently directed away from features of the problem that are inconsistent with the assigned schema.[19] The critical step of finding a mapping between the problem and a pre-existing schema is often cited as supporting the centrality of analogical thinking to problem solving. Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... It has been suggested that Schemata theory be merged into this article or section. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ...


Social cognitive perspective

Social cognitive theory is a highly influential fusion of behavioral, cognitive and social elements that was initially developed by educational psychologist Albert Bandura. In its earlier, neo-behavioral incarnation called social learning theory, Bandura emphasized the process of observational learning in which a learner's behavior changes as a result of observing others' behavior and its consequences. The theory identified several factors that determine whether observing a model will affect behavioral or cognitive change. These factors include the learner's developmental status, the perceived prestige and competence of the model, the consequences received by the model, the relevance of the model's behaviors and consequences to the learner's goals, and the learner's self-efficacy. The concept of self-efficacy, which played an important role in later developments of the theory, refers to the learner's belief in his or her ability to perform the modeled behavior. Albert Bandura (born December 4, 1925 in Mundare, Canada) is a Ukrainian-Canadian psychologist most famous for his work on social learning theory (or Social Cognitivism) and self efficacy. ... Observational learning or social learning is learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating behavior observed in others. ... Self efficacy is an individuals estimate or personal judgment of his or her own ability to succeed in reaching a specific goal, e. ...


An experiment by Schunk and Hanson,[20] that studied grade 2 students who had previously experienced difficulty in learning subtraction, illustrates the type of research stimulated by social learning theory. One group of students observed a subtraction demonstration by a teacher and then participated in an instructional program on subtraction. A second group observed other grade 2 students performing the same subtraction procedures and then participated in the same instructional program. The students who observed peer models scored higher on a subtraction post-test and also reported greater confidence in their subtraction ability. The results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that perceived similarity of the model to the learner increases self-efficacy, leading to more effective learning of modeled behavior. It is supposed that peer modeling is particularly effective for students who have low self-efficacy. In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ... 5 - 2 = 3 (verbally, five minus two equals three) An example problem Subtraction is one of the four basic arithmetic operations; it is essentially the opposite of addition. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Over the last decade, much research activity in educational psychology has focused on developing theories of self-regulated learning (SRL) and metacognition. These theories work from the central premise that effective learners are active agents who construct knowledge by setting goals, analysing tasks, planning strategies and monitoring their understanding. Research has indicated that learners' who are better at goal setting and self-monitoring tend to have greater intrinsic task interest and self-efficacy;[21] and that teaching learning strategies can increase academic achievement.[22] Social Cognitive Perspective Zimmerman et al specified three important characteristics: self-observation (monitoring ones activities); self-judgement (self-evaluation of ones performance) and self-reactions (reactions to performance outcomes) Cognitive Processing Perspective Winne & Marx posited that motivational thoughts and beliefs are governed by the basic principles of cognitive... Metacognition refers to thinking about cognition (memory, perception, calculation, association, etc. ... Self efficacy is an individuals estimate or personal judgment of his or her own ability to succeed in reaching a specific goal, e. ...


Constructivist perspective

Constructivism refers to a category of learning theories in which emphasis is placed on the agency and prior knowledge of the learner, and often on the social and cultural determinants of the learning process. Educational psychologists distinguish individual (or psychological) constructivism, identified with Piaget's learning theory, from social constructivism. A dominant influence on the latter type is Lev Vygotsky's work on sociocultural learning, describing how interactions with adults, more capable peers, and cognitive tools are internalized to form mental constructs. Elaborating on Vygotsky's theory, Jerome Bruner and other educational psychologists developed the important concept of instructional scaffolding, in which the social or information environment offers supports for learning that are gradually withdrawn as they become internalized. Constructivism is a set of assumptions about the nature of human learning that guide constructivist learning theories and teaching methods of education. ... Constructivism is a set of assumptions about the nature of human learning that guide constructivist learning theories and teaching methods of education. ... Lev Vygotsky Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (Лев Семенович Выготский) (November 17 (November 5 Old Style), 1896 – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet developmental psychologist and the founder of the Cultural-historical psychology. ... Jerome S. Bruner (b. ... Instructional Scaffolding is the provision of sufficient supports to promote learning when concepts and skills are being first introduced to students. ...


