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Encyclopedia > Education in Germany

Responsibility for educational oversight in Germany has to lie primarily with the states while the federal government only has a minor role. Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for ten to thirteen years. Home-schooling is not permitted in any of the German Bundesländer except if a child is suffering from some illness that makes it impossible for him or her to attend school. There are also rare cases where foreign families living for a short time in Germany have been granted exemption from compulsory schooling to homeschool their children in their own language. Primary education usually lasts for four years and public schools are not stratified at this stage.[1] In contrast, secondary education includes four types of schools based on a pupil's ability as determined by teacher recommendations: the Gymnasium includes the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; the Realschule has a broader range of emphasis for intermediary students; the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education, and the Gesamtschule or comprehensive school combines the three approaches. There are also so called Förderschulen where ca. every 21. pupil is put into[2]. They couldn't be integrated in other schools because they are bodily disabled or have a learning disablity. [1] In order to enter a university, high school students are required to take the Abitur examination, however students possessing a diploma from a vocational school may also apply to enter. A special system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung allows pupils in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run school.[1] Although Germany has had a history of a strong educational system, recent PISA student assessments demonstrated a weakness in certain subjects. In the test of 31 countries in the year 2000, Germany ranked 21st in reading and 20th in both mathematics and the natural sciences, prompting calls for reform.[3] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ... A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... In Germany, the Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ... Rütli-Hauptschule, Berlin-Neukölln. ... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Finland and Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, the implementation of which is coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ...

Contents

Overview of the German school system

Grundschule (Elementary school) can be preceded by voluntary Kindergarten or Vorschulklassen (preparatory classes for elementary school) and lasts four or six years, depending on the state. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Parents who are looking for a suitable school for their child have a considerable choice of elementary schools in Germany today:

Teachers possess qualifications at all these schools, but parents have to pay additional costs at non-state schools, since the state does not cover the full costs of tuition and administration. Waldorf Schools (also known as Steiner schools) state as their mission educating the whole child, with a strong emphasis on balancing the childs natural stages of development with creativity and academic excellence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Evangelical Church in Germany (German Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated as EKD) is a federation of 23 regional Lutheran, Reformed and United Protestant churches[1]. In fact only one member church (the Protestant Reformed Church) is not restricted to a certain territory. ... A parochial school (or faith school) is a type of private school which engages in religious education in addition to conventional education. ...


After Grundschule (at 10 years of age), there are basically four options as to secondary schooling:

  • Hauptschule (the least academic, much like a modernized Volksschule [elementary school]) until grade 9.
  • Realschule (in Saxony Mittelschule [middle school]) until grade 10.
  • Gymnasium (Grammar School) until grade 12 or 13 (with Abitur as exit exam, qualifying for university).
  • Gesamtschule (comprehensive school) with all the options of the three "tracks" above.
  • After all of those schools the graduates can start a professional career with an apprenticeship in the Berufsschule (vocational school). The Berufsschule is normally attended twice a week during a two, three, or three-and-a-half year apprenticeship; the other days are spent working at a company. This should bring the students knowledge of theory and practice. Notice that the apprenticeship can only be started if a company accepts the apprentice. After this (s) he will be registered on a list at the Industrie- und Handelskammer IHK (board of trade). During the apprenticeship (s) he is a part-employee of the company and receives a salary from the company. After successful passing of the Berufsschule and the exit exams of the IHK, he/she receives a certificate and is ready for a professional career up to a low management level. In some areas the apprenticeship is teaching skills that are required by law (special positions in a bank, assistance of a lawyer ...).

In four states (Saarland, Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Rhineland-Palatinate), children have to attend two years (grades 5 and 6) in Orientierungsstufe ("orientation phase"), a special school type that follows the Grundschule, and is intended to help decide whether the student should be sent on to Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium (or in any case Gesamtschule). Primary school teachers or Orientierungsstufe teachers counsel parents on where to send their child. Depending on the state, parents or teachers make the final decision. In Berlin and Brandenburg the Grundschule includes grades 5 and 6 which then serve the same purpose as the Orientierungsstufe. Rütli-Hauptschule, Berlin-Neukölln. ... A Volkschule was an eighteenth century system of state-supported primary schools established in the Habsburg Austrian Empire. ... In Germany, the Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) has a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Finland and Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... A Comprehensive school is a type of school providing secondary level education in England or Wales. ... The education system in Germany has a long tradition of compulsory state schools. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ...


Also, in states without Orientierungsstufe, grades 5 and 6 are seen as an orientation phase in which initial decisions can be reversed. Achievements in the subjects of Mathematics, Sciences, German, and the chosen foreign language (commonly English, French, Russian or Latin), are considered to be most important in the decision about the school that the child will attend.


In Germany, the 16 states have the exclusive responsibility in the field of education. The federal parliament and the federal government can influence the educational system only by financial aid (to the states). Therefore, there are many different school systems; however, in every state the starting point is Grundschule (elementary school) for a period of 4 years (6 in Berlin and Brandenburg).


All German states have Gymnasium as one possibility for skilled children, and all states - except Bavaria, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia - have Gesamtschule, but in different forms. Some eastern states (Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia in particular) only have Gymnasium and Regelschule or Mittelschule (in Saxony) (Secondary school until the 10th grade). In most of the 16 states, there are all of the kinds of secondary schools described above. For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ...


