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Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgment and well-developed wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). Education means 'to draw out', facilitating realisation of self-potential and latent talents of an individual. It is an application of pedagogy, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology —often more profound than they realize—though family teaching may function very informally. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... Image File history File links AF-kindergarten. ... Image File history File links AF-kindergarten. ... For other uses, see Kindergarten (disambiguation). ... A university classroom with permanently-installed desk-chairs and green chalkboards. ... Raphael, The school of Athens (detail) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This is a list of education topics. ... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... A skill is an ability, usually learned and acquired through training, to perform actions which achieve a desired outcome. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... A judgment or judgement (see spelling note below), in a legal context, is synonymous with the formal decision made by a court following a lawsuit. ... For the apocryphal book of the Bible, see Book of Wisdom. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... A family posing for a group photo socializes together. ... Pedagogy (IPA: ) , the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek (paidagōgeō; from (child) and (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the... Psychological science redirects here. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous...

Contents

Education systems

World map indicating Education Index (2007/2008 Human Development Report)
World map indicating Education Index (2007/2008 Human Development Report)

Education systems are established to provide education and training, in most cases for drunks and the elderly. A curriculum defines what students should know, understand and be able to do as the result of education. A teaching profession delivers teaching and sometimes personal sexual relationships with students which enables learning, and a system of polices, regulations, examinations, and pratice, :), structures and funding enables teachers to teach to the best of their abilities, to give students life experience, such as sexual experience needed. Sometimes education systems can be used to promote doctrines or ideals as well as knowledge, which is known as social engineering. This can lead to political abuse of the system, particularly in totalitarian states and government. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Primary education

Main article: Primary education
Primary school in open air. Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts of Bucharest, around 1842.
Primary school in open air. Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts of Bucharest, around 1842.

Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first years of formal, structured education. In general, primary education consists of six or seven years of schooling starting at the age of 5 or 6, although this varies between and sometimes within countries. Globally, around 70% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising.[1]. Under the Education for All program driven by UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrolment in primary education by 2015, and in many countries it is compulsory for children to receive primary education. The division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems have separate middle schools with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Mostly schools which provide primary education are referred to as primary schools. Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided into infant schools and junior schools. A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Image File history File links Teaching_Bucharest_1842. ... Image File history File links Teaching_Bucharest_1842. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary/elementary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... A Junior School is most commonly a school for pupils aged 7-11 in the United Kingdom. ...


Secondary education

Main article: Secondary education

In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education consists of the second years of formal education that occur during adolescence.[citation needed] It is characterised by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors to the optional, selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g., university, vocational school) for adults.[citation needed] Depending on the system, schools for this period or a part of it may be called secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools. The exact meaning of any of these varies between the systems. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United States and Canada primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year 1-13 is used. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession. Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... ... Teen redirects here. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... The term minor is used to refer to a person who is under the age in which one legally assumes adulthood and is legally granted rights afforded to adults in society. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also as referred to as a trade school or career college, and school is operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... For the adult insect stage, see Imago. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... A Lyceum can be an educational institution (often a school of secondary education in Europe), or a public hall used for cultural events like concerts. ... Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary/elementary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... For other uses, see College (disambiguation). ... Common knowledge is what everybody knows, usually with reference to the community in which the term is used. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... A profession is an occupation, vocation or career where specialized knowledge of a subject, field, or science is applied. ...


Higher education

Main article: Higher education
The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning.
The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning.

Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage or post secondary education, is the non-compulsory educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, or gymnasium[citation needed]. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively, these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions.Tertiary education generally results in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees. The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1514x998, 422 KB) View from the Backs to Clare College and Kings Chapel with a punt in the foreground. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1514x998, 422 KB) View from the Backs to Clare College and Kings Chapel with a punt in the foreground. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... Degree ceremony at Cambridge. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... For other uses, see College (disambiguation). ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... A certificate is an official document affirming some fact. ... Diploma from Mexico City College, 1948 (in Latin) A diploma (from Greek δίπλωµα diploma) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, or confers an academic degree. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ...


