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Encyclopedia > Education in Singapore
Education in Singapore
Educational oversight
Minister
Ministry of Education
Tharman Shanmugaratnam
National education budget S$6.966 billion (2006)
Primary languages English, Chinese, Malay, Tamil
Curriculum system
Competency-based curriculum

Literacy (2006)
 • Men
 • Women
95.4%
 %
 %
Enrollment
 • Primary
 • Secondary
 • Post-secondary
532225
290261
213063
28901
Attainment
 • Secondary diploma
 • Post-secondary diploma


Education in Singapore is managed by Ministry of Education (MOE), which directs education policy. The ministry controls the development and administration of public schools which receive government funding but also has an advisory and supervisory role to private schools. For both private and public schools, there are variations in the extent of autonomy in their curriculum, scope of government aid and funding, tuition burden on the students, and admission policy.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Ministry_of_Education_Singapore. ... Ministry of Education Headquarters at Buona Vista The Ministry Of Education is a ministry of the government of Singapore that directs the formulation and implementation of policies related to education in Singapore. ... Tharman Shanmugaratnam is Minister for Education in the Singapore Cabinet. ... Funding or financing is to provide capital (funds), which means money for a project, a person, a business or any other private or public institutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... See Language (journal) for the linguistics journal. ... This article is about the ability to read and write. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... ... Educational attainment is a term commonly used by statisticans and the US Census Bureau to refer to the highest degree of education an individual has completed. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... ... Ministry of Education Headquarters at Buona Vista The Ministry Of Education is a ministry of the government of Singapore that directs the formulation and implementation of policies related to education in Singapore. ... Education policy refers to the collection of rules, both stated and implicit, or the regularities in practice that govern the behavior of persons in schools. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Private schools, or independent schools, are schools not administered by local, state, or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than with public (state) funds. ... Tuition means instruction, teaching or a fee charged for educational instruction especially at a formal institution of learning. ...


Children with disabilities attend special special education (SPED) schools run by Voluntary Welfare Organisations (VWOs), which are and partially funded by the Ministry of Education. Education spending usually makes up about 20 percent of the annual national budget, which subsidises public education and government-assisted private education for Singaporean citizens and furnishes the Edusave programme, but the costs are significantly higher for non-citizens. Special education is instruction that is modified or particularized for those students with special needs, such as learning differences, mental health problems, specific disabilities (physical or developmental) [1] , and giftedness [2]. // Children with special needs have always been part of society. ... This is a list of voluntary welfare organisations (VWO) in Singapore. ... A government budget is a legal document that is often passed by the legislature, and approved by the chief executive. ... The Edusave programme is part of a scheme implemented for education in Singapore by the Ministry of Education for Singapore. ...


In 2000 the Parliament of Singapore passed the Compulsory Education Act,[2] which codified compulsory education for children of elementary school age, and made it a criminal offence if parents fail to enroll their children in school and ensure their regular attendance.[3] Exemptions are allowed for homeschooling or full-time religious institutions, but parents must apply for exemption from the Ministry of Education and meet a minimum benchmark.[4] The unicameral Parliament of Singapore is the legislature of Singapore with the President as its head [1]. It currently consists of 94 Members of Parliament. ... In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming the legal code. ... Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... A young girl studying at home in a 1896 painting by William-Adolphe Bouguereau. ...


In Singapore, the English language is the first language learned by half the children by the time they reach preschool age and becomes the primary medium of instruction by the time they reach primary school. English is the language of instruction for most subjects, especially mathematics and the natural sciences, except where other languages are concerned. Certain schools, such as secondary schools under the Special Assistance Plan (SAP) which encourages a richer use of the mother tongue may teach occasionally in English and another language. There are also other schools which have been experimenting with curricula that integrate language subjects with mathematics and the sciences, using both English and a second language. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A nursery school is a school for the education of very young children (generally five years of age and younger). ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Special Assistance Plan (SAP) is a programme in Singapore which caters to academically strong students who excel in both their mother tongue as well as English. ...


Former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew related the idea of English as a common language in Singapore that both connected citizens of all ethnic-cultural backgrounds, so no ethnic group is forced to learn the language of another, and tied Singapore to the world economy. The Priminster of Singa pyohbsdg vjhd|Lee Kuan Yew||3 June 1959 || 28 November 1990 || 1968 GE 94. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 李 (Li) Lee Kuan Yew, GCMG, CH (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born September 16, 1923; also spelled Lee Kwan-Yew), was the first Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore from 1959 to 1990. ... The world economy can be evaluated in various ways, depending on the model used, and this valuation can then be represented in various ways (for example, in 2006 US dollars). ...

Life in
Singapore
Culture
Dance
Demographics
Driving
Economy
Education
Film
Holidays
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Literature
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Contents

As Singapore is a small and relatively modern amalgam of Chinese, Malay, Indian and European immigrants, the culture of Singapore expresses the diversity of the population as the various ethnic groups continue to celebrate their own cultures while they intermingle with one another. ... Dance in Singapore comprises traditional and contemporary forms. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Pan Island Expressway, one of the main arteries in Singapore road network. ... Despite having a flourishing Chinese and Malay film industry in the 1950s and 1960s, Singapores film industry declined after independence in 1965[1], with the government being more concerned with the bread-and-butter issues of economic nation-building. ... The major public holidays in Singapore reflect the cultural and religious diversity of the country, including the Chinese New Year, Buddhist Vesak Day, Muslim Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha (known locally by its Malay names Hari Raya Puasa and Hari Raya Haji respectively), Hindu Diwali (known locally by... The literature of Singapore comprises a collection of literary works by Singaporeans in the countrys four main languagues: English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil. ... Singapore has long had a burgeoning urban musical scene, and is a center for rock, punk and other popular genres in the region. ... The politics of Singapore takes place in a framework of a parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Singapore is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Singlish is an English-based creole language native to Singapore. ... // There are no statistics on how many homosexuals there are in Singapore or what percentage of the population they constitute. ...

Kindergartens

Kindergartens in Singapore provide up to three years of pre-school for children ages three to six. The three years are commonly called Nursery, Kindergarten 1 (K1) and Kindergarten 2 (K2), respectively. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Day care. ...


Kindergartens provide an environment for children to learn how to communicate, play, and interact with others, and to prepare them for the start of formal education in primary schools. Activities include learning of language and numbers, development of personal and social skills, games, music, outdoor play. Children learn two languages, English and their mother tongue (Chinese, Malay, or Tamil). The Malay language (; Jawi script: ‎), is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, parts of the coast of Borneo, Cocos and Christmas Islands in Australia, and even in the Netherlands[1]. It... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...


The kindergartens are run by the private sector, including community foundations, religious bodies, and civic or business groups. There are more than 200 kindergartens registered with the Ministry of Education. Kindergartens are also run by child care centres as well as international schools. Childcare is the act of caring for and supervising minor children. ... International schools are private schools that cater mainly to children who are not nationals of the host country, often the children of the staff of international businesses, international organizations, embassies, missions, or missionary programs. ...


Primary education

Primary education is a four-year foundation stage (Primary 1 to 4) and a two-year orientation stage (Primary 5 to 6). Primary education is free, though there is a fee of up to SGD 13 monthly per student that goes to the school to help cover miscellaneous costs. ISO 4217 Code SGD User(s) Singapore, Brunei Inflation 1% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ...


Foundation stage

The foundation stage is the first stage of formal schooling. The four years, from primary 1 to 4, provide a foundation in English, mother tongue (which includes Chinese, Malay, Tamil and another Non-Tamil Indian Language (NTIL)) and Mathematics. Other subjects include civics and ethics ("Civics and Moral Education"), arts and crafts, music, health education, social studies, and physical education, which are taught throughout Primary 1 to 6. Science is taught from Primary 3 onwards. Civics is the science of comparative government and means of administering public trusts—the theory of governance as applied to state institutions. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Small wooden sculpture depicting a Native American mother holding her child. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Health education is defined as the process by which individuals and groups of people learn to behave in a manner conducive to the promotion, maintenance or restoration of health. ... Social studies is a term used to describe the broad study of the various fields which involve past and current human behavior and interactions. ... Physical education (PE) is the interdisciplinary study of all area of science relating to the transmission of physical knowledge and skills to an individual or a group, the application of these skills, and their results. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...