English is compulsory statewide in secondary schools. In some states, foreign language education starts in Grundschule. For example, in North Rhine-Westphalia, English starts in the 3rd year of school; Baden-Württemberg starts either English or French in the 1st year; in Brandenburg, it is English or Polish. Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Minister-President Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ...


It is often problematic for families to move from one state to another, because there are extremely different curricula for nearly every subject.


Adults who fail to complete their education have the option of attending an AbendGymnasium or AbendRealschule later in life. Das AbendGymnasium or Evening High School is a German School of Further Education for Adults over the age of 19 years to come and gain the Abitur. ...


History of German education

The Prussian era (1814 – 1871)

Historically, the Lutheran denomination had a strong influence on German culture, including its education. Martin Luther advocated compulsory schooling and this idea became a model for schools throughout Germany. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


During the 18th century, the Kingdom of Prussia was among the first countries in the world (if not the first at all) to introduce free and generally compulsory primary education, consisting of an eight-year course of primary education, Volksschule. It provided not only the skills needed in an early industrialized world (reading, writing, and arithmetics), but also a strict education in ethics, duty, discipline, and obedience. Affluent children often went on to attend preparatory private schools for an additional four years, but the general population had virtually no access to secondary education. For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... A Volkschule was an eighteenth century system of state-supported primary schools established in the Habsburg Austrian Empire. ...


In 1810, after the Napoleonic wars, Prussia introduced state certification requirements for teachers, which significantly raised the standard of teaching. The final examination, Abitur, was introduced in 1788, implemented in all Prussian secondary schools by 1812, and extended to all of Germany in 1871. Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Finland and Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ...


German Empire (1871-1918)

When the German Empire was formed in 1871, the school system became more centralized. As learned professions demanded well-educated young people, more secondary schools were established, and the state claimed the sole right to set standards and to supervise the newly established schools. For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ...


Four different types of secondary schools developed:

  • A nine-year classical Gymnasium (focusing on Latin and Greek or Hebrew, plus one modern language)
  • A nine-year Realgymnasium (focusing on Latin, modern languages, science and mathematics)
  • A six-year Realschule (without university entrance qualification, but with the option of becoming a trainee in one of the modern industrial, office or technical jobs) and
  • A nine-year Oberrealschule (focusing on modern languages, science and mathematics)

By the turn of the 20th century, the four types of schools had achieved equal rank and privilege, although they did not have equal prestige. In 1872, Prussia recognized the first separate secondary schools for girls. A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ...


Weimar Republic (1919-1933) to the present

After World War I, the Weimar Republic established a free, universal 4-year elementary school (Grundschule). Most students continued at these schools for another 4-year course and those who were able to pay a small fee went on to an Intermediate school (Mittelschule) that provided a more challenging curriculum for an additional one or two years. Upon passing a rigorous entrance exam after year 4, students could also enter one of the four types of secondary school. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...


During the Nazi era (1933-1945), indoctrination of Nazi ideologies was added to student education, however, the basic education system remained unchanged. See also: Nazi university. Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Indoctrination is the process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


After World War II, the Allied powers (Soviet Union, France, Britain, and the USA) saw to it that the Nazi ideas were eliminated from the curriculum. They installed educational systems in their respective occupation zones that reflected their own ideas. When West Germany gained partial independence in 1949, its new constitution (Grundgesetz) granted educational autonomy to the state (Länder) governments. This led to a widely varying landscape of school systems, often making it difficult for children to continue schooling whilst moving between states. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ... Bundesland (plural Bundesländer), also known as Land (plural Länder) is the German language name for the federal states of Austria and Germany. ...


More recently, multi-state agreements ensure that basic requirements are universally met by all state school systems. Thus, all children are required to attend one type of school on a full-time basis (i.e. five or six days a week) from the age of 6 to the age of 16. It is possible to change schools if a student shows exceptionally good (or exceptionally poor) abilities. Graduation certificates from one state are recognized by all the other states, and training qualifies teachers for teaching posts in every state.


Education in East Germany

The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) started its own standardized education system in the 1960s. The East German equivalent of both primary and secondary schools was the Polytechnische Oberschule (poly-technical high school), which all students attended for 10 years, from the ages of 6 to 16. At the end of the 10th year, an exit examination was given, and depending upon the results, a student could choose to end their education or choose to undertake an apprenticeship for an additional two years, followed by an Abitur. Students who performed very well and displayed loyalty to the ruling party could change to the Erweiterte Oberschule (extended high school), where they could take their Abitur examinations after 12 school years. This system was abolished in the early 1990s, but continues to influence school life in the eastern German states. Education in East Germany was a high priority for the communist government, and was compulsory from age six to age sixteen. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ...