Higher education includes teaching, research and social services activities of universities, and within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Higher education in that country generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy.[citation needed] In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Foundation Degree is a vocational qualification introduced by the UK government in September 2001. ... Economics is the social science studying production and consumption through measurable variables. ...


Adult education

Lifelong, or adult, education has become widespread in many countries.[citation needed] However, education is still seen by many as something aimed at children, and adult education is often branded as adult learning or lifelong learning. Adult education takes on many forms, from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning.


Lending libraries provide inexpensive informal access to books and other self-instructional materials. The rise in computer ownership and internet access has given both adults and children greater access to both formal and informal education. In Scandinavia a unique[citation needed] approach to learning termed folkbildning has long been recognised as contributing to adult education through the use of learning circles. Mode of Education. 1-formal education, 2-informal education , 3-Non formal education. Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Formal Education:- the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded education system, running from primary school through the university and including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialized programs and institutions for full time technical and professional training.


Informal Education:- The truly lifelong process whereby every individual acquires attitude, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience and the educative influences and resources in his or her environment from family and neighbors, from work and play, from the market place the library and the mass media.


Non-Formal Education


any organized educational activity outside the established formal system- whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives.


Alternative education

Main article: Alternative education

Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, is a broad term which may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education). This may include both forms of education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage pregnancy to intellectual disability) and forms of education designed for a general audience which employ alternative educational philosophies and/or methods. Great Neck Village School, an alternative high school in Great Neck, New York, USA Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, describes an education that is modified or particularized for those having singular needs, such as maladjusted people and gifted children. ... Great Neck Village School, an alternative high school in Great Neck, New York, USA Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, describes an education that is modified or particularized for those having singular needs, such as maladjusted people and gifted children. ... Traditional education is usually the absence or target of destruction by Education reform. ...


Alternatives of the latter type are often the result of education reform and are rooted in various philosophies that are commonly fundamentally different from those of traditional compulsory education. While some have strong political, scholarly, or philosophical orientations, others are more informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with certain aspects of traditional education[citation needed]. These alternatives, which include charter schools, alternative schools, independent schools, and home-based learning vary widely, but often emphasize the value of small class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a sense of community[citation needed]. Education reform is a plan or movement which attempts to bring about a systematic change in educational theory or practice across a community or society. ... Philosophy of education is the study of such questions as what education is and what its purpose is, the nature of the knowing mind and the human subject, problems of authority, the relationship between education and society, etc. ... Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Scholarly method - or as it is more commonly called, scholarship - is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Student (disambiguation). ... Traditional education is usually the absence or target of destruction by Education reform. ... Sense of community (or psychological sense of community) is a concept in social psychology (or more narrowly, in community psychology), which focuses on the experience of community rather than its structure, formation, setting, or other features. ...


In certain places, especially in the United States, the term alternative may largely refer to forms of education catering to "at risk" students, as it is, for example, in this definition drafted by the Massachusetts Department of Education. [2] This article is about the U.S. state. ... Department of Education may refer to any of several government agencies: United Kingdom Department for Education and Skills (until 1996 named Department of Education) Scottish Education Department United States United States Department of Education United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Many U.S. states also have their own...


Education curriculum

An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university, or via some other such method. Functionally, disciplines are usually defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and by the learned societies to which their practitioners belong.[citation needed] Professors say schooling is 80% psychological, 20% physical effort.[citation needed] For a curriculum vitae, see Résumé. In formal education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. ... // An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge which is taught or researched at the college or university level. ... // An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge which is taught or researched at the college or university level. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ... This article is about the concept. ... A learned society is a society that exists to promote an academic discipline or group of disciplines. ...


Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities and applied sciences.[3] The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ...