Orientation stage

All students advance to the orientation stage after Primary 4, where English Language, Mother Tongue and Mathematics are taught at the appropriate level according to the ability of the student. Schools are given the flexibility to develop their own examinations to match students with the levels that suit them.


Primary School Leaving Examination

At the end of Primary 6, the national Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) is held. The examination determines whether the student is ready to leave primary school by passing; however the primary purpose of the examination is to eventually allocate places in secondary schools to students based on their performance in the examination. Wikibooks has a book on the topic of PSLE Study Guide The Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) is a national examination taken by all primary school students in Singapore near the end of the sixth year, before they leave for secondary school. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of PSLE Study Guide The Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) is a national examination taken by all primary school students in Singapore near the end of the sixth year, before they leave for secondary school. ...


Secondary education

Based on results of the PSLE, students are placed in different secondary education tracks or streams: "Special", "Express", "Normal (Academic)", or "Normal (Technical)"

Students having assembly in the hall of a Singapore secondary school.
Students having assembly in the hall of a Singapore secondary school.

Both Special and Express are four-year courses leading up to a Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Ordinary-level (O-level) exam. The difference between Special and Express is that the former's native language —the mother tongue — are taught at a higher level as Higher Mother Tongue, and are thus more difficult. A foreign language, either French, German, or Japanese can be taken in addition to the mother tongue or can replace it. This is especially popular with students who are struggling with their mother tongues, expatriates, or students returning from abroad. Non-Chinese students may also study Chinese and non-Malay students Malay as a third language. This programme is known as CSP (Chinese Special Program) and MSP (Malay Special Program). Mother Tongue teachers will conduct these lessons in school after usual hours. Students of Higher Mother Tongue languages are allowed to have up to two points taken off their O-level scoring,[5] a scoring system discussed below where a lower value is generally considered better, if they meet set benchmarks. The Ministry of Education Language Centre (MOELC) provides tuition-free language education for most additional languages that other schools may not cover, and provides the bulk of such education, admitting several thousand students each year. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2321 KB) Summary Students of Nan Hua High School gathering in the School Hall. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2321 KB) Summary Students of Nan Hua High School gathering in the School Hall. ... Geography Status City (1951) Region East of England Admin. ... The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level Examinations (GCE O Level) is an exam which is set by both the Ministry of Education and the University of Cambridge. ... The Ministry of Education Language Centre (MOELC) is a centralised educational institution for students in Singapores education system to learn additional languages. ...


Normal is a four-year course leading up to a Normal-level (N-level) exam, with the possibility of a fifth year followed by an O-level. Normal is split into Normal (Academic) and Normal (Technical). In Normal (Technical) students take subjects more technical in nature, such as Design and Technology, while in Normal (Academic) students are prepared to take the O-level exam and normally take subjects such as Principles of Accounting. In 2004, the Ministry of Education announced that selected students in the Normal course would have an opportunity to sit for the O-level exam directly without first taking the N-level exam. The General Certificate of Education or GCE is a secondary-level academic qualification, which was used in Britain and continues to be used in some former British colonies. ...


With the exception of schools offering the Integrated Programme, which leads to either an International Baccalaureate Diploma or to an A-level exam, most students are streamed into a wide range of course combinations at the end of their second year, making the total number of subject they have to sit for at O-level ranging between six to ten subjects with English, Mother Tongue or Higher Mother Tongue Language, Mathematics, one Science and one Humanities Elective being compulsory. The subject taken varies, and several new subjects such as Computing and Theatre Studies and Drama are being introduced in tandem with the Ministry of Education's revised curriculum. The subjects usually taken at O-Level: The International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) is an educational programme examined in one of three languages (English, French or Spanish) and is a university entrance course. ... The General Certificate of Education or GCE is a secondary-level academic qualification, which was used in Britain and continues to be used in some former British colonies. ...

Languages group:
Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 572 KB) Ministry of Education Language Centre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 572 KB) Ministry of Education Language Centre. ... The Ministry of Education Language Centre (MOELC) is a centralised educational institution for students in Singapores education system to learn additional languages. ...

  1. English language
  2. Mother tongue languages (Chinese language, Malay language and Tamil language)
  3. Non-Tamil Indian Languages (Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu languages)
  4. Higher Mother Tongue Languages (Higher Chinese language, Higher Malay language and Higher Tamil language)
  5. Foreign Languages (French, German, Japanese)
  6. Other Third Languages (Chinese language and Malay language)

Humanities group:
Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... “Punjabi” redirects here. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ...

  1. Humanities electives (History/geography/literature electives and social studies)
  2. History
  3. Geography
  4. Literature in English
  5. Chinese literature
  6. Malay literature
  7. Higher art (Art Elective Programme)
  8. Higher music (Music Elective Programme)

Mathematics & Science Group:

  1. Mathematics
  2. Additional mathematics
  3. Combined sciences (Physics & Chemistry)
  4. Combined sciences (Chemistry & Biology)
  5. Combined sciences (Biology & Physics)
  6. Physics
  7. Chemistry
  8. Biology

Others:

  1. General art
  2. Design and technology
  3. Music
  4. Food and nutrition
  5. Religious studies (Confucian Ethics, Buddhist Studies, Islamic Religious Knowledge, Bible Studies, Sikh Studies etc.)

The list above is not exhaustive, and does not include new subjects such as Computing and Theatre Studies and Drama, or less common subjects, such as Integrated Sciences.


Grade and scoring systems

Most schools commonly follow the kind of grading system awarded at the Singapore-Cambridge GCE "O" level examination, for which a student sits for at the end of four or five years of secondary education, sitting for at least 6 subjects. The level of achievement in each subject is indicated by the grade obtained, with A1 being the highest achievable grade and F9 the lowest:

  • A1/A2 (Distinction)
  • B3/B4 (Merit)
  • C5/C6 (Credit/Pass)
  • D7 (Sub-Pass, that is, passing at a lower standard in the exam)
  • E8/F9 (Fail)

A student's overall academic performance is measured through several points scoring system (such as the L1R5, L1B5 and L1R4 scoring system) depending on which type of post-secondary institution a student is intending to apply for. Each grade has a point value respective to it, for example, with grade A1 being 1 point, A2 being 2 points, and B3 being 3 points. Thus, the fewer the points obtained, the better the score. For example, in the L1R5 scoring system, the student's L1 or first language (either English or Higher Mother Tongue Language) and R5 or relevant 5 subjects (which must include at least one from the Science & Mathematics group, one from the Humanities group, and excluding subjects such as Religious Studies, Mother Tongue "B" and CCA). Consequently, a L1R5 score of 6 points is considered to be the best score attainable for entrance to a Junior College. A student requires a L1R5 score of at least 20 points to be eligible for Junior College. On top of that, students must also pass English and Mother Tongue.


For non-major examinations, several schools use a Mean Subject Grade (MSG) scoring system, while schools running the Integrated Programme (IP) may also use the Grade Point Assessment (GPA) scoring system.


Co-Curricular activities

"Co-Curricular Activities" (CCA) are compulsory at the secondary level, where all pupils must participate in at least one core activity, and participation is graded together with other achievement throughout the four years in a scoring system known as LEAPS ("Leadership, Enrichment, Achievement, Participation, Service"). There are many co-curricular activities offered at the secondary level, varying at each school and each student is judged based in these areas. Competitions and performances are regularly organized. Co-curricular activities are often categorized under the following: Uniformed Groups, Performing Arts, Clubs & Societies and Sports & Games. Students can have more than 1 cca. Co-Curricular Activities (CCAs) are activities that schools or colleges in some parts of the world (like Singapore), or individual schools, organise for students. ...


Uniformed Groups

The main uniform groups are NCC (National Cadet Corps), NPCC (National Police Cadet Corps), NCDCC (National Civil Defence Cadet Corps), St John Ambulance Brigade, Red Cross Youth, Singapore Scout Association, Girl Guides, the Boys Brigade and the Girls Brigade. Students are expected to learn drills and wear the respective uniforms, hence the name. NCC can mean several things: National Cadet Corps - Indian student community, somewhat like the World Scout Movement founded by Sir Robert Baden-Powell National Capital Commission, a Canadian federal commission. ... The National Police Cadet Corps (NPCC) is the largest uniformed group for youths in Singapore in terms of membership. ... St. ... The Red Cross Youth is a youth organisation targeted at secondary school students in Singapore, with a membership of 196 teacher officers and 5266 cadets as of 31 March 2004. ... Official Seal of the SSA. The formation of The Singapore Scout Association (SSA) was one of the earliest Youth Movements in Singapores history and remains one of only nine youth uniformed groups in Singapore schools. ... The Scout and Guide movement in Singapore is served by Girl Guides Singapore, member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts; The Singapore Scout Association, member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. ... The Boys Brigade is a non-denominational Christian youth organization in the New Zealand, Australia and several other countries. ... The Girls Brigade crest The Girls Brigade is an international and interdenominational Christian youth organization. ...