Vygotsky's version of constructivist theory has led to the view that behavior, skills, attitudes and beliefs are inherently situated, that is, bound to a specific sociocultural setting. According to this view, the learner is enculturated through social interactions within a community of practice. The social constructivist view of learning has spawned approaches to teaching and learning such as cognitive apprenticeship, in which the tacit components of a complex skill are made explicit through conversational interactions occurring between expert and novice in the setting in which the skill is embedded.[23] Constructivism is a perspective in philosophy that views all of our knowledge as constructed, under the assumption that it does not necessarily reflect any external transcendent realities; it is contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. ... Situated cognition is a new movement in cognitive psychology which derives from pragmatism, Gibsonian ecological psychology, ethnomethodology, the theories of Vygotsky and the writings of Heidegger. ... The concept of a community of practice (often abbreviated as CoP) refers to the process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in some subject or problem collaborate over an extended period to share ideas, find solutions, and build innovations. ... Constructivist approaches to human learning have led to the development of a theory of cognitive apprenticeship (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1987; Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989). ...


Motivation

Motivation is an internal state that activates, guides and sustains behavior. Educational psychology research on motivation is concerned with the volition or will that students bring to a task, their level of interest and intrinsic motivation, the personally held goals that guide their behavior, and their belief about the causes of their success or failure. It has been suggested that Base motive be merged into this article or section. ... Volition is the study of will, choice, and decision. ... // For the racing driver, see Will Power. ... Intrinsic motivation is evident when people engage in an activity for its own sake, without some obvious external incentive present. ... Goal Setting involves setting specific, measurable and time targeted objectives. ...


A form of attribution theory developed by Bernard Weiner[24] describes how students' beliefs about the causes of academic success or failure affect their emotions and motivations. For example, when students attribute failure to lack of ability, and ability is perceived as uncontrollable, they experience the emotions of shame and embarrassment and consequently decrease effort and show poorer performance. In contrast, when students attribute failure to lack of effort, and effort is perceived as controllable, they experience the emotion of guilt and consequently increase effort and show improved performance. Attribution theory is a social psychology theory developed by Fritz Heider, Harold Kelley, Edward E. Jones, and Lee Ross. ... Bernard Weiner (born 1935) is a cognitive psychologist who is known for developing a form of attribution theory that explains the emotional and motivational entailments of academic success and failure. ... It has been suggested that the section Shame campaign from the article Smear campaign be merged into this article or section. ... Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Motivational theories also explain how learners' goals affect the way that they engage with academic tasks.[25] Those who have mastery goals strive to increase their ability and knowledge. Those who have performance approach goals strive for high grades and seek opportunities to demonstrate their abilities. Those who have performance avoidance goals are driven by fear of failure and avoid situations where their abilities are exposed. Research has found that mastery goals are associated with many positive outcomes such as persistence in the face of failure, preference for challenging tasks, creativity and intrinsic motivation. Performance avoidance goals are associated with negative outcomes such as poor concentration while studying, disorganized studying, less self-regulation, shallow information processing and test anxiety. Performance approach goals are associated with positive outcomes, and some negative outcomes such as an unwillingness to seek help and shallow information processing. Goals of learning are thought to be a key factor influencing the level of a students intrinsic motivation. ... Look up Creativity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Intrinsic motivation is evident when people engage in an activity for its own sake, without some obvious external incentive present. ... Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Research methodology

The research methods used in educational psychology tend to be drawn from psychology and other social sciences. There is also a history of significant methodological innovation by educational psychologists, and psychologists investigating educational problems. Research methods address problems in both research design and data analysis. Research design informs the planning of experiments and observational studies to ensure that their results have internal, external and ecological validity. Data analysis encompasses methods for processing both quantitive (numerical) and qualitative (non-numerical) research data. Although, historically, the use of quantitative methods was often considered an essential mark of scholarship, modern educational psychology research uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. The first statistician to consider a methodology for the design of experiments was Sir Ronald A. Fisher. ... Data analysis is the act of transforming data with the aim of extracting useful information and facilitating conclusions. ... Internal validity is a term pertaining to scientific research that signifies the extent to which the conditions within a research design were conducive to drawing the conclusions the researcher was interested in drawing. ... External validity is a term used in scientific research. ... Ecological validity is one of the forms of validity for an experiment. ... Quantitative research is the systematic scientific investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. ... Qualitative research is one of the two major approaches to research methodology in social sciences. ...