Unequal opportunities

Children from migrant or working class families are less likely to have success in school than children from the middle or upper class. This disadvantage for the financially more challenged part of the population of Germany is bigger than in any other industrialized nation. [4]


Life in a German school

Standard classroom at a secondary school in Germany in 1998

Although German students are not very different from other students across the world, there are organizational differences. The main points are outlined below; however, it should be noted that there are additional differences across the 16 states of Germany. typical classroom of secondary school in Germany (1998) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... typical classroom of secondary school in Germany (1998) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

  • Each group of students born in the same year forms one grade or class, which remains the same for elementary school (years 1 to 4), orientation school (if there's orientation school in the state) or orientation phase (at Gymnasium years 5 to 6), and secondary school (years 5 to 10 in "Realschulen" and "Hauptschulen"; years 5 to 12 or 13 (differences between countries) in "gymnasiums"). Changes are possible, though, when there is a choice of subjects, e.g. additional languages, and the class is split.
  • Most subjects (except PE, art, sciences, music and the subjects which are taught in courses, like French) are taught in the students' own classroom (similar to a "home room"); the pupils stay in their room whilst the teachers move from class to class. This is common throughout school up to year 11 (5 in Saxony, 7 in Brandenburg).
  • There are usually no security guards at German schools; at some schools there are, however, Schülerlotsen, mostly older pupils whose function simply is to protect the younger ones while crossing the roads by the school.
  • Sometimes there is also a "Sanitätsdienst" (medical service), where pupils must perform first aid. [citation needed]
  • Students sit at tables, not desks (usually two pupils at one table), sometimes arranged in a semi-circle or another geometric or functional shape. During exams in classrooms, the tables are sometimes arranged in columns with one pupil per table (if permitted by the room's capacities) in order to prevent cheating; at many schools, this is only the case for some exams in the two final years of school, i.e. some of the exams counting for the final grade on the high school diploma.
  • Teacher-student and teacher-parent relationships are relaxed, sometimes even casual (though this has its limits, which are often difficult to detect for foreigners). This practice also varies between states and schools (Grundschulen and Gesamtschulen usually being the least formal).
  • There normally is no school uniform or dress code other than the most basic rules of decency. Many private schools have a very simple dress code consisting of, for example, "no shorts, no sandals, no clothes with holes". Some schools are trying out school uniforms, but those aren't as formal as seen in for example the UK. They mostly consist of a normal pullover/shirt and jeans of a certain color, sometimes with the school's symbol on it.
  • Sometimes students can buy school t-shirts which they can wear voluntarily
  • School usually starts between 7.30 a.m. and 8:15 a.m. and can finish as early as 12; instruction at lower classes almost always ends before lunch. In higher grades, however, afternoon lessons are very common and periods may have longer gaps without teacher supervision between them. Ordinarily, afternoon classes are not offered every day and/or continuously until early evening, leaving students with large parts of their afternoons free of school; some schools (Ganztagsschulen), however, offer classes or mainly supervised activities throughout the afternoons in order to offer supervision of the students rather than an increase in teaching.
  • Depending on the school, there are breaks of 5 to 10 minutes after each period. There is no lunch break as school usually finishes before 1:30 for junior school. However, at schools that have "Nachmittagsunterricht" (= afternoon classes) ending after 1:30 there's sometimes a lunch break of 45 to 90 minutes, though many schools lack any special break in general. Some schools that have regular breaks of 5 minutes between periods have additional 10 or 15 minute breaks after the second and fourth period.
  • In German state schools periods are exactly 45 minutes. Each subject is usually taught for two to three periods every week (main subjects like Mathematics, German or foreign languages are taught for four to six periods) and usually no more than two periods consecutively. The beginning of every period and, usually, break is generally announced with an audible signal such as a bell.
  • Exams (which are always supervised) are usually essay based, rather than multiple choice. As of 11th grade exams usually consist of no more than three separate exercises. While most exams in the first grades of secondary schools usually span no more than 90 minutes, exams in 11th to 13th grade may span four periods or more (without breaks).
  • At every school type, students study one foreign language (in most cases English) for at least five years. The study is, however, far more rigorous in Gymnasium. Students leaving Hauptschule rarely attain fluency. In Gymnasium, students can choose from a wider range of languages (mostly English, French, or Latin) as the first language in 5th grade, and a second mandatory language in 6th or 7th grade. Students are required to study English either as a first or second foreign language (with the exception of Saarland, which requires French for historic and geographical reasons). Some types of Gymnasium also require an additional third language (such as Spanish, Italian, Russian or Ancient Greek) or an alternative subject (usually based on one or two other subjects, e.g. English politics (English & politics), dietetics (biology) or media studies (arts & German) in 9th or 11th grade. Gymnasiums ordinarily offer further subjects starting at 11th grade, with some schools offering a fourth foreign language.
  • A small number of schools have a Raucherecke (smokers' corner), a small area of the schoolyard where students over the age of sixteen are permitted to smoke in their breaks. Those special areas were banned in the states of Berlin, Hesse and Hamburg at the beginning of the 2005-06 school year. (Bavaria, Schleswig-Holstein 2006-07)). From now on schools in these states forbid smoking for pupils and teachers and offences at school will be punished. Some other states in Germany are planning to introduce similar laws.
  • As state schools are public, smoking is universally prohibited inside the buildings. Smoking teachers are generally asked not to smoke while at or near school.
  • Students aged 18 and above and, in many schools, 11th grade and above, are permitted to leave the school compound during breaks. Teachers or school personnel tend to prevent younger pupils from leaving early and strangers from entering the compound without permission.
  • Tidying up the classroom and schoolyard is often the task of the pupils. Unless a group of pupils volunteers, individuals are picked sequentially.
  • Many schools have AGs or Arbeitsgemeinschaften (clubs) for afternoon activities such as sports, music or acting, but participation is not necessarily common. Some schools also have special mediators, who are student volunteers trained to resolve conflicts between their classmates or younger pupils.
  • Only few schools have actual sports teams that compete with other schools'. Even if the school has a sports team, most students are not very aware of it.
  • While student newspapers used to be very common until the late 20th century, many of them are now very short-lived, usually vanishing when the team graduates. Student newspapers are often financed mostly by advertisements.
  • Usually schools don't have their own radio stations or TV channels. Larger universities often have a local student-run radio station, however.
  • Although most German schools and state universities do not have classrooms equipped with a computer for every student, schools usually have at least one computer room and most universities offer a limited number of rooms with computers on every desk. State school computers are usually maintained by the same exclusive contractor in the entire city and updated slowly. Internet access is often provided by phone companies free of charge. Especially in schools the teachers' computer skills are often very low.
  • At the end of their schooling, students usually undergo a cumulative written and oral examination (Abitur in Gymnasiums or Abschlussprüfung in Realschulen and Hauptschulen). Students leaving Gymnasium after 10th grade do not take any final exam in many German states.
  • After 10th grade Gymnasium students may quit school for at least one year of job education if they do not wish to continue. Realschule and Hauptschule students who have passed their Abschlussprüfung may decide to continue schooling at a Gymnasium, but are sometimes required to take additional courses in order to catch up.
  • Corporal punishment was banned in 1949 (East Germany) and in 1973 (West Germany).
  • Fourth grade (or sixth, depending on the state) is often quite stressful for students of lower performance and their families. Many feel tremendous pressure when trying to achieve placement in Gymnasium, or at least when attempting to avoid placement in Hauptschule. Germany is unique compared to other western countries in its early segregation of students based on academic achievement.