Education process

Learning modalities

There has been a great deal of work on learning styles over the last two decades. Dunn and Dunn[4] focused on identifying relevant stimuli that may influence learning and manipulating the school environment, at about the same time as Joseph Renzulli[5] recommended varying teaching strategies. Howard Gardner[6] identified individual talents or aptitudes in his Multiple Intelligences theories. Based on the works of Jung, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter[7] focused on understanding how people's personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment. The work of David Kolb and Anthony Gregorc's Type Delineator[8] follows a similar but more simplified approach. It is commonly believed that most people favor some particular method of interacting with, taking in, and processing stimuli or information. ... Joseph Renzulli (July 7, 1936) is an American psychologist. ... It has been suggested that Naturalist Intelligence be merged into this article or section. ... The theory of multiple intelligences is a theory proposed by developmental psychologist Howard Gardner in 1983. ... Look up jung in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality questionnaire designed to identify certain psychological differences according to the typological theories of Carl Gustav Jung as published in his 1921 book Psychological Types (English edition, 1923). ... The Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS) is a self-assessed personality questionnaire designed to help people better understand themselves, first introduced in the book Please Understand Me. ... David Kolb (born 1941) is a well-known philosopher and the Charles A. Dana Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Bates College in Maine. ... Anthony F. Gregorc is most well known for his theory of a Mind Styles Model and its associated Style Delineator. ...


It is currently fashionable to divide education into different learning "modes". The learning modalities[9] are probably the most common:[10]

  • Kinesthetic: learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities.
  • Visual: learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned.
  • Auditory: learning based on listening to instructions/information.

It is claimed that, depending on their preferred learning modality, different teaching techniques have different levels of effectiveness.[11] A consequence of this theory is that effective teaching should present a variety of teaching methods which cover all three learning modalities so that different students have equal opportunities to learn in a way that is effective for them.[12] Proprioception (from Latin proprius, meaning ones own) is the sense of the position of parts of the body, relative to other neighbouring parts of the body. ... Vision can refer to: Visual perception is one of the senses. ... This article is about compression waves. ...


Teaching

Teachers need the ability to understand a subject well enough to convey its essence to a new generation of students.[citation needed] The goal is to establish a sound knowledge base on which students will be able to build as they are exposed to different life experiences.[citation needed] The passing of knowledge from generation to generation allows students to grow into useful members of society.[citation needed] Good teachers can translate information, good judgment, experience and wisdom into relevant knowledge that a student can understand and retain.[citation needed] As a profession, teaching has very high levels of Work-Related Stress (WRS)[13] which are listed as amongst the highest of any profession in some countries, such as the United Kingdom. The degree of this problem is becoming increasingly recognized and support systems are put into place.[14]


Education technology

Technology is an increasingly influential factor in education. Computers and mobile phones are being widely used in developed countries both to complement established education practices and develop new ways of learning such as online education (a type of distance education). This gives students the opportunity to choose what they are interested in learning. The proliferation of computers also means the increase of programming and blogging. Technology offers powerful learning tools that demand new skills and understandings of students, including Multimedia, and provides new ways to engage students, such as Virtual learning environments. Technology is being used more not only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of students. The use of technologies such as PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom. Technology is also being used in the assessment of students. One example is the Audience Response System (ARS), which allows immediate feedback tests and classroom discussions. This article is about the use of technology in education delivery. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with e-learning. ... Multimedia learning is the common name used to describe a the “Cognitive theory of Multimedia learning” (Mayer and Moreno, 1998; Moreno and Mayer, 1999; Mayer, 2001). ... Moodle Learning Management System with a navigation system and online community building tools. ... Power point redirects here. ... An Interactive Whiteboard is a device that interprets a projected two-dimensional surface that interacts with a computers desktop. ... Infrared audience response control Audience response is a type of interaction associated with the use of audience response systems, to create interactivity between a presenter and his audience. ...


Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a “diverse set of tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information.”[15] These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. There is increasing interest in how computers and the Internet can improve education at all levels, in both formal and non-formal settings.[16] Older ICT technologies, such as radio and television, have for over forty years been used for open and distance learning, although print remains the cheapest, most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery mechanism in both developed and developing countries.[17]


The use of computers and the Internet is still in its infancy in developing countries, if these are used at all, due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access. Usually, various technologies are used in combination rather than as the sole delivery mechanism. For example, the Kothmale Community Radio Internet uses both radio broadcasts and computer and Internet technologies to facilitate the sharing of information and provide educational opportunities in a rural community in Sri Lanka.[18] The Open University of the United Kingdom (UKOU), established in 1969 as the first educational institution in the world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning, still relies heavily on print-based materials supplemented by radio, television and, in recent years, online programming.[19] Similarly, the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India combines the use of print, recorded audio and video, broadcast radio and television, and audio conferencing technologies.[20]


The term "computer-assisted learning" (CAL) has been increasingly used to describe the use of technology in teaching.