Performing Arts

Performing Arts CCAs can vary, although most will include the Choir, Military/Concert/Symphonic Band, Dance groups for different ethnic culture, Drama and Debate. Most here are oriented on performing and the musical arts.


Clubs & Societies

Clubs and societies are a wide variety, ranging from Singapore Youth Flying Club to Robotics, Media and Infocomm Clubs The Singapore Youth Flying Club or SYFC was established in 1971 by Singapores Ministry of Defence to introduce aviation and provide flight training to the youth in Singapore. ...


Sports & Games

Sports are mainly focused on competitive games, like Track and Field (running, jumping, throwing), volleyball, netball, basketball, archery, table tennis, badminton, tennis, gymnastics and more. Athletics, also known as track and field or track and field athletics, is a collection of sport events. ... Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. ... A Netball game in Australia Netball is a sport similar to and derived from basketball, and was originally known in its country of origin, the United States, as womens basketball. Invented by Clara Gregory Baer[1], a pioneer in womens sport, it is now the pre-eminent women... This article is about the sport. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... Wang Liqin, 2007 World Champion Table tennis is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth to each other with bats (also sometimes called racquets or paddles). ... -1... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ...


Gifted Education Programme

Main article: Gifted Education Programme The Gifted Education Programme (GEP) is a Singaporean academic programme designed for the top 1% of pupils (Based on a screening test at the end of Primary 3). ...


The Gifted Education Programme (GEP) was set up by the Ministry of Education in 1984 amid some public concern to cater to the intellectually gifted students. As of 2005, the schools participating consisted of 9 primary schools — Anglo-Chinese School (Primary), Catholic High School (Primary), Henry Park Primary School, Nan Hua Primary School, Nanyang Primary School, Rosyth School, Tao Nan School, St. Hilda's Primary School, and Raffles Girls' Primary School. 7 secondary schools originally started the programme, but with the introduction of the Integrated Programme, most have included the GEP programmes into their IP curriculum. The two remaining secondary GEP schools are Anglo-Chinese School (Independent), an independent all-boys IP School, and Dunman High School, a mixed autonomous government school; the autonomous all-boys Victoria School had to suspend GEP classes due to low enrolment with GEP students preferring IP schools (similarly, Dunman High had their classes cut from two to one in 2004 and had no GEP classes in 2007). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gifted education. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anglo-Chinese School (Primary) is the original primary school of the ACS family, located at the Barker Road campus adjacent to the ACS (Barker Road) block. ... Name Catholic High School (Secondary) Abbreviation CHS School Code 7102 Chinese Name 公教中学 Pinyin Gōng Jiào Zhōng Xué Malay Scholah Catholic Tinggi Tamil {{{tamil}}} Address 9 Bishan Street 22, Singapore 579767 Country Singapore Area Bishan New Town Founded 1935 Type SAP, Autonomous Session Full Day Students Boys Levels... Henry Park Primary School began functioning with 287 pupils on 22 March 1977. ... Nan Hua Primary School (Simplified Chinese: ) is a government primary school in Singapore. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Rosyth School is a government co-educational primary school in Singapore. ... Tao Nan School (Abbreviation: TNS; Chinese: ), is a co-educational primary school in Singapore. ... The St. ... Raffles Girls Primary School (RGPS) is a primary school for girls located in Bukit Timah, Singapore. ... Anglo-Chinese School (Independent), New IB Block Anglo-Chinese School (Independent) was originally established as the secondary school section of Anglo-Chinese School in 1886 and it was consistently ranked as one of the top secondary schools in Singapore in the now-defunct official school rankings released by the Ministry... Artists Impression of Dunman High Schools renovated campus in 2009 Dunman High School is an autonomous co-educational secondary school in Singapore. ... Victoria School is an autonomous government secondary school, ranked as one of Singapores premier education institutions. ...


Pupils enter the programme through a series of tests at Primary 3, which will identify the top 1 percent of the student population. A second selection is conducted at Primary 6 for those who do well in the PSLE. In the programme, pupils are offered special enrichment programmes to cater to their needs. However, not all students in GEP are successful. Some are not accustomed to the fast pace of study which affected their performance in the core subjects and may choose not to continue the programme at the secondary level.


The Secondary School Gifted Education Programme will be discontinued as of end-2008 as more students take the Integrated Programme (IP)[6] .


Integrated Programme

Hwa Chong Institution, founded in 1919, is one of the schools in Singapore that is currently under the Integrated Programme.
Main article: Integrated Programme

The Integrated Programme, also known as the "Through-Train Programme" (直通车), is a scheme which allows the cream of secondary schools in Singapore to bypass the "O" levels and take the "A" levels, International Baccalaureate or an equivalent examination directly at the age of 18 after six years of secondary education. The statue of Tan Kah Kee stands tall infront of the tower block. ... The statue of Tan Kah Kee stands tall infront of the tower block. ... Hwa Chong Institution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a junior college offering education from a Secondary (High School) to Pre-University (Senior High) level in Singapore. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into International Baccalaureate Organization. ...


The programme allows for more time to be allocated to enrichment activities. By bypassing the GCE "O" level examinations, the students are supposedly given more time and flexibility to immerse themselves in a more broad base education which will eventually lead to the GCE "A" levels examination. In addition, the students enjoy more freedom in the combination of subjects between Year 1 - 4 as compared to their non-IP counterparts. Generally, only the top performers (usually from Special, and sometimes Express, stream) are eligible to be part of the IP programme. This will ensure that the main body of the students pursue their secondary education at their own pace by first completing a 4-year O Level before going on to a 2-year "A" level education (as opposed to a 2-year "O" level and 4-year "A" level education).


As a result, schools under this IP programme allow their students to skip the "O" levels at Secondary 4 and go straight into junior colleges (JCs) in Year5/JC1. The Integrated Programme or the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme has become an increasingly popular alternative to normal secondary education as it is seen to have moved away from the emphasis on the mere sciences, a side effect from the post-independence need for quick and basic education, to more refined subjects such as philosophy or political science, as well as the fact that scientific concepts are more highly stressed than before, as it is judged on the work of the student, rather than through an examination. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The IB World School logo The International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (often incorrectly referred to as just the IB) is an educational programme taught in one of three languages - English, French or Spanish - and is intended for students in their final two years of secondary school, often before entering university. ...


The first batch of IP students will be sitting for the revised GCE "A" Level or International Baccalaureate Diploma examinations in 2007.


Some of the schools which offer the IP / IB programmes in Singapore are:

  • Dunman High School (IP)
  • National Junior College (IP)
  • NUS High School of Math & Science (IP - NUS High School Diploma)
  • Nanyang Girls' High School (IP + Bicultural Studies Programme)
  • River Valley High School (IP)
  • Temasek Junior College (IP)
  • Hwa Chong Institution (IP)
  • Anglo Chinese School Independent (IP - IB)
  • Raffles Junior College (IP)
  • Victoria Junior College (IP)

National Junior College (NJC) is the first junior college (JC) founded in Singapore (in 1969) to provide a centralised two year pre-university education leading to the GCE A Level certificate. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Admission to post-secondary institutions

Upon completion of the 4 or 5-year secondary school education, students (excluding of IP students) will participate in the annual Singaporean GCE 'O' Level, which will then determine their aptitude and the pre-universities or post-secondary institutions they are able to be admitted into. Pre-university centres include junior colleges for a two-year course leading up to GCE 'A' level, or Millennia institute for a three-year course leading up to GCE 'A' level. Both junior colleges and Millennia Institute intake students by merit, and competition among students are usually higher than, since the emphasis on academics than professional technical education. Students who wishes to pursue for a professional-centric diploma education can be admitted into post-secondary institutions such as the polytechnics and the Institute of Technical Education (ITE). The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education (Ordinary Level) Examination is an annual examination given in Singapore. ... The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers vocational or technical education and training, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ... Establish on 1 April 1992, ITE is a statutory board under the Ministry of Education in Singapore. ... ITE may refer to: Institute of Technical Education (Singapore) Institute of Transportation Engineers Ite: The Biggest Posting Icon since 1998 Ite: The Father of the Saloon http://z6. ...