The grade scale ranges from 1 to 6, where 1 is "sehr gut" or "Excellent" (corresponding to an A+ in America) and 6 is "ungenügend" or "Failed" (literally "insufficient"). After 11th grade, in the "Kollegstufe", the scale is replaced by a point system with a maximum of 15 points (exceptional achievement) corresponding to grade 1, 4 points or less (grade 4- or less) counting as a deficite as of 12th grade and jeopardising the admission to the Abitur exams. Students in Bangkok Over one thousand students in uniform during an assembly at a secondary school in Singapore. ... Clothing has various sociological functions, including: conspicuous consumption stating or claiming identity establishing, maintaining and defying sociological group norms Thus wearing specific types of clothing or the manner of wearing clothing can convey messages about class, income, belief and attitude. ... For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). ... Multiple choice (MCQ) questions or items are a form of assessment item for which respondents are asked to select one or more of the choices from a list. ... A foreign language is a language not spoken by the indigenous people of a certain place: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... This article is about the city in Germany. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Finland and Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... Corporal punishment is forced pain intended to change a persons behaviour or to punish them. ... The Kollegstufe is a specialized system operated in the upper stage (grades 12-13, or 11-12) of German high schools. ...


The school year

The school year starts after the summer break (different from state to state, usually end/mid of August) and is divided into two semesters. There are typically 12 weeks of holidays, in addition to public holidays. Exact dates differ between states, but there are generally 6 weeks of summer and two weeks of Christmas holiday. The other holiday periods are given in spring (usually around Easter Sunday) and autumn (the former "harvest holiday", where farmers used to need their children for field work). Schools can also schedule one or two special days off per semester. Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two...


Report cards (Zeugnisse) are issued twice a year at the end of the semester, usually in February and June or July. Students who do not measure up to minimum standards (usually no 6, no more than one 5 unless there are other subjects with 3 or better) have to repeat a year (which happens to almost 5% of students every year). If pupils have to repeat a year, it is colloquially called sitzenbleiben (literally remain seated). Once they have reached 12th grade, students may usually not fail more than twice in succession or they will not be admitted to the Abitur exams at the end of 13th grade.


Model timetables

Students have about 30-36 periods of 45 minutes each per week, but especially secondary schools today switch to 90 minutes lessons (Block) which count as two 'traditional' lessons. To manage classes that are taught three lessons per week there is still one 45 minute lesson each day, mostly between the first two blocks. There are about 12 compulsory subjects: two or three foreign languages (one to be taken for 9 years, another for at least 3 years), physics, biology, chemistry and usually civics/social studies (for at least 5, 7, 3, and 2 years, respectively), and mathematics, music, art, history, German, geography, PE and religious education/ethics for 9 years. A few afternoon activities are offered at German schools - mainly choir or orchestra, sometimes sports or drama. Many of these are offered as semi-scholastic AG's (Arbeitsgemeinschaften - literally "working groups"), which are mentioned, but not officially graded in students' report cards. Other common extracurricular activities are organized as private clubs, which are very popular in Germany.

Sample grade 10 Gymnasium timetable
Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
07.30-08.15 am English Physics Biology Physics French(course)
08.20-09.05 am History English Chemistry Maths Chemistry
09.05-09.25 am break
09.25-10.10 am Latin (course) French (course) Maths Latin (course) Maths
10.15-11.00 am German French Course Religion (course) Latin (course) German
11.00-11.15 am break
11.15-12.00 pm Music Maths Sport German Biology
12.05-12.50 pm Religion (course) History Sport English Latin (course)

This timetable reflects a school week at a normal 9-year Gymnasium in North Rhine-Westphalia (which should change to 8 years by 2013). there are three blocks of lessons where every "hour" takes 45 minutes. After each block, there's a break of 15-20 minutes, also after the 6th hour (the number of lessons changes from year to year, so it's possible that one would be in school till four o'clock). "Nebenfächer" (= minor fields of study) are taught two times a week, "Hauptfächer" (=major subjects) are taught three times. (Latin is taught four times a week because it's the third language)

Image:timetable.png Typical grade 10 timetable at a middle school in 2003 png version of Timetable. ...