Education history

Main article: History of education
A depiction of the University of Bologna, Italy
A depiction of the University of Bologna, Italy

The history of education according to Dieter Lenzen, president of the Freie Universität Berlin 1994 "began either millions of years ago or at the end of 1770". Education as a science cannot be separated from the educational traditions that existed before. Education was the natural response of early civilizations to the struggle of surviving and thriving as a culture.[citation needed] Adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on.[citation needed] The evolution of culture, and human beings as a species depended on this practice of transmitting knowledge.[citation needed] In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling continued from one generation to the next. Oral language developed into written symbols and letters. The depth and breadth of knowledge that could be preserved and passed soon increased exponentially.[citation needed] When cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond the basic skills of communicating, trading, gathering food, religious practices, etc, formal education, and schooling, eventually followed.[citation needed] Schooling in this sense was already in place in Egypt between 3000 and 500BC.[citation needed] The history of education is both long and short. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1634, 326 KB) Description: Title: de: Liber ethicorum des Henricus de Allemania, Einzelblatt, Szene: Henricus de Allemania vor seinen Schülern Technique: de: Pergament Dimensions: de: 18 × 22 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1634, 326 KB) Description: Title: de: Liber ethicorum des Henricus de Allemania, Einzelblatt, Szene: Henricus de Allemania vor seinen Schülern Technique: de: Pergament Dimensions: de: 18 × 22 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Berlin Current location... The University of Bologna (Italian: , UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ... Free University of Berlin The Free University of Berlin (FU Berlin, German: Freie Universität Berlin) is the largest university in Berlin, Germany. ...


The philosophy of education

John Locke's work Some Thoughts Concerning Education was written in 1693 and still reflects traditional education priorities
John Locke's work Some Thoughts Concerning Education was written in 1693 and still reflects traditional education priorities

The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, nature and ideal content of education. Related topics include knowledge itself, the nature of the knowing mind and the human subject, problems of authority, and the relationship between education and society.[citation needed] At least since Locke's time, the philosophy of education has been linked to theories of developmental psychology and human development.[citation needed] Wikibooks has more about this subject: Learning Theories The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Some Thoughts Concerning Education is a 1693 treatise on education written by the English philosopher John Locke. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Learning Theories The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education. ... // An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge which is taught or researched at the college or university level. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... In psychology, Human development is the study of mental and related processes across the life span. ...


Fundamental purposes that have been proposed for education include:

  • The enterprise of civil society depends on educating young people to become responsible, thoughtful and enterprising citizens. This is an intricate, challenging task requiring deep understanding of ethical principles, moral values, political theory, aesthetics, and economics, not to mention an understanding of who children are, in themselves and in society.[citation needed]
  • Progress in every practical field depends on having capacities that schooling can educate. Education is thus a means to foster the individual's, society's, and even humanity's future development and prosperity. Emphasis is often put on economic success in this regard.[citation needed]
  • One's individual development and the capacity to fulfill one's own purposes can depend on an adequate preparation in childhood. Education can thus attempt to give a firm foundation for the achievement of personal fulfillment. The better the foundation that is built, the more successful the child will be. Simple basics in education can carry a child far.[citation needed]

A central tenet of education typically includes “the imparting of knowledge.” At a very basic level, this purpose ultimately deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge.[citation needed] The branch of philosophy that addresses these and related issues is known as epistemology. This area of study often focuses on analyzing the nature and variety of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth and belief. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an entity whether it is a government, corporation, organization or individual has a responsibility to society. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the use of the moral in storytelling. ... Value redirects here. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Prosperity is best achieved when one creates wealth with wealth, be it ones own wealth (equity) or the wealth of another (debt). ... Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ... Human development may refer to: Human development (biology) Human development (psychology) see Developmental psychology Occasionally, it may refer to both, but because each of these is already an immense area, few if any contemporary academic discussions attempt to tackle both with any completeness. ... A goal is a state of affairs or a state of a concrete activity domain which a person or a system is going/tends to achieve or obtain. ... Maslows Hierarchy of Needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1945 paper A Theory of Human Motivation, which he subsequently extended to include his observations of humans innate curiosity. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Believe. ...