Quantitative methods

Test scores and other educational variables often approximate a normal distribution.
Test scores and other educational variables often approximate a normal distribution.

Perhaps first among the important methodological innovations of educational psychology was the development and application of factor analysis by Charles Spearman. Factor analysis is mentioned here as one example of the many multivariate statistical methods used by educational psychologists. Factor analysis is used to summarize relationships among a large set of variables or test questions, develop theories about mental constructs such as self-efficacy or anxiety, and assess the reliability and validity of test scores.[26] Over one hundred years after its introduction by Spearman, factor analysis has become a research staple figuring prominently in educational psychology journals. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x687, 38 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x687, 38 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The normal distribution, also called Gaussian distribution by scientists (named after Carl Friedrich Gauss due to his rigorous application of the distribution to astronomical data (Havil, 2003)), is a continuous probability distribution of great importance in many fields. ... Factor analysis is a statistical technique that originated in psychometrics. ... Charles Edward Spearman (September 10, 1863 - September 7, 1945) was an English psychologist known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for Spearmans rank correlation coefficient. ... Multivariate statistics or multivariate statistical analysis in statistics describes a collection of procedures which involve observation and analysis of more than one statistical variable at a time. ...


Because educational assessment is fundamental to most quantitative research in the field, educational psychologists have made significant contributions to the field of psychometrics. For example, alpha, the widely used measure of test reliability was developed by educational psychologist Lee Cronbach. The reliability of assessments are routinely reported in quantitative educational research. Although, originally, educational measurement methods were built on classical test theory, item response theory and Rasch models are now used extensively in educational measurement worldwide. These models afford advantages over classical test theory, including the capacity to produce standard errors of measurement for each score or pattern of scores on assessments and the capacity to handle missing responses. // Definition of assessment Assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge,skills, attitudes and beliefs. ... Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits. ... Cronbachs (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. ... The mathematical foundations of statistical reliability are probability and statistics. ... Lee J. Cronbach (1916 - 2001) was an American educational psychologist who made significant contributions to psychological testing and measurement. ... Classical test theory is a body of related psychometric theory that predict outcomes of psychological testing such as the difficulty of items or the ability of test-takers. ... Item response theory (IRT) is a body of related psychometric theory that provides a foundation for scaling persons and items based on responses to assessment items. ... Rasch models are probabilistic measurement models which currently find their application primarily in psychological and attainment assessment, and are being increasingly used in other areas, including the health profession and market research. ...


Meta-analysis, the combination of individual research results to produce a quantitative literature review, is another methodological innovation with a close association to educational psychology. In a meta-analysis, effect sizes that represent, for example, the differences between treatment groups in a set of similar experiments, are averaged to obtain a single aggregate value representing the best estimate of the effect of treatment.[27] Several decades after Pearson's work with early versions of meta-analysis, Glass[28] published the first application of modern meta-analytic techniques and triggered their broad application across the social and biomedical sciences. Today, meta-analysis is among the most common types of literature review found in educational psychology research. A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ... A Literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. ... Effect size is a measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables. ... Estimation is approximate or uncertain calculation of a result, often based on approximate, uncertain, incomplete, or noisy inputs. ... Karl Pearson FRS (March 27, 1857 – April 27, 1936) established the discipline of mathematical statistics. ... Gene Glass Gene V. Glass (June 19, 1940 - ), a statistician and researcher working in educational psychology and the social sciences, coined the term meta-analysis and illustrated its use in 1976 while a faculty member at the University of Colorado, Boulder. ...


Qualitative methods

Qualitative methods are used in educational studies whose purpose is to describe events, processes and situations of theoretical significance. The qualitative methods used in educational psychology often derive from anthropology, sociology or sociolinguistics. For example, the anthropological method of ethnography has been used to describe teaching and learning in classrooms. In studies of this type, the researcher may gather detailed field notes as a participant observer or passive observer. Later, the notes and other data may be categorized and interpreted by methods such as grounded theory. Triangulation, the practice of cross-checking findings with multiple data sources, is highly valued in qualitative research. Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the comparative study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Participant observation is a major research strategy which aims to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or deviant group) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment. ... Grounded theory (GT) is a general research method (most often associated with qualitative research) for social sciences developed by the sociologists Barney Glaser (b. ... In the social sciences, triangulation is often used to indicate that more than one method is used in a study with a view to double (or triple) checking results. ...