In grades 11-13, 11-12, or 12-13 (depending on the school system), each student majors in two or three subjects ("Leistungskurse", "Grundkurse"/"Profilkurse"). These are usually taught five hours per week. The other subjects are usually taught three periods per week.


There are many differences in the 16 states of Germany and there are alternatives to this basic pattern, e.g. Waldorfschulen or other private schools. Adults can also go back to evening school and take the Abitur exam. Waldorf Schools (also known as Steiner schools) state as their mission educating the whole child, with a strong emphasis on balancing the childs natural stages of development with creativity and academic excellence. ...


Organizational aspects

In Germany, education is the responsibility of the states (Länder) and part of their constitutional sovereignty (Kulturhoheit der Länder). Teachers are hired by the Ministry of Education for the state and usually are employed for life after a certain period (which, however, is not comparable in timeframe nor competitiveness to the typical tenure track, e.g. in the US). A parents' council is elected to voice the parents' views to the school's administration. Each class elects one or two "Klassensprecher" (class presidents, if two are elected usually one is male and the other female), the class presidents meet several times a year as the "Schülerrat" (students' council). A team of school presidents is also elected by the students each year, the school presidents' main purpose is organizing school parties, sports tournaments and the like for their fellow students. The local town is responsible for the school building and employs the janitorial and secretarial staff. For an average school of about 600 – 800 students, there may be two janitors and one secretary. School administration is the responsibility of the teachers (who will receive a reduction in their teaching obligations if they participate). Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ...


Recent developments

After much public debate about Germany's international ranking (PISA - Programme for International Student Assessment), some things are beginning to change. There has been a trend towards a less ideological discussion on how to develop schools. These are some of the new trends: The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a three-yearly world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1997. ...

  • Establishing federal standards on quality of teaching
  • More practical orientation in teacher training
  • Transfer of some responsibility from the Kultusministerium (Ministry of Education) to local school

Since the 1990s, a few changes have already been taking place in many schools:

  • Introduction of bilingual education in some subjects
  • Experimentation with different styles of teaching
  • Equipping all schools with computers and Internet access
  • Creation of local school philosophy and teaching goals ("Schulprogramm"), to be evaluated regularly
  • Reduction of Gymnasium school years (Abitur after grade 12) and introduction of afternoon periods as in many other western countries

Bilingual education involves teaching all subjects in school through two different languages - in the United States, instruction occurs in English and a minority language, such as Spanish or Chinese, with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model. ...

College and university

Since the end of World War II, the number of youths entering universities has more than tripled, but university attendance still lags behind many other European nations. This is partly because of the dual education system, with its strong emphasis on apprenticeships (see also German model). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A dual education system is practised in several countries, notably Germany, Austria and Switzerland, but also Denmark, the Netherlands and France. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... The Volkswagen factory in Wolfsburg The term German model is most often used in economics to describe post-World War II West Germanys means of using (according to University College London Professor Wendy Carlin) innovative industrial relations, vocational training, and closer relationships between the financial and industrial sectors to...


Universities in Germany are part of the free state education system, which means that there are very few private universities and colleges. Private universities and colleges in Germany are generally less well regarded than public universities. While the organizational structure claims to go back to the university reforms by Wilhelm von Humboldt in the early 19th century, it has also been criticized by some (including the German-born, former Stanford University president Gerhard Casper) for having an unbalanced focus, more on education and less on research, and the lack of independence from state intervention. Many of today's German public universities, in fact, bear less resemblance to the original Humboldt vision than, for example, a typical US institution. Wilhelm von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt (June 22, 1767 - April 8, 1835), government functionary, foreign diplomat, philosopher, founder of Humboldt Universität in Berlin, friend of Goethe and especially of Schiller, is especially remembered as a German linguist who introduced a knowledge of the Basque... “Stanford” redirects here. ... Gerhard Casper (born 1937) is a constitutional scholar who is currently a faculty member at Stanford University. ...


German university students largely choose their own programme of study and professors choose their own subjects for research and teaching. This elective system often results in students spending many years at university before graduating, and is currently under review. There are no fixed classes of students who study together and graduate together. Students change universities according to their interests and the strengths of each university. Sometimes students attend two, three or more different universities in the course of their studies. This mobility means that at German universities there is a freedom and individuality unknown in the USA, the UK, or France.


Upon leaving school, students may choose to go on to university; however, most (male) students will have to serve nine months of military or alternative service (Zivildienst) beforehand. Badge of Zivildienst (Austria, 1982) Zivildienst (German, translates roughly into Civilian Service) is the name for the civilian branch of the national service systems in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. ...


The Gymnasium graduation (Abitur) opens the way to any university; there are no entrance examinations. The Abiturdurchschnittsnote (similar to GPA in the US, or A-Level results in the UK) is the deciding factor in granting university places; an institution may quote an entry requirement for a particular course. This is called numerus clausus (literally "restricted number"), but it generally only applies to popular courses with very limited places; for example a medical course could require an Abiturgrade of between 1.0 to 1.5. Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Finland and Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... The A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education qualification in the United Kingdom, usually taken by students during the optional final two years of secondary school (Years 12 & 13, commonly called the Sixth Form), or at a separate sixth form college or further education college...