While the term, knowledge, is often used to convey this general purpose of education, it can also be viewed as part of a continuum of knowing that ranges from very specific data to the highest levels. Seen in this light, the continuum may be thought to consist of a general hierarchy of overlapping levels of knowing.[citation needed] Students must be able to connect new information to a piece of old information to be better able to learn, understand, and retain information.[citation needed] This continuum may include notions such as data, information, knowledge, wisdom, and realization. For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... For the apocryphal book of the Bible, see Book of Wisdom. ... Categories: Substubs ...


The ideal or holistic education [Cf: Conceptual Stress-Understanding and Management: Dr. Shriniwas Kashalikar] is conscious evolutionary transformation that aims at holistic health i.e. simultaneous welfare of one and all. This requires conscious developemnt of fitness of one's body, refinements of instincts, broadening and profoundness of emotions, blossoming of intelligence and liberating perspective of universal oneness. Besides, cognitive, affective and psychomotor the productive domain also must be nurtured for this.


Education psychology

A class size experiment in the United States found that attending small classes for 3 or more years in the early grades increased high school graduation of students from low income families.
A class size experiment in the United States found that attending small classes for 3 or more years in the early grades increased high school graduation of students from low income families.[21]

Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Although the terms "educational psychology" and "school psychology" are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists.[citation needed] Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations such as gifted children and those with specific disabilities.[citation needed] Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Image File history File links FinnGerberBoydZaharias2005. ... Image File history File links FinnGerberBoydZaharias2005. ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ... Binet could be considered the first school psychologist A school psychologist is a certified practitioner who applies principles of clinical psychology and counseling to the diagnosis and treatment of students behavioral problems. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gifted education. ... Disabilities are limitations in activity and/or functioning that are attributable to permanent medical conditions in physical, mental, emotional, and/or sensory domains and, significantly, are also due to societal responses to those limitations. ...


Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology.[citation needed] Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialities within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom management.[citation needed] Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences.[citation needed] In universities, departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education, possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks (Lucas, Blazek, & Raley, 2006). Psychological science redirects here. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Instructional design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. ... This article is about the use of technology in education delivery. ... Organizational learning is an area of knowledge within organizational theory that studies models and theories about the way an organization learns and adapts. ... This article is about educating students with disabilities or behavioral problems. ... Classroom management is a term used by many teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... The learning sciences is a program of interdisciplinary study that works to further scientific understanding of learning and teaching as well as engage in the design and implementation of learning innovations. ...


Education economics

High rates of education are essential for countries to achieve high levels of economic growth. [22] In theory poor countries should grow faster than rich countries because they can adopt cutting edge technologies already tried and tested by rich countries.[citation needed] But economists argue that if the gap in education between a rich and a poor nation is too large, as is the case between the poorest and the richest nations in the world, the transfer of these technologies that drive economic growth becomes difficult, thus the economies of the world's poorest nations stagnate.[citation needed]


Education sociology

Russia has more academic graduates than any other country in Europe.
Russia has more academic graduates than any other country in Europe.

The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and forces affect educational processes and outcomes, and vice versa. By many, education is understood to be a means of overcoming handicaps, achieving greater equality and acquiring wealth and status for all (Sargent 1994). Learners may be motivated by aspirations for progress and betterment. Education is perceived as a place where children can develop according to their unique needs and potentialities.[23] The purpose of education can be to develop every individual to their full potential.[citation needed] The understanding of the goals and means of educational socialization processes differs according to the sociological paradigm used. The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and individual experiences affect educational processes and outcomes. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 484 pixels Full resolution (877 × 531 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Europe Education Russia Economy of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 484 pixels Full resolution (877 × 531 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Europe Education Russia Economy of... The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and individual experiences affect educational processes and outcomes. ... A family posing for a group photo socializes together. ... Sociological paradigm (also sociological perespectives or frameworks) are specific points of view used by social scientists in social research. ...