Case studies are forms of qualitative research focusing on a single person, organization, event, or other entity. In one case study,[29] researchers conducted a 150-minute, semi-structured interview with a 20-year old woman who had a history of suicidal thinking between the ages of 14 to 18. They analyzed an audio-recording of the interview to understand the roles of cognitive development, identity formation and social attachment in ending her suicidal thinking. Case studies involve a particular method of research. ... interview An interview is a conversation between two or more people (The interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee. ... Teenage suicide is the self-killing of a teenager. ... Identity formation is the process of the fabrication of the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity in a particular stage of life in which individual characteristics are possessed by which a person is recognized or known (such as the establishment of a reputation). ... Attachment theory is a psychological theory about the evolved adaptive tendency to maintain proximity to an attachment figure. ...


Qualitative analysis is most often applied to verbal data from sources such as conversations, interviews, focus groups, and personal journals. Qualitative methods are thus, typically, approaches to gathering, processing and reporting verbal data. One of the most commonly used methods for qualitative research in educational psychology is protocol analysis.[30] In this method the research participant is asked to think aloud while performing a task, such as solving a math problem. In protocol analysis the verbal data is thought to indicate which information the subject is attending to, but is explicitly not interpreted as an explanation or justification for behavior. In contrast, the method of verbal analysis[31] does admit learners' explanations as a way to reveal their mental model or misconceptions (e.g., of the laws of motion). The most fundamental operations in both protocol and verbal analysis are segmenting (isolating) and categorizing sections of verbal data. Conversation analysis and discourse analysis, sociolinguistic methods that focus more specifically on the structure of conversational interchange (e.g., between a teacher and student), have been used to assess the process of conceptual change in science learning.[32] Qualitative methods are also used to analyse information in a variety of media, such as students' drawings and concept maps, video-recorded interactions, and computer log records. A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their attitude towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. ... Protocol analysis provides a means for extracting persons thoughts while they are performing a task. ... Think aloud protocol is a method used to gather data in usability testing in product design and development, especially software engineering. ... A mental model is an explanation in someones thought process for how something works in the real world. ... A misconception happens when a person believes in a concept that is objectively false. ... Conversation analysis (commonly abbreviated as CA) is the study of talk in interaction. ... Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written, spoken or signed language use. ... Concept mapping is a technique for visualizing the relationships between different concepts. ...


Applications in instructional design and technology

Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives: categories in the cognitive domain
Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives: categories in the cognitive domain[33]

Instructional design, the systematic design of materials, activities and interactive environments for learning, is broadly informed by educational psychology theories and research. For example, in defining learning goals or objectives, instructional designers often use a taxonomy of educational objectives created by Benjamin Bloom and colleagues.[33] Bloom also researched mastery learning, an instructional strategy in which learners only advance to a new learning objective after they have mastered its prerequisite objectives. Bloom[34] discovered that a combination of mastery learning with one-to-one tutoring is highly effective, producing learning outcomes far exceeding those normally achieved in classroom instruction. Gagné, another psychologist, had earlier developed an influential method of task analysis in which a terminal learning goal is expanded into a hierarchy of learning objectives[35] connected by prerequisite relations. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... There are three components in the taxonomy proposed by Benjamin Bloom: // Affective The way people react emotionally, their ability to feel another living things pain or joy. ... Instructional design, also known as instructional systems design, is the analysis of learning needs and systemic development of instruction. ... There are three components in the taxonomy proposed by Benjamin Bloom: // Affective The way people react emotionally, their ability to feel another living things pain or joy. ... Benjamin Bloom (21 February 1913 - September 13, 1999) was an American educational psychologist who made significant contributions to the classification of educational objectives and the theory of mastery learning. ... Mastery Learning is an instructional method that presumes all children can learn if they are provided with the appropriate learning conditions. ... Robert M. Gagné (1916–2002) is best known for his Conditions of Learning. Gagné pioneered the science of instruction during WWII for the air force with pilot training. ... Task analysis is the analysis or a breakdown of exactly how a task is accomplished, such as what sub-tasks are required. ...