Yet another difference: while at Gymnasium a student cannot take courses that result in university credits. This might also have to do with the fact that the credit system is unknown in Germany so far, although it is being introduced with the Bologna process that is intended to unify education and degrees for all EU states. What counts at the end of one's studies is a bundle of certificates ("Scheine") issued by the professors proving that the required courses (and/or exams) were successfully taken. With a few exceptions students may not receive certificates for courses they attend before officially immatriculating at the university (i.e. while at Gymnasium), although their attendance may sometimes be counted as such. Usually there are few required specific courses, rather students choose from a more or less broad range of classes in their field of interest, while this varies greatly upon the choice of subject. Once a student has acquired the needed number of such certificates and can (if he or she is a Magister student) verify his or her regular attendance at a minimum number of optional courses, he or she can decide to register for the final examinations. In many cases, the grades of those certificates are completely discarded and the final diploma grade consists only of the grades of the final exams and master thesis. This can potentially impair the student's motivation to achieve excellence during their studies, although most students try to aim for higher scores in order to comply with requirements for BAFöG or scholarships, or, simply, for vanity. The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords) is to create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe. ... The Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz (often abbreviated to BAföG) is the Federal Education and Trainings Assistance Act for university students in Germany. ...


At Gymnasium, students are under strict observation by teachers, and their attendance at all courses is checked regularly. At German universities, however, class attendance is only checked for courses in which the student requires a certificate, and attendance checks are usually a lot more liberal (usually a signature or sign is considered proof of attendance, even if the signing is not supervised) and sporadic, although repeated failure to attend a course without a proper excuse (i.e. sick note) usually results in the loss of the chance to get a certificate. Life at German universities may seem anonymous and highly individual at first, but most students find a group of fellow students with common interests in their first year, and then often take courses together and study in this group up to the final exam studies.


While there are curricula for the first two or three years in the sciences, in the liberal arts, every student picks the lectures and seminars he or she prefers (usually admission to the Zwischenprüfung requires three certificates, which may each be earned in one of several different seminars), and takes the exams at the end of the study period. Each student decides for him- or herself when he or she feels ready for the final exam. Some take the minimum 4 years, most take 5-6 years, some may even spend 10 years at university (often because they changed subjects several times). After 13 years at school plus maybe 1 year in the military, graduates may sometimes be almost 30 years old when they apply for their first real job in life, although most will have had a number of part-time jobs or temporary employments between semesters.


If they have successfully studied at university for two years (after a Zwischenprüfung/Vordiplom), students can transfer to other countries for graduate studies. Usually they finish studies after 4-6 years with a degree called the Diplom (in the sciences) or Magister (in the arts), which is equivalent to a M.Sc. or M.A., or a Magister Artium. Diplom (from Greek Δίπλωμα diploma) is an academic degree in some European countries including Germany, Austria, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Estonia, Croatia, Serbia and Greece. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ...


However, there is another type of post-Abitur university training available in Germany: the Fachhochschulen (Universities of Applied Science), which offer similar degrees as classic universities, but often concentrate on applied science (as the English name suggests). While in classic universities it is an important part to study WHY a method is scientifically right that point is not so important to students at Universities of Applied Science. There it is stressed to study what systems and methods exist, where they come from, their pros and cons, how to use them in practice and last but not least when are they to use and when not. Students start their courses together and graduate (more or less) together and there is little choice in their schedule (but this must no be at several studies). To get on-the-job experience, internship semesters are a mandatory part of studying at a Fachhochschule. Therefore the students at U-o-A-S are better trained in transferring learned knowledge and skills into practise while students of classic Universities are better trained in method developing. But as professors at U-o-A-S have done their doctorate at classic universities and classic universities have regarded the importance of practice both types are coming closer and closer. It is nowadays more a differentiation between practice orientation and theoretical orientation of science. A Fachhochschule (plural: Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland is a university specialized in certain topical areas (e. ... For information about a medical intern, see the article on Medical residency. ...


After about 4-5 years (depending on how a student arranges the courses he or she takes over the course of his studies, and on whether he or she has to repeat courses) a Fachhochschule student has a complete education and can go right into working life. Fachhochschule graduates received traditionally a title that starts with "Dipl." (Diploma) and ends with "(FH)", e.g. "Dipl. Ing. (FH)" for a graduate engineer from a Fachhochschule. The FH Diploma is roughly equivalent to a Bachelor degree. An FH Diploma does not usually qualify the holder for a Ph.D. program directly -- many universities require an additional entrance exam or participation in theoretical classes from FH candidates. The last point is based on the history. When FHs or U-o-A-S were set up the professors were mainly teachers from higher schools but did not hold a doctorate. This has completely changed since the end of the eighties, but professors of classic universities still regard themselves as "the real professors", which indeed is no longer be true.

Due to the Bologna process the bachelor and master degrees are introduced to classic universities and universities of applied sciences in the same way.