Admission to a two-year pre-university course at junior colleges after graduating secondary school is determined by the L1R5 (first language + 5 relevant subjects) scoring system. This scoring system is based on the 'O' Level subject grades, which range from A1 (best) to F9 (worst). The candidate adds the numerical grades for six different subjects: English (or another language taken at the 'first language' level), a Humanities subject, a Science/Mathematics subject, a Humanities/Science/Mathematics subject, and two other subjects of any kind. The best L1R5 unmodified score is therefore 6, for a student with A1 grades in six subjects which meet the criteria given.


Students scoring 20 points and below can be admitted for either a Science or Arts Course. In addition, a student must also achieve at least a C6 grade, which is 50% or higher, in the GCE 'O' Level English Language and Mathematics papers in order to qualify for junior college admission. Pre-university centres are usually associated with academic excellence, however, usually expect students to attain points in the single digits, in order to be admitted. This is because the system is merit-driven, with places given to those with lower scores first.


For admission to a three-year pre-university course at the Millennia Institute, the L1B5 (first language + 5 best subjects of any kind) scoring system is used and students are expected to score below 20 points being admitted. Students can opt for any of the science, arts or business streams when pursuing a three-year pre-university course.


For students seeking admission to diploma courses in polytechnics, the L1R4 (first language + 4 relevant subjects) scoring system is used. However, students will also be required to meet specific pre-requisites outlined by the different polytechnic schools they are applying for. Students applying for courses in the Institute of Technical Education (ITE) Colleges will also have an independent scoring system dependent on the course they are applying for.


Bonus points can be deducted from a student's raw score, thus lowering it. These bonus points may come from either scoring an 'A' or 'B' grade in CCA, taking Higher Mother Tongue Language and obtaining a minimum of 'D7', or through affiliation (for feeder schools). Bonus points are capped at 4, with exception for those applying to schools offering Chinese Language Elective Programme (CLEP) or Malay Language Elective Programme (MLEP).


Pre-university

Main article: List of junior colleges in Singapore Govt: Government Indpt: Independent IP: Integrated Programme HP: Humanities Programme LEP: Language Elective Programme AEP: Art Elective Programme MEP: Music Elective Programme TSD: Theatre Studies and Drama Category: ...


The pre-university centres of Singapore consists of 17 Junior Colleges (JCs) and a Centralised Institute (CI), the Millennia Institute (MI, established 2004), with the National Junior College (NJC, established 1969) being the oldest and Innova Junior College (IJC, established 2005) being the youngest. The pre-university centres are designed for upper stream students (roughly the top 20%-25% of the cohort) who wish to pursue a university degree after two to three years of pre-university education, rather than stopping after polytechnic post-secondary education. Main Structures Auditorium Millennia Institute (Abbreviation: MI; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Abbreviated 励仁高中; Malay: Institut Millennia) is the only Centralised Institute (CI) in Singapore. ... National Junior College (NJC) is the first junior college (JC) founded in Singapore (in 1969) to provide a centralised two year pre-university education leading to the GCE A Level certificate. ... Innova Junior College (IJC) is a government co-educational A-level preparatory junior college located in Woodlands, Singapore. ... The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers vocational or technical education and training, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ...


Originally, junior colleges in Singapore were designed to offer an accelerated pre-university education of two years instead of the to traditional three-year pre-university programmes, but the two-year programme has become the norm for students pursuing university education. Junior college has become synonymous to prestigious education. There are 5 traditional "top" junior colleges; HCJC/HCI, NJC, RJC, TJC and VJC. The Public Service Commission and other coveted scholarships (such as the FireFly, A*Star and the President's Scholarship) are either largely or exclusively reserved for pre-university centre students. The Public Service Commission (PSC), Singapore, is constituted under Part IX of the Constitution of Singapore and its constitutional role is to appoint, confirm, promote, transfer, dismiss and exercise disciplinary control over public officers in Singapore. ...


Junior Colleges (JCs) accept students based on their GCE "O" Level results; an L1R5 score of less than or equals to 20 points must be attained for a student to gain admission. JCs provide a 2-year course leading up to the Singapore-Cambridge GCE Advanced Level ("A" level) examination. Centralised Institutes (CIs) accept students based on their GCE "O" Level results; an L1B5 score of less than or equals to 20 points must be attained for a student to gain admission. Millennia Institute, provides a 3-year course leading up to the A-level examinations. Main Structures Auditorium Millennia Institute (Abbreviation: MI; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Abbreviated 励仁高中; Malay: Institut Millennia) is the only Centralised Institute (CI) in Singapore. ... The A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education qualification in the United Kingdom, usually taken by students during the optional final two years of secondary school (Years 12 & 13, commonly called the Sixth Form), or at a separate sixth form college or further education college...


Funding and scholarships

Students in most junior colleges and centralised institute pay a subsidised school fees of S$6 and up to S$22 per month for other miscellaneous equipment and special programmes fees, depending on the status and programmes offered by the college. However, certain independent junior colleges, such as Raffles Junior College and Hwa Chong Institution, will require new students to pay a higher school fees at S$300 per month. Scholarships and bursaries are provided for students whose score was within the 95th percentile from the O-levels, and for students requiring financial assistance. Under these schemes, they are only required to pay an amount equivalent to the school fees of a non-independent junior college. Bursary holders are required to pay a fraction of the full fees, based on their family income. A student whose household salary is S$2000 (75% of an average Singapore household income) is required to pay 75% of the full school fees, while another whose household income is less than S$1000 per month only has to pay 25%. Apart from that, there are also MOE pre-university scholarships awarded to academically-abled students who choose to pursue and specialise their education at a junior college, providing yearly scholarship allowance and remission of school fees. These scholarships include the Pre-University Scholarship, which provides a scholarship allowance of SGD750 per annum, as well as specialised scholarships such as the Humanities Scholarship, Art Elective Programme Scholarship, Language Elective Programme (French, German & Japanese) Scholarship and Music Elective Programme Scholarship which provide scholarship allowances of SGD1000 per annum in addition to a remission of school fees as well as additional grants for overseas trips or programmes (ranging from SGD1000 to SGD2000). This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... The New Zealand University Bursary or Bursary was New Zealands standard secondary school leaving qualification gained at the end of NZ Form VII (= UK Upper Sixth Form). ... Financial aid refers to funding intended to help students pay tuition or other costs, such as room and board, for education at a college, university, or private school. ...


Admissions and matriculation

The Provisional Admission Exercise is a transitional period of 3 months in junior colleges that allows students to have a 'feel' of JC life.
The Provisional Admission Exercise is a transitional period of 3 months in junior colleges that allows students to have a 'feel' of JC life.

There are two ways to be admitted into a pre-university centre, namely through the traditional Joint Admissions Exercise (JAE) as well as Direct School Admission (DSA). In the JAE, students apply for admission using their Singapore-Cambridge GCE 'O' Examinations scores, while in DSA which is conducted roughly half a year earlier, students apply directly to the various colleges for placement on the basis of talent which can range from the academic, to the cultural and performing arts to sports. Upon acceptance, students will be automatically admitted to the college irrespective of the year's JAE cut-off score, although students will still have to meet the minimum criteria of scoring an L1R5 of below 20 points for entrance into a junior college (although top JCs tend to require a minimum score of 15 points and below to avoid the student from struggling academically). In the JAE, students will have to compete nationally on the basis of their academic scores and credentials to gain admission to their college of choice. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2176 KB) Summary Student Orientation Programme, Provisional Admission Exercise, 2006 batch. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2176 KB) Summary Student Orientation Programme, Provisional Admission Exercise, 2006 batch. ... Orientation programme in a junior college, during PAE 2006. ...


In the past, there used to be two intakes, namely the Provisional Admissions Exercise (PAE) and the Joint Admissions Exercise (JAE). However, from the 2009 academic year onwards, a single intake system will be implemented with the Singapore-Cambridge GCE 'O' Examinations being brought forward to minimise movement and excessive administration work involved in the two-intake system.