Developing countries

In developing countries, the number and seriousness of the problems faced are naturally greater.[citation needed] People are sometimes unaware of the importance of education, and there is economic pressure from those parents who prioritize their children's making money in the short term over any long-term benefits of education.[citation needed] Recent studies on child labor and poverty have suggested that when poor families reach a certain economic threshold where families are able to provide for their basic needs, parents return their children to school.[citation needed] This has been found to be true, once the threshold has been breached, even if the potential economic value of the children's work has increased since their return to school.[citation needed] Teachers are often paid less than other similar professions.[citation needed] A profession is an occupation, vocation or career where specialized knowledge of a subject, field, or science is applied. ...


A lack of good universities, and a low acceptance rate for good universities, is evident in countries with a relatively high population density.[citation needed] In some countries, there are uniform, over structured, inflexible centralized programs from a central agency that regulates all aspects of education.

  • Due to globalization, increased pressure on students in curricular activities
  • Removal of a certain percentage of students for improvisation of academics (usually practised in schools, after 10th grade)

India is now developing technologies that will skip land based phone and internet lines. Instead, India launched EDUSAT, an education satellite that can reach more of the country at a greatly reduced cost. There is also an initiative started by a group out of MIT and supported by several major corporations to develop a $100 laptop. The laptops should be available by late 2006 or 2007. The laptops, sold at cost, will enable developing countries to give their children a digital education, and to close the digital divide across the world. Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... EDUSAT or GSAT-3 was launched in September 2004 by the Indian Space Research Organisation. ... The $100 laptop is an education project for creating an inexpensive laptop computer intended to provide every child in the world access to knowledge and modern forms of education. ...


In Africa, NEPAD has launched an "e-school programme" to provide all 600,000 primary and high schools with computer equipment, learning materials and internet access within 10 years. Private groups, like The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, are working to give more individuals opportunities to receive education in developing countries through such programs as the Perpetual Education Fund. An International Development Agency project called nabuur.com, started with the support of American President Bill Clinton, uses the Internet to allow co-operation by individuals on issues of social development. New Partnership for Africas Development is an economic development program of the African Union. ... The E-School program run by NEPAD aims to provide computers and internet access to all schools in Africa within 10 years, and also to set up health points to tie in with Nepads E-Health program. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... The Perpetual Education Fund is a program of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, first announced by President Gordon B. Hinckley on March 31, 2001. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Internationalisation

Education is becoming increasingly international. Not only are the materials becoming more influenced by the rich international environment, but exchanges among students at all levels are also playing an increasingly important role. In Europe, for example, the Socrates-Erasmus Programme stimulates exchanges across European universities. Also, the Soros Foundation provides many opportunities for students from central Asia and eastern Europe. Some scholars argue that, regardless of whether one system is considered better or worse than another, experiencing a different way of education can often be considered to be the most important, enriching element of an international learning experience.[24] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