Perhaps one of the most important differences: All courses at the roughly 250 classic universities and universities of applied sciences are - like any school in Germany - free. One might also say the government offers a full scholarship to everyone. However, students that take longer than the Regelstudienzeit ("regular length of studies", a statistically calculated average that is the minimum amount of time necessary to successfully graduate) do have to pay Langzeitstudiengebühren ("long-time study fees") of about 500 EUR per semester, in a growing number of states. Today there are a few private institutions (especially business schools) that charge tuition fees, but they don't have high recognition and high standards as public universities have. Another negative impact of the private institution in Germany is that they usually have only one or few subjects so that they can't get high recognition in international competition.


One does have to pay for one's room and board plus one's books. After a certain age, one must obtain obligatory student health insurance (50 EUR per month), and one always has to pay for some other social services for students (40-100 EUR per semester). Students often enjoy very cheap public transport (Semesterticket) in and around the university town. There are cheap rooms for students built by the Studentenwerk, an independent non-profit organization partially funded by the state. These may cost 150 EUR per month, without any food. Otherwise an apartment can cost 500 EUR, but often students share apartments, with 3 or 5 people per apartment. Food is about 100 EUR (figures for 2002). Many banks provide free accounts to students up to a certain age (usually around 25).


The German Constitutional Court recently ruled that a federal law prohibiting tuition fees is unconstitutional, on the grounds that education is the sole responsibility of the states. Following this ruling, several state governments (e.g. in Bavaria and North Rhine-Westfalia) proclaimed their intention to introduce tuition of around €500 per semester within the next year. Many state legislatures have passed laws that allow, but do not officially force, universities to demand tuition up to a limit, usually €500. In preparation to comply with several local laws aiming to give universities more liberty in their decisions but requiring them to be more economical (effectively privatising them), many universities hastily decided to introduce the fees, usually without any exceptions other than a bare minimum. As a direct result, student demonstrations in the scale of 100 to 10000 participants are frequent in the affected cities, most notably Frankfurt in Hesse, where the state officially considered introducing universal tuition fees in the €1500 range. The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht) is a special court established by the German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density...


There are no university-sponsored scholarships in Germany, but a number of private and public institutions hand out scholarships, usually to cover the cost of living and books. Moreover, there is a law (BAFöG or Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz) that sees to it that needy people can get up to 550 EUR per month for 4-5 years if they or their parents cannot afford all the costs involved with studying. Part (typically half) of this money is given as an interest-free loan and has to be paid back. Many universities planning to introduce tuition fees have announced their intention to use a part of the money to create scholarship programmes, although the exact details are mostly vague. The Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz (often abbreviated to BAföG) is the Federal Education and Trainings Assistance Act for university students in Germany. ...


Most students will move to the university town if it is far away. Getting across Germany from Flensburg to Konstanz takes a full day (1000 km or 620 miles). But, as mentioned above, there is no university-provided student housing on campus in Germany, since most campuses are scattered all over the city for historical reasons. Traditionally, university students rented a private room in town, which was their home away from home. This is no longer the standard, but one still finds this situation. One third to one half of the students works to make a little extra money, often resulting in a longer stay at university.


Figures for Germany are roughly:

  • 1,000,000 new students at all schools put together for one year
  • 400,000 Abitur graduations
  • 30,000 doctoral dissertations per year
  • 1000 habilitations per year (qualification to become a professor)

Degrees: Most courses lead up to a diploma called Diplom or Magister and these are equivalent to the Masters degree in other countries (after a minimum of 4 to 5 years). The doctoral degree usually takes another 3-5 years, with no formal classes, but independent research under the tutelage of a single professor. Most doctoral candidates work as teaching- or research assistants, and are paid a reasonably competitive salary. This is different in medicine, where an M.D. is (effectively) required for work and hence a more streamlined process applies. Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ...


Recently, changes related to the so-called Bologna-Agreement have started taking place to install a more internationally acknowledged system, which includes new course structures - the (hitherto unknown) Bachelor degree and the Master degree - and ETCS credits. These changes have not been forced on the universities and the hope has been that they will develop them from the bottom up. So far, students have been reluctant to start these new courses because they know that within Germany, employers are not used to them and prefer the well-known system. In the winter semester of 2001, only 5% of all students aspired to complete either a bachelor or master degree, but this has changed as many universities and universities of applied sciences change their course offerings to exclusively provide only bachelor or master degree certificates (e.g. Bremen or Erfurt).


In addition, there are the courses leading to Staatsexamen (state examinations), e. g. for lawyers and teachers, that qualify for entry into German civil service, but which are not recognized elsewhere as an academic degree (although the courses are sometimes identical).


On the whole though, Germany universities are internationally recognized. This is demonstrated by their positioning in international university rankings. Ten German universities were listed in the top 200 universities in the world in the 2006 THES - QS World University Rankings.[5] In higher education, college and university rankings are listings of educational institutions in an order determined by any combination of factors. ... The THES - QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings around the world, published by The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) and Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c COUNTRY PROFILE: GERMANY U.S. Library of Congress. December 2005. Retrieved 2006, 12-04
  2. ^ Schülerzahlen Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. Retrieved 2007, 07-20
  3. ^ Experts: Germany Needs to Step up School Reforms Deutsche Welle. April 12, 2006. Retrieved 2006, 12-04
  4. ^ Internationale Leistungsvergleiche im Schulbereich Bildungsministerium für Bildung und Forschung. Retrieved 2007, 07-20
  5. ^ [1] — A 2006 ranking from THES - QS of the world’s research universities.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with The Times Higher Education Supplement. ...