A-level curriculum and examinations

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From January 2006, the two-year and three-year pre-university curriculum framework in pre-university centres was replaced with a new and revised curriculum with the first batch of students sitting for the GCE "A" Level examinations in 2007. In this newly enforced curriculum, the system of categorising subjects according to "Alternative Ordinary (AO)", "Advanced (A)" and "Special (S)" papers or levels has been scrapped and is replaced with the Higher One (H1), Higher 2 (H2) and Higher 3 (H3) categories. H1 subjects are worth 1 Academic Units (AU), H2 subjects 2 AUs, H3 subjects 1 AUs and students are expected to take a minimum of 10 AUs (viz. 3H2+1H1) and a maximum of 12 AUs (viz. 4H2) inclusive of Mother Tongue Language (MTL), Project Work and General Paper or Knowledge & Inquiry. Students who have taken Higher Mother Tongue language paper at the GCE "O" Level and have obtained a minimum grade of 'D7' are exempted from taking formal MTL lessons and examinations, albeit still having to attend MTL-related enrichment and not being allowed to replace the MTL unit with another subject as MTL is still regarded as an integral component of the curriculum.


In tandem with the MOE's aim of achieving more depth rather than mere breadth, the H1 and H2 categories complement each other; in general, a subject taken at H1 is half the breadth of that taken at H2, but is of the same depth and difficulty. For example, students studying Mathematics at H1 will study lesser Pure Mathematics topics (which are largely Physics-related) than those studying Mathematics at H2, but will still face the same depth and difficulty in similar topics (such as Statistics). As such, a H1 paper can theoretically be said to be half of the content of a H2 paper albeit being at equal depth and difficulty (as opposed to how "AO" level subjects were merely easier papers than the "A" level subjects previously). Subsequently, for certain subjects such as History, students taking the subject at H1 level will only sit for Paper 1 (International History from 1945-2000), while students taking the subject at H2 level will sit for the same Paper 1 (International History from 1945-2000) in addition to having to sit for Paper 2 (Southeast Asian History from 1900-1997) as well. Students taking Science subjects such as Physics, Chemistry or Biology at H1 will only sit for the Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ) and one written paper, and are not required to take the SPA or Practical examination as those taking the subjects at H2. Consequently, this new grouping system bears some semblance to the International Baccalaureate Diploma A1/A2/SL/HL grouping system.


Syllabus wise, the new curriculum framework gives students more choice of subjects to choose from and enables more permutations of subject combinations. However, unlike in the old curriculum which was criticised for being too specialised and unholistic, students are now required to take up at least one contrasting subject - i.e. Science students have to take up at least one Arts/Humanities subject, while Arts/Humanities students must take up at least one Science-based subject. For example, subjects previously not available to Arts/Humanities students such as Physics, Chemistry and Biology are now made possible at both H1 and H2 levels, while Science students now have more choice of doing an Arts/Humanities subject (such as Literature) at either H1 or H2 level. Alternatively, students can choose to take up a new subject, Knowledge & Inquiry, in lieu of the General Paper (GP) as a contrasting subject, as Knowledge & Inquiry (KI) is designed to expose students to Epistemology as well as to the construction and nature of knowledge, thus calling for the need to learn across disciplines such as Mathematics, the Sciences and the Humanities. KI is said to be similar to the IB Diploma's Theory of Knowledge paper, albeit being more difficult, as students have to sit for both an examination paper and do a 2500-3000 word Independent Study research paper. Due to its intensive nature, KI is classified as a H2 subject instead of a H1 subject like the General Paper (GP). It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ...


The "highest" level subjects, the H3 subjects, are meant to be more pragmatic and promote critical thinking unlike the previous "S" Papers. Under the revised curriculum, H3 subjects are examined either in the form of Research Papers (be it by Cambridge, or by local Universities), Research work (such as the HSSRP and A*Star Research Programmes) or (advanced) University Modules offered by the various local Universities which are approved by the MOE. Consequently, students are able to gain extra credits and skip several modules in the University with the H3 paper done with their other GCE "A" Level subjects. However, in order to do a H3 subject, students must offering the corresponding subject at H2 level. H3 subjects are not offered in Millennia Institute and SRJC.


In general, the subjects offered under the new Singapore-Cambridge GCE "A" Level Examinations are (although not exhaustive):


Science & Mathematics Group:
Offered at both H1 & H2 level: Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry, Physics
Offered only at H2 Level: Computing


Languages Group:
Offered only at H1 Level: Chinese Language, Malay Language, Tamil Language
Offered at both H1 & H2 Level: French, German, Japanese
Note: Language Subjects taken at H1 do not qualify as contrasting subject(s) for Science students. Only Language Elective Programme (LEP) students are offered to study French, German or Japanese at H2 level.


Humanities and the Arts Group:
Offered at H1 level only: General Studies in Chinese (GSC)
Offered at both H1 & H2 level: Economics, Geography, History, Literature in English, History in Chinese, China Studies in English, China Studies in Chinese
Offered only at H2 Level: Chinese Language & Literature, Malay Language & Literature, Tamil Language & Literature, Theatre Studies & Drama, Art, Music (Higher Art and Higher Music is offered to Art Elective (AEP) and Music Elective Programme (MEP) students respectively)


Business Group (for CI only)
Offered at H2 level: Principles of Accounting, Management of Business
Offered at H1 and H2 level: Economics


Others:
H3 Subjects:
1.Research Papers: Papers are offered by Cambridge for all core subjects including new "hybrid" subjects such as Proteomics, Pharmaceutical chemistry and Essentials of Modern Physics
2.Research Programmes: Humanities and Social Sciences Research Programme (HSSRP) by National University of Singapore, NUS Science Research Programme by NUS(NUS SRP), H3 STAR Science Research Programme (only offered to students of NJC), H3 NAV Science Research Programme (only offered to students of VJC).
3.University Modules: Modules such as "Geopolitics: Geographies of War and Peace" for Geography and History students and "Managerial Economics" for Economics students are offered and examined by the National University of Singapore. NTU will also be offering several modules in 2007. Medicinal Chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacy involved with designing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. ... University Cultural Centre The National University of Singapore (Abbreviation: NUS; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Abbreviated 国大; Malay: Universiti Nasional Singapura; Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் தேசிய பல்கலைக்கழகம்) is Singapores oldest university. ... NUS may refer to: National University of Singapore National Union of Seamen (United Kingdom, 1887-1980) National Union of Students of Australia National Union of Students of Canada (disbanded) National Union of Students of the United Kingdom Nintendo Ultra 64 (Sixty Four), the original name and official product codename of... University Cultural Centre The National University of Singapore (Abbreviation: NUS; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Abbreviated 国大; Malay: Universiti Nasional Singapura; Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் தேசிய பல்கலைக்கழகம்) is Singapores oldest university. ...



Other Compulsory Subjects:
Offered only at H1 level: Project Work, General Paper (for those who do not take KI)
Offered only at H2 Level: Knowledge & Inquiry


Previously, students take two subjects at "Alternative Ordinary" level ("AO" level), namely their General Paper (GP) and Mother Tongue, and three or four subjects at "A" level. "A" level subjects include Economics, Mathematics, Further Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English Literature, History, Geography, Art, Art with Higher Art ("A" level) taken by students in the Art Elective Programme, Theatre Studies and Drama, Computing, Higher Chinese, Chinese ("A" level) Language Elective Programme, Music ("A" level), Music with Higher Music ("A" Level) taken by students in the Music Elective Programme, General Studies in Chinese, French, German, Japanese ("A" level), Malay ("A' level), Tamil ("A" level). Project Work was also made compulsory from 2003. ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ...


To gain admittance to local universities, students must pass the General Paper (GP) or Knowledge & Inquiry (KI) and obtain a minimum grade of D7 for the "AO" or "H1" level Mother Tongue Language paper. The grade obtained for the Higher Mother Tongue paper taken at "O" level may be used in lieu of an "AO" or "H1" level Mother Tongue Language grade. From 2008 onwards, the scores of a student's three H2 and one H1 subject will be computed inclusive of Project Work (PW) and either GP or KI for admittance into local universities (namely NUS, NTU, SMU and UniSIM).


Elective Programmes offered in Junior Colleges

Art, Music & Language Elective Programmes. Humanities Programme.


