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Encyclopedia > Education of women

Female education is a catch-all term for a complex of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education and health education in particular) for females. It includes areas of gender equality and access to education, and its connection to the alleviation of poverty. Also involved are the issues of single-sex education and religious education, in that the division of education along gender lines, and religious teachings on education, have been traditionally dominant, and are still highly relevant in contemporary discussion of female education as a global consideration. A large elementary school in Magome, Japan. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... Health education is defined as the process by which individuals and groups of people learn to behave in a manner conducive to the promotion, maintenance or restoration of health. ... The hand mirror and comb of the Roman Goddess Venus is often used to represent the female sex. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... Single-sex education is the practice of conducting education where male and female students attend separate classes or in separate buildings or schools. ... Religious education teaches the doctrines of a religion. ... In common usage, the word gender often refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ...

While the feminist movement has certainly promoted the importance of the issues attached to female education, discussion is wide-ranging and by no means confined to narrow terms of reference: it includes for example AIDS.[1] The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement and Womens Liberation) campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... This article is about the syndrome. ...


European history

In medieval Europe, education for girls and women was at best patchy, and was controversial in the light of pronouncements of some religious authorities.[2] It was also seen as stratified in the way that society itself was: in authors such as Vincent of Beauvais and Christine de Pisan[3], the emphasis is on educating the daughters of the nobility for their social position to come. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Dominican friar Vincent of Beauvais (ca 1190 - 1264?) wrote the main encyclopedia that was used in the middle ages. ... Christine de Pizan, showing the interior of an apartment at the end of the 14th or commencement of the 15th century Christine de Pizan (circa 1365 - circa French poet and arguably the first female author in Europe to make a living from being a writer (Marie de France being the...

In early modern Europe, the question of female education had become a standard commonplace, in other words a literary topos for discussion. The case of Elizabeth I of England, with a strong humanist education, fits the pattern of education for leadership, rather than for the generality of women. Schooling for girls was rare; the assumption was still that education would be brought to the home environment. Comenius was an advocate of formal education for women.[4] The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ... In the context of classical Greek rhetoric a topos (literally a place; plural: topoi) referred to a standardised method of constructing or treating an argument. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Portrait of Comenius by Rembrandt John Amos Comenius (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ) (March 28, 1592 – November 15, 1670) was a Czech teacher, scientist, educator, and writer. ...

The issue of female education in the large, as emancipatory and rational, is broached seriously in the Enlightenment. Mary Wollstonecraft is a writer who dealt with it in those terms. ... Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie. ...

Actual progress in institutional terms, for secular education of women, began in the West in the nineteenth century, with the founding of colleges offering single-sex education to young women. These appeared in the middle of the century. With the women graduates there steadily developed also a stronger academic stream of schooling, and the teacher training of women in larger numbers, principally to provide primary education. Women's access to traditionally all-male institutions took several generations to become complete. In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill, including learning and thinking skills. ...

The Catholic tradition

In the Roman Catholic tradition, concern for female education has expressed itself in the foundation of religious orders, with ministries addressing the area. These include the Ursulines (1535) and the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary (1849)[5]. A convent education is an education for girls by nuns, within a convent building. This idea arose in France in the seventeenth century, and spread world-wide. It is not restricted to Catholic pupils, and the pupils in contemporary convent education may be boys (particularly in India). The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A religious order may mean any of the following: // In Buddhist societies such as Sri Lanka, Thailand, Korea and Tibet, a religious order is one of the strikingly large number of monastic orders of monks and nuns. ... The Ursulines are a religious order founded at Brescia, Italy by St. ... the Sacred Heart of Mary is a Roman Catholic religious congregation. ... This article is about an abbey as a religious building. ...


Historical literature

  • Bathsua Makin (1673), An Essay to Revive the Ancient Education of Gentlewomen, in Religion, Manners, Arts & Tongues
  • Anna Julia Cooper (1892), The Higher Education of Women
  • Alice Zimmern (1898), Renaissance of Girls' Education in England
  • Thomas Woody (1929), A History of Women's Education in the United States, 2 vols.

Bathsua Reginald Makin (ca. ...


  • Barry Turner (1974), Equality for some: The story of girls' education

See also

Coeducation is the integrated education of men and women at the same school facilities. ... Womens colleges in the United States were primarly founded during the early 19th century. ... This is a timeline of womens colleges in the United States. ... The second United Nations Millennium Development Goal is to achieve Universal Primary Education, more specifically, to “ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. ... The Girls Day School Trust (GDST) is a group of 26 independent schools in England and Wales. ...


  1. ^ Robert J. Brent, Does female education prevent the spread of HIV-AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa? Applied Economics, 2006, vol. 38, issue 5, pages 491-503
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ [3]
  5. ^ Others are Society of the Holy Child Jesus, the Sisters of St. Joseph, Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, School Sisters of Notre Dame, Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur, Salesian Sisters of Don Bosco.

Society of the Holy Child Jesus - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Sisters of St. ... The Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary is a teaching order founded at Longueuil, Quebec, Canada in 1844 for the Christian education of young girls. ... School Sisters of Notre Dame is a a worldwide order of Roman Catholic nuns devoted to primary, secondary, and post-secondary education. ... The Institute of Notre-Dame de Namur, commonly known as the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur, is a Roman Catholic order of nuns, dedicated to providing education to the poor. ... The Salesian Sisters of Don Bosco or Daughters of Mary Help of Christians are the womens order of the Salesians of Don Bosco. ...

External links

  • Literary Encyclopedia, Education of Women 1650-1750
  • Education of Girls: Swift, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and others
  • Article on education of women in Poland

  Results from FactBites:
The Higher Education of Women (371 words)
On the Continent of Europe women are admitted to the universities in Italy, France, Belgium Holland, Switzerland, Spain, Roumania, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland, and may in some of them receive university degrees.
Women are excluded from the universities by express prohibition of law in Germany, Austria and Russia.
In the latter country a medical school for women students, which was for a time suspended on account of political complications, is about to be re-established through the exertions of the czarina.
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