Broadly defined, an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) is any computer system that provides direct - i. ... Educational technology is the use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching. ... John Robert Anderson (born 1947 in Vancouver, British Columbia) is a professor of psychology and computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. ... A cognitive tutor is a computer program which develops a cognitive model of a student as he or she interacts with the program, providing problems and individualized instruction based on this model. ... Cooperative learning was proposed in response to traditional curriculum-driven education. ... Collaborative learning is an umbrella term for a variety of approaches in education that involve joint intellectual effort by students or students and teachers. ... Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical strategy of active learning often used in higher education, but it can be adapted for use in K-12 education. ... Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is a research topic on supporting collaborative learning with the help of computers. ... William David Bill Winn (d. ...

Applications in teaching

A class size experiment in the United States found that attending small classes for 3 or more years in the early grades increased high school graduation of students from low income families.
A class size experiment in the United States found that attending small classes for 3 or more years in the early grades increased high school graduation of students from low income families.[36]

Research on classroom management and pedagogy is conducted to guide teaching practice and form a foundation for teacher education programs. The goals of classroom management are to create an environment conducive to learning and to develop students' self-management skills. More specifically, classroom management strives to create positive teacher-student and peer relationships, manage student groups to sustain on-task behavior, and use counselling and other psychological methods to aid students who present persistent psychosocial problems.[37] Image File history File links FinnGerberBoydZaharias2005. ... Image File history File links FinnGerberBoydZaharias2005. ... Classroom management is a term used by many teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behaviour by students. ... Pedagogy, the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek παιδαγωγέω (paidagōgeō; from παῖς (child) and ἄγω (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, παιδαγωγός was (usually) a slave who supervised the education...

Special education is instruction that is modified or particularized for those students with special needs, such as learning differences, mental health problems, or specific disabilities (physical or developmental). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

History

Educational psychology cannot claim priority in the systematic analysis of educational processes. Philosophers of education such as Democritus, Quintilian, Vives and Comenius, had examined, classified and judged the methods of education centuries before the beginnings of psychology in the late 1800s. Instead, aspirations of the new discipline rested on the application of the scientific methods of observation and experimentation to educational problems. Even in the earliest years of the discipline, educational psychologists recognized the limitations of this new approach. In his famous series of lectures Talks to Teachers on Psychology, published in 1899 and now regarded as the first educational psychology textbook, the pioneering American psychologist William James commented that: Wikibooks has more about this subject: Learning Theories The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace around 460 BC). ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ... Juan Luís Vives (March 6, 1492 - May 6, 1540), Spanish scholar, was born at Valencia. ... Portrait of Comenius by Rembrandt John Amos Comenius (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; latinized: Iohannes Amos Comenius) (March 28, 1592 – November 15, 1670) was a Czech teacher, scientist, educator, and writer. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... The characterization phase can require extended and extensive study, even centuries. ... For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation) William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher. ...

Psychology is a science, and teaching is an art; and sciences never generate arts directly out of themselves. An intermediate inventive mind must make that application, by using its originality.[38]

According to Berliner[39] educational psychology theorists' attitude to the world of educational practice has shifted from initial interest to disdain, and eventually to respect. David C. Berliner is an educational psychologist and professor of education at Arizona State University. ...

In 1912, Thorndike, who developed the theory of instrumental conditioning, presaged later work on programmed instruction, mastery learning and computer-based learning: Charles Hubbard Judd (February 20, 1873 - July 18, 1946) was an American educational psychologist who played an influential role in the formation of the discipline. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Operant conditioning, so named by psychologist B. F. Skinner, is the modification of behavior (the actions of animals) brought about by the consequences that follow upon the occurrence of the behavior. ...

If, by a miracle of mechanical ingenuity, a book could be so arranged that only to him who had done what was directed on page one would page two become visible, and so on, much that now requires personal instruction could be managed by print.[40]

Influential educational psychologists and theorists

The following persons were selected and featured in a recent biographical history of educational psychology[41] as having made significant contributions to the field:

Albert Bandura (born December 4, 1925 in Mundare, Canada) is a Ukrainian-Canadian psychologist most famous for his work on social learning theory (or Social Cognitivism) and self efficacy. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfred Binet Alfred Binet (July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911), French psychologist and inventor of the first usable intelligence test, the basis of todays IQ test. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Benjamin Bloom (21 February 1913 - September 13, 1999) was an American educational psychologist who made significant contributions to the classification of educational objectives and the theory of mastery learning. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Ann Leslie Brown (1943-1999) was an educational psychologist who developed methods for teaching children to be better learners. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Jerome S. Bruner (b. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Lee J. Cronbach (1916 - 2001) was an American educational psychologist who made significant contributions to psychological testing and measurement. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nathaniel Lees Gage (b. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Robert M. Gagné (1916–2002) is best known for his Conditions of Learning. Gagné pioneered the science of instruction during WWII for the air force with pilot training. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation) William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Maria Montessori Maria Montessori (August 31, 1870 - May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician, educator, philosopher, humanitarian and devout Catholic; she is best known for her philosophy and method of education of children from birth to adolescence. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Piaget, by André Koehne Jean Piaget [] (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children and his theory of cognitive development. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics, management, and philosophy of science and a professor, most notably, at Carnegie Mellon University. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 _ August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Charles Edward Spearman (September 10, 1863 - September 7, 1945) was an English psychologist known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for Spearmans rank correlation coefficient. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Lewis Madison Terman (born 15 January 1877 in Johnson County, Indiana, died 21 December 1956 in Palo Alto, California) was a U.S psychologist, noted as a pioneer in cognitive psychology in the early 20th century at Stanford University. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 - August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist whose work on animal behaviour and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Lev Vygotsky Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (Лев Семенович Выготский) (November 17 (November 5 Old Style), 1896 – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet developmental psychologist and the founder of the Cultural-historical psychology. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Careers in educational psychology

Education and training

A person may be considered an educational psychologist if he or she has completed a graduate degree in educational psychology or a closely related field. Universities establish educational psychology graduate programs in either psychology departments or, more commonly, faculties of education. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... A B.A. issused as a certificate A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ...


Educational psychologists are usually trained at the doctoral level (PhD) and typically work in university settings, where they carry out research on topics related to the cognitive and social processes involved in learning and education. Educational psychologist may also work as consultants in designing and creating educational materials and classroom programs designed to promote learning. Within the last few years, with the growing popularity of online education, a new movement has been for educational psychologists to be involved with studying and designing online courses and learning strategies. Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ...


A similar field to educational psychology is school psychology. Psychologists who work in a k-12 school setting are usually trained at either the masters or doctoral (PhD or EdD) level. In addition to conducting assessments, school psychologists provide services such as academic and behavioral intervention, counseling, teacher consultation, and crisis intervention. “M.S.” redirects here. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... The Doctor of Education degree (Ed. ...


Employment outlook

Employment for psychologists in the United States is expected to grow faster than most occupations through the year 2014, with anticipated growth of 18-26%. One in four psychologist are employed in educational settings. In the United States, the median salary for psychologists in primary and secondary schools is $58,360 as of May 2004.[42] In probability theory and statistics, a median is a number dividing the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution from the lower half. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In recent decades the participation of women as professional researchers in North American educational psychology has risen dramatically.[43] The percentage of female authors of peer-reviewed journal articles doubled from 1976 (24%) to 1995 (51%), and has since remained constant. Female membership on educational psychology journal editorial boards increased from 17% in 1976 to 47% in 2004. Over the same period, the proportion of chief editor positions held by women increased from 22% to 70%. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Research journals

Journal Impact*
Educational Psychologist 3.72
Journal of the Learning Sciences 2.28
Learning and Individual Differences 2.17
Review of Educational Research 1.96
Journal of Educational Psychology 1.69
Learning and Instruction 1.62
Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics 1.35
Educational Psychology Review 1.23
American Educational Research Journal 1.10
British Journal of Educational Psychology 0.92
Cognition and Instruction 0.80
Contemporary Educational Psychology 0.75
Journal of Experimental Education 0.73
Instructional Science 0.66
Journal of Educational Measurement 0.47
Educational Technology Res and Dev 0.20
International Journal of Learning 0.19
European Journal of Psychology of Education 0.18
Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology 0.08
* Citations per article from 2005 ISI JCR

Although not exhaustive, the table to the right lists peer-reviewed journals in educational psychology and related fields. The impact factor is the average number of citations per article in each journal. Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... The Impact factor, very often abbreviated IF, is a measure of the citations to science and social science journals. ... For the thoroughbred, see Citation (horse). ...