Centralised Institutes

The Centralised Institutes accept students based on their GCE "O" level results and their L1R4 score (which must be 20 points or below). A Centralised Institute provides a three-year course leading up to a GCE "A" level examination. There were originally four Centralized Institutes: Outram Institute, Townsville Institute, Jurong Institute and Seletar Institute. Townsville Institute and Seletar Institute stopped accepting new students after the 1995 school year and closed down after the last batch of students graduated in 1997. The Millennia Institute (MI) is the only Centralised Institute (CI) in Singapore. ... Townsville Institute (Abbreviation: TI; Chinese: 城景高级中学) was one of the four original centralised institutes (CI) in Singapore and one of the pre-university centres in Singapore that offers a three-year curriculum leading to the Singapore Cambridge (UCLES) General Certificate of Education Advanced Level examination. ... Jurong Institute (JI) was one of 4 Centralised Institutes (CI) in Singapore, and one of the two CIs to have been merged to establish the nations current only CI, Millennia Institute. ... Flag of Seletar Institute Seletar Institute (SI) was one of the four original centralised institutes (CI) in Singapore and one of the pre-university centres in Singapore that offers a three-year curriculum leading to the Singapore Cambridge (UCLES) General Certificate of Education Advanced Level examination. ... Townsville Institute (Abbreviation: TI; Chinese: 城景高级中学) was one of the four original centralised institutes (CI) in Singapore and one of the pre-university centres in Singapore that offers a three-year curriculum leading to the Singapore Cambridge (UCLES) General Certificate of Education Advanced Level examination. ... Flag of Seletar Institute Seletar Institute (SI) was one of the four original centralised institutes (CI) in Singapore and one of the pre-university centres in Singapore that offers a three-year curriculum leading to the Singapore Cambridge (UCLES) General Certificate of Education Advanced Level examination. ...


There currently remains only one Centralised Institute in Singapore, the Millennia Institute, which was formed following the merger of Jurong and Outram Institutes. Additionally, only Centralised Institutes offer the Commerce Stream offering subjects such as Principles of Accounting and Management of Business. The standard of teaching and curriculum is identical to that of the Junior Colleges. Main Structures Auditorium Millennia Institute (Abbreviation: MI; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Abbreviated 励仁高中; Malay: Institut Millennia) is the only Centralised Institute (CI) in Singapore. ...


Diploma and vocational education

Ngee Ann Polytechnic is one of the five polytechnics in Singapore.
Ngee Ann Polytechnic is one of the five polytechnics in Singapore.

Image:NPcampus. ... Image:NPcampus. ... Ngee Ann Polytechnic (Simplified Chinese: ), one of the most established polytechnics in Singapore, was founded in 1963 as Ngee Ann College with 116 students. ...

Polytechnics

Polytechnics in Singapore provide 3-year diploma courses and, they accept students based on their GCE "O" level, GCE "A" level or Institute of Technical Education (ITE) results. The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers vocational or technical education and training, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ...


Polytechnics offer a wide range of courses in various fields, including engineering, business studies, accountancy, tourism and hospitality management, mass communications, digital media and biotechnology. There are also specialised courses such as marine engineering, nautical studies, nursing, and optometry. They provide a more industry-oriented education as an alternative to junior colleges for post-secondary studies. About 40% of each Primary 1 cohort would enrol in Polytechnics.[7] Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... Accountancy (profession) or accounting (methodology) is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information primarily used by managers, investors, tax authorities and other decision makers to make resource allocation decisions within companies, organizations, and public agencies. ... The term communications is used in a number of disciplines: Communications, also known as communication studies is the academic discipline which studies communication, generally seen as a mixture between media studies and linguistics. ... The structure of insulin Biological technology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Nursing is a profession focused on assisting individuals, families, and communities in attaining, re-attaining, and maintaining optimal health and functioning. ... Optometry (Greek: optos meaning seen or visible and metria meaning measurement) is a health care profession concerned with examination, diagnosis, and treatment of the eyes and related structures and with determination and correction of vision problems using lenses and other optical aids [1]. An optical refractor (also called a foropter...


There are five polytechnics in Singapore, namely:

Graduates of polytechnics with good grades can continue to pursue further tertiary education at the universities, and many overseas universities, notably those in Australia, give exemptions for modules completed in Polytechnic. Nanyang Polytechnic (Chinese: 南洋理工学院) is a modern campus located next to Yio Chu Kang MRT station, Singapore. ... Ngee Ann Polytechnic (Simplified Chinese: ), one of the most established polytechnics in Singapore, was founded in 1963 as Ngee Ann College with 116 students. ... Empty Classroom Republic Polytechnic (Chinese: 共和理工学院) is the fifth and newest polytechnic to be set up in Singapore and utilises the problem-based learning (PBL) approach. ... Singapore Polytechnic (Abbreviation: SP; Chinese: 新加坡理工學院), the first polytechnic established in Singapore, was founded in 1954. ... Temasek Polytechnic (Abbreviation: TP; Chinese: 淡馬錫理工學院; Malay: Poli-tek-nik Temasek) is the third polytechnic to be set up in Singapore. ...


Institute of Technical Education

The Institute of Technical Education (ITE) accepts students based on their GCE "O" level or GCE "N" level results and they provide 2-year courses leading to a locally recognised "National ITE Certificate." There are 10 ITE Colleges in Singapore. A number of ITE graduates are doing considerably well in the workforce as they are equipped with essential skills in their various fields of study and are proficient at their jobs. Some ITE graduates continue their education at polytechnics and universities. However, this makes up only a miniscule proportion. There is in fact a social stigmatisation of ITE students as being less capable and possibly less successful. In recent years there have been speeches made by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and Minister of Education Tharman Shanmugaratnam acknowledging the different definitions and types of success, in a bid to work towards a more inclusive society. However this has mostly been lip service, with little concrete action being taken to give ITE students greater recognition or address the stigmatisation that exists. This is admittedly a difficult job as such views have been ingrained in society for many years. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Establish on 1 April 1992, ITE is a statutory board under the Ministry of Education in Singapore. ... Establish on 1 April 1992, ITE is a statutory board under the Ministry of Education in Singapore. ...


ITE provides three main levels of certification:

  • Master National ITE Certificate (Master Nitec)
  • Higher National ITE Certificate (Higher Nitec)
  • National ITE Certificate (Nitec)

There are also other skills certification through part-time apprenticeship course conducted jointly by ITE and industrial companies.


Universities

There are currently four universities in Singapore. The two public universities National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University each has more than 20,000 students and they provide a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate degree programmes including doctoral degrees. Both are also established research universities with thousands of research staff and graduate students. University Cultural Centre The National University of Singapore (Abbreviation: NUS; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Abbreviated 国大; Malay: Universiti Nasional Singapura; Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் தேசிய பல்கலைக்கழகம்) is Singapores oldest university. ... Nanyang Technological University (Abbreviation: NTU; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , abbreviated 南大; Malay: Universiti Teknologi Nanyang) is a major research university in Singapore. ...


A third university Singapore Management University (SMU) opened in 2000 focusing on business and management courses. Although it is a private university, it is funded by the government. The Singapore Management University (Abbreviation: SMU; Chinese: 新加坡管理大学; Malay: Universiti Pengurusan Singapura) was officially incorporated on January 12, 2000, and holds the unique position of being Singapores first private university funded by the government. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


The forth university, privately-run SIM University (UniSIM), opened in 2006. SIM University (UniSIM) The University for Working Professionals and Adult Learners Corporate Profile SIM University (UniSIM) is Singapores first private university for adult learners. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In addition, there are more than ten other private tertiary institutions offering undergraduate and postgraduate degrees.


The government has announced plans to set up a fourth public university to cater to rising demand for university education[8].

See also: List of universities in Singapore

The following is a list of universities in Singapore: NTU, NUS and SIM are also members of the LAOTSE-Network. ...

International and private schools

Building of ACS (International), one of the newest international schools.
Building of ACS (International), one of the newest international schools.