See also

This glossary of education-related terms is based on how they commonly are used in Wikipedia articles. ... Education is the process by which an individual is encouraged and enabled to develop his or her potential; it may also serve the purpose of equipping the individual with what is necessary to be a productive member of society. ... This is a list of articles on education organized by country: Education in Afghanistan Education in Albania Education in Algeria Education in Argentina Education in Armenia Education in Australia Education in Austria Education in Bangladesh Higher Education in Bangladesh Education in Belarus Education in Belgium Education in Bolivia Education in... This is a list of education topics. ... Academic dishonesty or academic misconduct is any type of cheating that occurs in relation to a formal academic exercise. ... Libraries are useful resources for adult learners. ... Great Neck Village School, an alternative high school in Great Neck, New York, USA Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, describes an education that is modified or particularized for those having singular needs, such as maladjusted people and gifted children. ... Behavior modification is the use of empirically demonstrated behavior change techniques to improve behavior, such as altering an individuals behaviors and reactions to stimuli through positive and negative reinforcement of adaptive behavior and/or the reduction of maladaptive behavior through positive and negative punishment. ... Classical education as understood and taught in the Middle Ages of Western culture is roughly based on the ancient Greek concept of Paideia. ... Collaborative learning is an umbrella term for a variety of approaches in education that involve joint intellectual effort by students or students and teachers. ... Comparative education seeks to throw light on education in one country (or group of countries) by using data and insights drawn from the practises and situation in another country, or countries. ... For a curriculum vitae, see Résumé. In formal education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. ... Curriculum studies is a field that addresses distinct and important issues related to education. ... // Distance Education is a field of expertise exploring situations in which the learner and the teacher are separated in time, space or both. ... Homeschooling (also called home education) is the education of children at home and in the community, in contrast to education in an institution such as a public or parochial school. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Educational animations are animations produced for the specific purpose of fostering learning. ... Malpractice in the field of education has traditionally not been recognized, apparently due to the difficulty in relating teaching methods to outcomes in individual cases. ... Entrepreneurship education seeks to provide students with the knowledge, skills and motivation do enact entrepreneurial possibilities, often in a variety of settings. ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Educational research is research which investigates the behaviour of pupils, students, teachers, and other participants in schools and other educational institutions. ... This article is about the use of technology in education delivery. ... It has been suggested that E-learning glossary be merged into this article or section. ... Efficient learning method is a type of teaching developed to transfer knowledge, understanding and information to students as efficiently as possible, using information technology tools. ... Experiential Education is a philosophy in which educators purposefully engage with learners through a variety of experiential methodologies in direct experience and focused reflection in order to increase knowledge, develop skills and clarify values. ... Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. ... This glossary of education-related terms is based on how they commonly are used in Wikipedia articles. ... Quaternary education or postgraduate education is the fourth-stage educational level which follows the completion of an undergraduate degree at a college or university. ... The history of education is both long and short. ... Indoctrination is the process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology. ... // History of instructional technology Instructional technology was born as a military response to the problems of a labor shortage during WWII in the United States. ... Language education refers to the teaching and learning of a language. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... Learning 2. ... In professional education learning by teaching designates a method which centers on student voice, allowing pupils and students to prepare and teach lessons or parts of lessons. ... A learning community is a group of people who share common values and beliefs, are actively engaged in learning together from each other. ... Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals (attorneys and judges) or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end, either related to law (such as politics or academic) or unrelated (such as business entrepreneurship). ... Lifelong learning is the concept that Its never too soon or too late for learning, a philosophy that has taken root in organisations such as the UK Governments Department for Education and Science. ... This is a list of educators. ... Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor or further training thereafter. ... An online learning community is a common place on the Internet that addresses the learning needs of its members through proactive partnerships. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Pedagogy (IPA: ) , the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek (paidagōgeō; from (child) and (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Learning Theories The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education. ... // Public spending on education in 2005 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Single-sex education is the practice of conducting education where male and female students attend separate classes or in separate buildings or schools. ... A family posing for a group photo socializes together. ... The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and individual experiences affect educational processes and outcomes. ... This article is about educating students with disabilities or behavioral problems. ... The Blooms Wheel, according to the Blooms verbs and matching assessment types. ... For university teachers, see professor. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Virtual education refers to instruction in a learning environment where teacher and student are separated by time or space, or both, and the teacher provides course content through course management applications, multimedia resources, the Internet, videoconferencing, etc. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... Look up freedom in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... This article is about virtue. ... Look up brotherhood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Parties to the ICCPR: members in green, non-members in grey The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ... The term right to life is a political term used in controversies over various issues that involve the taking of a life (or what is perceived to be a life). ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... Human security refers to an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... “Cruel And Unusual” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... Equality before the law or equality under the law or legal egalitarianism is the principle under which each individual is subject to the same laws, with no individual or group having special legal privileges. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arbitrary arrest and detention, or (AAD), is the arrest and detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that he or she committed a crime against legal statute, or where there has been no proper due process of law. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... Presumption of innocence is a legal right that the accused in criminal trials has in many modern nations. ... An ex post facto law (from the Latin for from something done afterward) or retroactive law, is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences of acts committed or the legal status of facts and relationships that existed prior to the enactment of the law. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... Title page of a European Union member state passport. ... Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Group of women holding placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that one... Freedom of association is a Constitutional (legal) concept based on the premise that it is the right of free adults to mutually choose their associates for whatever purpose they see fit. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... ... Equal pay for women is an issue involving pay inequality between men and women. ... Remuneration is pay or salary, typically monetary compensation for services rendered, as in a employment. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas of wages, hours, and working conditions. ... A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... Mothers Rights concern the rights of mothers including both Womens Rights and Parental Rights. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Fundamentalism · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights... Human rights education is the teaching of the history, theory, and law of human rights in schools as well as outreach to the general public. ... Freedom of education incorporates the right of any person to manage their own education, start a school, or to have access to education of their choice without any constraints. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ... Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an entity whether it is a government, corporation, organization or individual has a responsibility to society. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...