See also

Education Portal

The American Educational Research Association is a professional organization representing educational researchers in the United States. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... The Association for Psychological Science (APS), formerly the American Psychological Society, is a society for scientific psychology, whose mission is to promote, protect, and advance the interests of scientifically oriented psychology in research, application, teaching, and the improvement of human welfare. ... The British Psychological Society (BPS) is the representative body for psychologists and psychology in the United Kingdom. ... Educational research is research which investigates the behaviour of pupils, students, teachers, and other participants in schools and other educational institutions. ... Evolutionary educational psychology is the study of the relation between inherent folk knowledge and abilities and accompanying inferential and attributional biases as these influence academic learning in evolutionarily novel cultural contexts, such as schools and the industrial workplace. ... This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... The International Society of the Learning Sciences (http://www. ... The learning sciences is a program of interdisciplinary study that works to further scientific understanding of learning and teaching as well as engage in the design and implementation of learning innovations. ... This is a list of education topics. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Learning Theories The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education. ... Binet could be considered the first school psychologist A school psychologist is a certified practitioner who applies principles of clinical psychology and counseling to the diagnosis and treatment of students behavioral problems. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_bookcase. ...

External links

Athabasca University, headquartered in Athabasca, Alberta, is a fully accredited institution specialized in the delivery of distance education courses and programs. ...

Careers in the United Kingdom

  • United Kingdom description of educational psychologist
  • Educational Psychologist description from the British Psychological Society

Careers in the United States

Textbooks

  • Educational Psychology by Anita Woolfolk
  • Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning by Elliot, Kratochwill, Cook & Travers

References

  1. ^ Lucas, J. L., Blazek, M. A., & Raley, A. B. (2005). The lack of representation of educational psychology and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Educational Psychology, 25, 347-351.
  2. ^ Woolfolk, A. E., Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2006). Educational Psychology (3rd Canadian ed.). Toronto, Canada: Pearson.
  3. ^ Cano, F. (2005). Epistemological beliefs and approaches to learning: Their change through secondary school and their influence on academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 203-221.
  4. ^ Semb, G. B., & Ellis, J. A. (1994). Knowledge taught in schools: What is remembered? Review of Educational Research, 64, 253-286.
  5. ^ Ellis, J. A., Semb, G. B., & Cole, B. (1998). Very long-term memory for information taught in school. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23, 419-433.
  6. ^ Perkins, D. N., & Salomon, G. (1992). Transfer of learning. International Encyclopedia of Education (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
  7. ^ Perkins, D. N., & Grotzer, T. A. (1997). Teaching intelligence. American Psychologist, 52, 1125-1133.
  8. ^ Detterman, D. K. (1993). The case for the prosecution: Transfer as an epiphenomenon. In D. K. Detterman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Transfer on trial: Intelligence, cognition, and instruction (pp. 1-24). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
  9. ^ Halpern, D. F. (1998). Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains. American Psychologist, 53, 449-455.
  10. ^ Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. (2003). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (6th ed.). Columbus, OH, USA: Prentice-Hall-Merrill.
  11. ^ McGoey, K. E., & DuPaul, G. J. (2000). Token reinforcement and response cost procedures: Reducing the disruptive behavior of preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Quarterly, 15, 330-343.
  12. ^ Theodore, L. A., Bray, M. A., Kehle, T. J., & Jenson, W. R. (2001). Randomization of group contingencies and reinforcers to reduce classroom disruptive behavior. Journal of School Psychology, 39, 267-277.
  13. ^ Lepper, M. R., Greene, D. & Nisbett, R. E. (1973). Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the “overjustification” hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28, 129-137.
  14. ^ Cameron, J., Pierce, W. D., Banko, K. M., & Gear, A. (2005). Achievement-based rewards and intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 641-655.
  15. ^ Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  16. ^ a b Krug, D., Davis, T. B., Glover, J. A. (1990). Massed versus distributed repeated reading: A case of forgetting helping recall? Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 366-371.
  17. ^ Dempster, F. N. (1989). Spacing effects and their implications for theory and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 1, 309-330.
  18. ^ Carney, R. N., & Levin, J. R. (2000). Fading mnemonic memories: Here's looking anew, again! Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 499-508.
  19. ^ Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., Tuovinen, J., & Sweller, J. (2001). When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 579-588.
  20. ^ Schunk, D. H., & Hanson, A. R. (1985). Peer models: Influence on children's self-efficacy and achievement behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 313-322.
  21. ^ Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Developing self-fulfilling cycles of academic regulation: An analysis of exemplary instructional models. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.) Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice (pp. 1-19). New York: Guilford.
  22. ^ Hattie, J., Biggs, J., & Purdie, N. (1996). Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66, 99-136.
  23. ^ Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick, (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser. Hillsdale, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 453-494.
  24. ^ Weiner, B. (2000). Interpersonal and intrapersonal theories of motivation from an attributional perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 12, 1-14.
  25. ^ Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 169–189.
  26. ^ Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications. Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association.
  27. ^ Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. London: Sage.
  28. ^ Glass, G. V. (1976). Primary, secondary, and meta-analysis of research. Educational Researcher, 5, 3-8.
  29. ^ Everall, R. D., Bostik, K. E. & Paulson, B. L. (2005). I'm sick of being me: Developmental themes in a suicidal adolescent. Adolescence, 40, 693-708.
  30. ^ Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. (1993). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data (Rev. ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  31. ^ Chi, M. T. H. (1997). Quantifying qualitative analyses of verbal data: A practical guide. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 6, 271-315.
  32. ^ Pea, R. D. (1993). Learning scientific concepts through material and social activities: Conversational analysis meets conceptual change. Educational Psychologist, 28, 265-277.
  33. ^ a b Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York, USA: Addison-Wesley Longman.
  34. ^ Bloom, B. S. (1984). The two sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13(6),4–16.
  35. ^ Gronlund, N. E. (2000). How to write and use instructional objectives (6th ed.). Columbus, OH, USA: Merrill.
  36. ^ Finn, J. D., Gerber, S. B., Boyd-Zaharias, J. (2005). Small classes in the early grades, academic achievement, and graduating from high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 214-233.
  37. ^ Emmer, E. T., & Stough, L. M. (2001). Classroom management: A critical part of educational psychology with implications for teacher education. Educational Psychologist, 36, 103-112.
  38. ^ James, W. (1983). Talks to teachers on psychology and to students on some of life's ideals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1899)
  39. ^ Berliner, D. C. (1993). The 100-year journey of educational psychology: From interest to disdain to respect for practice. In T. K. Fagan & G. R. VandenBos (Eds). Exploring applied psychology: Origins and critical analysis. Washington DC: American Psychology Association.
  40. ^ Thorndike, E. L. (1912). Education: A first book. New York: MacMillan.
  41. ^ Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.)(2003). Educational psychology: A century of contributions. Mahwah, NJ, US: Erlbaum.
  42. ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook. 2006-07 Edition. Psychologists. retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos056.htm on June 30, 2006.
  43. ^ Evans, J., Hsieh, P. P., & Robinson, D. H. (2005). Women's Involvement in educational psychology journals from 1976 to 2004. Educational Psychology Review, 17, 263-271.
Psychology