Due to its large expatriate community Singapore is host to many international schools, one of which, the Singapore American School has one of the largest intakes of international students in the world. Most employers in Singapore pay part or all of their employees children's school fees. International and private schools in Singapore generally do not admit Singapore students without the permission from the Ministry of Education. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 683 KB) Summary Anglo-Chinese School (International). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 683 KB) Summary Anglo-Chinese School (International). ... Name Anglo-Chinese School (International) Abbreviation ACS (International) School Code N. A. Chinese Name 英华国际学校 Pinyin Malay {{{malay}}} Tamil {{{tamil}}} Address 61 Jalan Hitam Manis Country Singapore Area Holland Village Founded 2005 Type International, Private Session Full day school Students Mixed Levels Secondary 1 to JC2 (Years 1 to 6) Colours... The following is a list of international schools in Singapore: Anglo-Chinese School (International) Australian International School Singapore (AISS) Bhavans Indian International School Singapore (BIIS) British Council Nursery School Canadian International School (Singapore) (CISS) Chatsworth International School Dover Court Preparatory School DPS International School Singapore Eton House International Primary... Singapore American School The Singapore American School (Abbreviation: SAS) is a private international school in Singapore. ...


However, on 29 April 2004, The Ministry of Education permitted two new international schools to be set up and no permission is required of admitting Singapore students. These school must follow the compulsory policies set by the Ministry such as playing the national anthem every morning, take the pledge and follow the nation's bilingual policies. Both of these schools are private school arms of two renowned schools, they are Anglo-Chinese School (International) and Hwa Chong International. The school fees are around 15 to 20 percent lower than foreign international schools. Their intake is mainly Singaporeans, with nationalities from various countries including Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Taiwan, South Korea, Vietnam, Netherlands, Indonesia and the United Kingdom. is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Majulah Singapura (Malay for Onward Singapore) is Singapores national anthem. ... Name Anglo-Chinese School (International) Abbreviation ACS (International) School Code N. A. Chinese Name 英华国际学校 Pinyin Yīng Huá Guójì Xuéxiào Malay {{{malay}}} Tamil {{{tamil}}} Address 61 Jalan Hitam Manis Country Singapore Area Holland Village Founded 2005 Type International, Private Session Full day school Students Mixed Levels Secondary... Name Hwa Chong International School Abbreviation HCIS School Code - Address 663, Bukit Timah Road S(269783) Country Singapore Town Bukit Timah Founded 2005 Community Urban Type Private Secondary/Junior College Religion Secular Students Mixed (Secondary 1–JC 2) Levels Secondary 1–JC 2 Colours Red, Yellow Website Link Hwa Chong...


Education policies

Meritocracy

Meritocracy is a central political concept in Singapore and a fundamental principle in the education system[9] which aims to identify and groom bright young students for positions of leadership. The system places a great emphasis on academic performance in grading students and granting their admission to special programmes and universities, though this has raised concerns of breeding elitism.[10] Academic grades are considered as objective measures of the students' ability and effort, irrespective of their social background.[11] Having good academic credentials is seen as the most important factor for the students' career prospects in the local job market, and their future economic status.[12] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Curricula are therefore closely tied to examinable topics, and the competitiveness of the system led to a proliferation of ten year series, which are compilation books of past examination papers that students use to prepare for examinations. A-Level ten-year series, (from left to right) Chemistry, Physics and Economics. ...


Bilingualism (Mother Tongue)

Bilingualism, or mother tongue policy, is a cornerstone of Singapore education system. While English is the first language and the medium of instruction in schools, most students are required to take a "Mother Tongue" subject, which could be one of the three official languages: Chinese, Malay or Tamil. A non-Tamil Indian may choose to offer Tamil or a non-official language such as Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Punjabi or Urdu. This Mother Tongue is a compulsory examinable subject at the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) and the GCE "N", "O" and "A" level examinations. Students are required to achieve a certain level of proficiency in their mother tongue as a pre-requisite for admission to local universities. Students returning from overseas may be exempted from this policy.[13] Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Gujarati can mean two distinct things: The Gujarati language is a language spoken in India and Pakistan, mostly in and around the Gujarat state. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the two official languages of India, the other being English. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ...


The bilingual policy was first adopted in 1966.[14] One of its primary objectives is to promote English as the common (and neutral) language among the diverse ethnic groups in Singapore. The designation of English as the first language also serves to expedite Singapore's integration into the world economy.[15] Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In recognition of the linguistic and cultural pluralism in the country, another stated objective of the bilingual policy is to educate students with their "mother tongues" so that they can learn about their culture, identify with their ethnic roots, and to preserve the culture traits and Asian values.[14] Within the Chinese population, Mandarin is promoted as a common language in favour of other Chinese dialects, to better integrate the community. In 1979, the Speak Mandarin Campaign was launched to further advance this goal.[16] The Speak Mandarin Campaign (SMC; Simplified Chinese: 讲华语运动) is an initiative to encourage Singapores ethnic Chinese population to speak Mandarin, the official language of China, commonly referred to as Putonghua in Chinese. ...


Financial assistance

The education policies in Singapore ensure that no child is left behind in education even if they do not have the financial capabilities to attend schools. As such, school fees in public schools are heavily subsidized such that students pay as low as $13 for fees.[17] Even with such low fees, there are many possible assistance schemes from either the government, or welfare organisations to help students cope with finances during their studies. Some of these are listed below.


Financial Assistance Scheme


The Financial Assistance Scheme (FAS) is a MOE programme to provide financial assistance for education to low income families with monthly household income of less than S$1,500 or S$1,800 depending on the number of children in the household.[18]


Students eligible for FAS receive full waiver of miscellaneous fees and partial subsidy on national examination fees. They may also enjoy full or partial fee subsidy if they are in Independent Schools. In 2005, there were 15,000 recipients of FAS; MOE is expecting this number to increase to 33,500 following an enhancement of the FAS in 2006.[18]


Edusave Merit Bursary


Each year, the Edusave Merit Bursary (EMB) is given out to about 40,000 students, who are from lower-middle and low-income families and have good academic performance in their schools.[18]


Development and future plans

Student exchange programmes

About 120 of the 353 primary and secondary schools in Singapore have some form of exchange programmes which allow students to visit overseas schools. In 2005, the Ministry of Education set up a SGD$4.5 million School Twinning Fund to facilitate 9,000 primary and secondary school students to participate in these exchange programmes, particularly in ASEAN countries, China and India. [1] Ministry of Education Headquarters at Buona Vista The Ministry Of Education is a ministry of the government of Singapore that directs the formulation and implementation of policies related to education in Singapore. ... ISO 4217 Code SGD User(s) Singapore, Brunei Inflation 1% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ... ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity...


Statistics

Key statistics

Sources:

  • Yearbook of Statistics Singapore, 2004[19]
  • Singapore Budget 2006[20]
Government budget for education S$5.2b (2005)[20]
at 19.3% of total budget, 3.9% of GDP
Pupils per teacher, Primary 24 pupils (2004)[19]
Pupils per teacher, Secondary 19 pupils (2004)[19]
Enrolment ratio, aged 6-20 years 87.4% (2004)[19]
Literacy rate (aged 15 years and above) 94.6% (2004)[19]
Mean years of schooling (aged 25 years and above) 8.8 years (2004)[19]

Education qualification of population

Source: Census 2000.[21]

Resident non-students aged 15 years and over by highest qualification attained
Highest qualification attained Population (2000)[21] Percent (2000)[21]
Total 2,277,401 100.0%
No qualification 445,444 19.6%
Primary - PSLE 276,542 12.1%
Lower secondary - Sec 1-3 248,598 10.9%
Secondary - 'N' & 'O' levels 560,570 24.6%
Upper secondary - 'A' level, Nitec & Higher Nitec 226,275 9.9%
Polytechnic - Diploma 140,970 6.2%
Other Diploma 112,371 4.9%
University - Degree, Masters & Ph.D 266,631 11.7%

Schools and enrolment

Source: Singapore Education Statistics Digest[22]

Type of School Number of schools (2004)[22]
Kindergarten 200+
Primary Government 131
Government-aided 41
Secondary Government 110
Government-aided 20
Autonomous 21
Independent 7
Full school Autonomous 3
Independent 2
Junior College Government 11
Government-aided 4
Independent 1
Centralised Institute Government 1
Polytechnics 5
Institute of Technical Education 10
Universities 4
Specialised tertiary schools 10
International schools 22
Special education schools 5
Type of School Enrolment (2004)[22] Number of teachers (2004)[22]
Primary 296,419 12,209
Secondary 213,534 11,240
Junior College 23,712 2,157
Centralised Institute 969 110
Institute of Technical Education 11,885 not available
Polytechnics 56,048 not available
Universities 41,628 not available

International comparisons

International educational scores (1997)
(13-year-old's average score, TIMSS
Third International Math and Science Study, 1997)
Countries:
(sample)
Global
rank
Maths Science
Score Rank Score Rank
Singapore 1 643 1 607 1
Japan 2 605 3 571 3
South Korea 3 607 2 565 4
Czech Republic 4 564 6 574 2
England 18 506 25 552 10
Thailand 20 522 20 525 21
Germany 22 509 23 531 19
France 23 538 13 498 28
United States 24 500 28 534 17
Source: 1997 TIMSS, in The Economist, March 29th 1997.