See also

Education by country

Australia • Armenia • Brazil • Canada • China • France • Germany • Hong Kong • India • Israel • Korea • Japan • Russia • United Kingdom • United States • More... Currently, Korea is divided into two separate countries. ...


Education by subject

Agricultural • Art • Bilingual • Chemistry • Hospitality management • Language • Legal • Mathematics • Medical • Military • Moulage • Music • Peace • Philosophy • Physics • Reading • Religious • Sail • Science • Sex • STEM • Technology • Vocational • More... Art education is the area of learning that is based upon the visual, tangible arts—drawing, painting, sculpture, and design in jewelry, pottery, weaving, fabrics, etc and design applied to more practical fields such as commercial graphics and home furnishings. ... Bilingual education involves teaching all subjects in school through two different languages - in the United States, instruction occurs in English and a minority language, such as Spanish or Chinese, with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model. ... Chemistry education is an active area of research within both the disciplines of chemistry and education, focusing on learning and teaching of chemistry in schools, colleges and universities, with the goals of understanding how students learn chemistry, how best to teach chemistry, and how to improve learning outcomes by changing... Hospitality management is the academic study of the running of hotels, restaurants, and travel and tourism-related business. ... Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals (attorneys and judges) or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end, either related to law (such as politics or academic) or unrelated (such as business entrepreneurship). ... Mathematics education is a term that refers both to the practice of teaching and learning mathematics, as well as to a field of scholarly research on this practice. ... Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor or further training thereafter. ... Moulage is the art of applying mock injuries for the purpose of training Emergency Response and other medical personnel. ... Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. ... Peace education is the process of acquiring the values, the knowledge and developing the attitudes, skills, and behaviours to live in harmony with oneself and with others. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Physics education refers both to the methods currently used to teach physics and to an area of pedagogical research that seeks to improve those methods. ... Reading education is the process by which an individual learns to read, that is, to construct meaning from printed language. ... Religious education teaches the doctrines of a religion. ... From its modern interpretations to its antecedents when maritime nations would send young naval officer candidates to sea (e. ... Science education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community. ... An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ... The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields are collectively considered core technological underpinnings of an advanced society. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ...


Educational stages

Preschool • Kindergarten • Primary • Secondary • Post-secondary (Vocational, Higher education (Tertiary, Quaternary)) • More... Child picking up book. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... Degree ceremony at Cambridge. ...


Alternative education

Autodidacticism • Education reform • Gifted education • Homeschooling • Polymath • Religious education • Special education • More... Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-education or self-directed learning. ... Education reform is a plan or movement which attempts to bring about a systematic change in educational theory or practice across a community or society. ... Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. ... Homeschooling – also called home education or home school – is the education of children at home, typically by parents or guardians, rather than in a public or private school. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... Religious education teaches the doctrines of a religion. ... Special education is instruction that is modified or particularized for those students with special needs, such as learning differences, mental health problems, specific disabilities (physical or developmental) [1] , and giftedness [2]. // Children with special needs have always been part of society. ...


General topics

List • Glossary • Philosophy • Psychology • Technology • Stubs • More... This is a list of education topics. ... This glossary of education-related terms is based on how they commonly are used in Wikipedia articles. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Learning Theories The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education. ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Educational technology is the use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching. ...

Education in East Germany was a high priority for the communist government, and was compulsory from age six to age sixteen. ... Diplom (from Greek Δίπλωμα diploma) is an academic degree in some European countries including Germany, Austria, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Estonia, Croatia, Serbia and Greece. ... Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ... This is a list of schools in Germany sorted by Bundesland. ... There are 331 universities and colleges in Germany, 159 Fachhochschulen (Universities of Applied Science), 95 non-state institutions (of these 51 privately-, 44 church-operated), and 56 which teach arts or music only. ...

External links

  1. ^ a b c COUNTRY PROFILE: GERMANY U.S. Library of Congress. December 2005. Retrieved 2006, 12-04
  2. ^ Schülerzahlen Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. Retrieved 2007, 07-20
  3. ^ Experts: Germany Needs to Step up School Reforms Deutsche Welle. April 12, 2006. Retrieved 2006, 12-04
  4. ^ Internationale Leistungsvergleiche im Schulbereich Bildungsministerium für Bildung und Forschung. Retrieved 2007, 07-20
  5. ^ [2] — A 2006 ranking from THES - QS of the world’s research universities.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Education in Germany - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4561 words)
In Germany, the 16 states have the exclusive responsibility in the field of education.
In Germany, education is the responsibility of the states (Länder) and part of their constitutional sovereignty (Kulturhoheit der Länder).
This might also have to do with the fact that the credit system is unknown in Germany so far, although it is being introduced with the Bologna process that is intended to unify education and degrees for all EU states.
Germany - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7350 words)
Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, whose unexpectedly high demands were perceived as humiliating in Germany, as a continuation of the war by other means and a breaking of traditional post-war diplomacy that included negotiations between the victors and vanquished.
Germany and Berlin were occupied and partitioned by the Allies into four military occupation zones – French in the south-west, British in the north-west, American in the south-east, and Soviet in the north-east.
Germany is located in Central Europe and shares borders with Denmark in the North, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France in the West, Austria and Switzerland in the South and Poland and the Czech Republic in the East.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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