Portal
History
Psychologist
WikiProject
Research psychology Quantitative psychological research · Qualitative psychological research · Biological · Cognitive · Comparative · Developmental · Evolutionary · Experimental · Neuropsychology · Personality · Physiological · Social · Positive · Psychopathology · Psychophysics
Applied psychology Assessment · Clinical · Counseling · Educational · Forensic · Health · Industrial and organizational · Relationship counseling · School · Sport
Schools & Orientations Behaviorism · Cognitivism · Cognitive Behavioral · Existential · Family Systems · Feminist · Gestalt · Humanistic · Psychoanalysis · Analytical · Psychodynamic · Transpersonal
Historically
important
writers
B.F. Skinner · Jean Piaget · Sigmund Freud · Otto Rank · Albert Bandura · Leon Festinger · Carl Rogers · Stanley Schachter · Neal E. Miller · Edward Thorndike · Abraham Maslow · Gordon Allport · Erik Erikson · Hans Eysenck · William James · David McClelland · Raymond Cattell · John B. Watson · Kurt Lewin · Donald O. Hebb · George A. Miller · Clark L. Hull · Jerome Kagan · Carl Jung · Ivan Pavlov
Lists Topics · Disciplines · Drugs · Neurological Disorders · Organizations · Research Methods · Schools of theory · Psychologists · Psychotherapies · Publications · Timeline

  Results from FactBites:
 
Educational psychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4568 words)
Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.
Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment among the general population and sub-populations such as gifted children and those subject to specific disabilities.
Educational psychology research on motivation is concerned with the volition or will that students bring to a task, their level of interest and intrinsic motivation, the personally held goals that guide their behavior, and their belief about the causes of their success or failure.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m