Singapore students took first place in the 1995, 1999 and 2003 TIMSS Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. They used Singapore Math Primary Mathematics series. The national textbooks have been adapted into a series which has been successfully marketed in North America as a rival to Saxon math and an alternative to controversial standards-based mathematics curricula which many parents complained moved too far away from the sort of traditional basic skills instruction exemplified by Singapore's national curriculum. The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is an international assessment of the mathematics and science knowledge of fourth- and eighth-grade students around the world. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is an international assessment of the mathematics and science knowledge of fourth- and eighth-grade students around the world. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is an international assessment of the mathematics and science knowledge of fourth- and eighth-grade students around the world. ... Saxon, also known as Saxon math, developed by John Saxon, is a teaching method for incremental learning of mathematics. ... Principles and Standards for School Mathematics is a document produced in 1989 by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [5] (NCTM) to set forth a national vision for precollege mathematics education in the US and Canada. ...


Criticisms

Critics of the education system, including many parents, state that the education system is too specialised, rigid, and elitist. Often, these criticisms state that there is little emphasis on creative thinking, unlike education systems in other societies, such as those in the United States. Those defending the current education system cite that Singaporean students have regularly ranked top when competing in international science and mathematics competitions and assessments, along with South Korean students. Detractors to the education system would state that this is more an indication of students' skills of using rote to prepare for a certain style of competition or examination, than their ability to think critically. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Concept B is a specialization of concept A if and only if: every instance of concept B is also an instance of concept A; and there are instances of concept A which are not instances of concept B. For instance, Bird is a specialization of Animal because every bird is... Academic institutions often face the charge of academic elitism, sometimes called the Ivory Tower. ... Look up Creativity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ... It has been suggested that Course evaluation be merged into this article or section. ... For the history of Korea, see Korea. ... It has been suggested that Rote memory be merged into this article or section. ...


Recently, significant changes implemented by the Ministry of Education have introduced a greater focus on creative and critical thinking, and on learning for life-long skills rather than simply learning to excel in examinations.


There have also been complaints about excessive educational streaming at a young age. A popular local film, I Not Stupid, highlights the competitiveness of the system and social stigma that students struggling with studies have to face. I Not Stupid (Chinese: ; pinyin: xiǎohái bù bèn) is a film by Jack Neo, among its themes are issues facing Singapore, such as the problems caused by educational streaming or nanny state government policy as well as the social values of Singapore, including the highly competitive kiasu... Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs that are against cultural norms. ...


Supporters of the system assert that providing differentiated curriculum according to streams since the late 1970s have allowed students with different abilities and learning styles to develop, and sustain an interest in their studies, since its introduction in the late 1970s. This ability-driven education has since been a key feature behind Singapore's success in education, and was responsible for bringing drop-out rates down sharply.


In more recent years, while streaming still exists, various refinements to the policy have been made. There is now greater flexibility for students to cross over different streams or take subjects in other streams, which alleviates somewhat the stigma attached to being in any single stream. Furthermore, the government is now starting to experiment with ability-banding in other ways - such as subject-based banding in Primary Schools instead of banding by overall academic performance.


By contrast, standards based education reform in the United States seeks to eliminate tracking by setting one high standard and expectation for all. The principle of continuous improvement is thought to enable success for all students, although in most states, all groups still achieve at different levels in the current and foreseeable future. Mathematics reform in North America was driven by the NCTM standards in a direction away from mastery of basic skills, but by 2006 many districts and parents were choosing Singapore Math national textbooks for their basic skills instruction. Outcomes Based Education, also known as OBE, is a form of educational reform which is currently being introduced in Western Australia and South Africa. ... Continuous improvement is a phrase suggesting that a process or product should always get better as knowledge about it and experience with it accumulates over time. ... Principles and Standards for School Mathematics is a document produced in 1989 by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [5] (NCTM) to set forth a national vision for precollege mathematics education in the US and Canada. ... The Singapore Math Method is based on textbooks from the national curriculum of Singapore. ...


References

  1. ^ Singapore: Organisation and control of education system. Retrieved on 2006-05-01.
  2. ^ Statute. Ministry of Education, Singapore.
  3. ^ Compulsory Education Act (Chapter 51). Singapore Statutes Online (2000).
  4. ^ Singapore: Compulsory education. Retrieved on 2006-05-01.
  5. ^ Benefits of studying a third language. Ministry of Education. Retrieved on May 8, 2006.
  6. ^ Gifted kids to take 'integrated' path. Channel News Asia Singapore (21 September 2006).
  7. ^ The Desired Outcomes of Education, speech by Education Minister Teo Chee Hean, 14 February 1998
  8. ^ Forss, Pearl. "Singapore looking into setting up fourth university", Channel NewsAsia, 2007-08-19. Retrieved on 2007-08-23. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ Update on the University Sector. Ministry of Education, Singapore (2004).
  11. ^ Mika Yamashita (2002). Singapore Education Sector Analysis. Education Resources Information Center.
  12. ^ Goh Chok Tong. "National Day Rally Speech", 2000. 
  13. ^ Returning Singaporeans - Mother Tongue Policy. Ministry of Education, Singapore (25 August 2006).
  14. ^ a b "Interview: Chinese Language education in Singapore faces new opportunities", People's Daily Online, 13 May 2005. 
  15. ^ Anne Pakir (1999). Bilingual education with English as an official language: Sociocultural implications (pdf). Georgetown University Press.
  16. ^ Speak Mandarin Campaign - History and Background. Promote Mandarin Council (2004).
  17. ^ Education Overview, Ministry of Education, Singapore.
  18. ^ a b c More Financial Help for Children, Press Release, 22 February 2006, Ministry of Education, Singapore.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Yearbook of Statistics Singapore, 2004
  20. ^ a b Singapore Budget 2006, Ministry of Finance.
  21. ^ a b c Singapore Census 2000
  22. ^ a b c d Education Statistics Digest 2004 Ministry of Education, Singapore.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ministry of Education Headquarters at Buona Vista The Ministry Of Education is a ministry of the government of Singapore that directs the formulation and implementation of policies related to education in Singapore. ... Teo Chee Hean Teo Chee Hean (Simplified Chinese: å¼ å¿—è´¤; Pinyin: ; born 27 December 1954) is the current Defence Minister of Singapore and a Member of Parliament (MP) for Pasir Ris-Punggol group representation constituency (GRC). ... Channel NewsAsia (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; abbreviated CNA) is a pan-Asian news channel based in Singapore and owned by MediaCorp. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Singapore - Education (1327 words)
The goal of the education system was to develop the talents of every individual so that each could contribute to the economy and to the ongoing struggle to make Singapore productive and competitive in the international marketplace.
Singapore had six institutions of higher education: National University of Singapore (the result of the 1980 merger of Singapore University and Nanyang University); Nanyang Technological Institute; Singapore Polytechnic Institute; Ngee Ann Polytechnic; the Institute of Education; and the College of Physical Education.
Many of the settled education policies of the 1980s, such as the use of English as the medium of instruction, the conversion of formerly Malay or Chinese or Anglican missionary schools to standard government schools, or the attempted combination of open access with strict examinations, were the result of long-standing political disputes and controversy.
Education in Singapore: Information from Answers.com (5116 words)
Education spending usually makes up about 20 percent of the annual national budget, which subsidises public education and government-assisted private education for Singaporean citizens and furnishes the Edusave programme, but the costs are significantly higher for non-citizens.
In Singapore, the English language is the first language learned by half the children by the time they reach preschool age and becomes the primary medium of instruction by the time they reach primary school.
Detractors to the education system would state that this is more an indication of students' skills of using rote to prepare for a certain style of competition or examination, than their ability to think critically.
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