References

  1. ^ UNESCO, Education For All Monitoring Report 2008<nowiki>Insert non-formatted text here<nowiki>Insert non-formatted text here</nowiki></nowiki>, Net Enrolment Rate in primary education
  2. ^ Definition of Alternative Education From the Massachusetts Department of Education
  3. ^ Examples of subjects...
  4. ^ Dunn and Dunn
  5. ^ Biographer of Renzulli
  6. ^ Thomas Armstrong's website detailing Multiple Intelligences
  7. ^ Keirsey web-site
  8. ^ Type Delineator description
  9. ^ Swassing, R. H., Barbe, W. B., & Milone, M. N. (1979). The Swassing-Barbe Modality Index: Zaner-Bloser Modality Kit. Columbus, OH: Zaner-Bloser.
  10. ^ Varied Learning Modes
  11. ^ Barbe, W. B., & Swassing, R. H., with M. N. Milone. (1979). Teaching through modality strengths: Concepts and practices. Columbus, OH: Zaner-Bloser.
  12. ^ Learning modality description from the Learning Curve website
  13. ^ Work-Related Stress in teaching
  14. ^ Teacher Support for England & Wales
  15. ^ Blurton, Craig. New Directions of ICT-Use in Education. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  16. ^ ICT in Education
  17. ^ Potashnik, M. and Capper, J.. Distance Education:Growth and Diversity. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  18. ^ Taghioff, Daniel. Seeds of Consensus—The Potential Role for Information and Communication Technologies in Development.. Retrieved on 2003-10-12.
  19. ^ Open University of the United Kingdom Official website
  20. ^ Indira Gandhi National Open University Official website
  21. ^ Finn, J. D., Gerber, S. B., Boyd-Zaharias, J. (2005). Small classes in the early grades, academic achievement, and graduating from high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 214-233.
  22. ^ Hanushek, Economic Outcomes and School Quality
  23. ^ Schofield, K. (1999). "The Purposes of Education", Queensland State Education: 2010, [Online] URL: www.aspa.asn.au/Papers/eqfinalc.PDF [Accessed 2002, Oct 28]
  24. ^ Dubois, H.F.W., Padovano, G., & Stew, G. (2006) Improving international nurse training: an American–Italian case study. International Nursing Review, 53(2): 110–116.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Home Page, a part of the U.S. Department of Education (275 words)
The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), located within the U.S. Department of Education and the Institute of Education Sciences, is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education.
Digest of Education Statistics, 2006Jul 26The 42nd in a series of publications initiated in 1962, the Digest's primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American education from prekindergarten through graduate school.
Demographic and School Characteristics of Students Receiving Special EducationJul 26This Issue Brief provides a detailed description of the proportion of elementary school students receiving special education in kindergarten, first grade, third grade, and fifth grade; the primary disabilities of these students; and the variation in these measures across a range of demographic and school characteristics.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Education (10780 words)
Education aims at an ideal, and this in turn depends on the view that is taken of man and his destiny, of his relations to God, to his fellowmen, and to the physical world.
As a result of their efforts, education was provided for the clergy in the cathedral schools under the direct supervision of the bishop and for the laity in parochial schools to which all had access.
The university was thus, in the educational sphere, the highest expression of that completeness which had all along characterized the teaching of the Church; and the spirit of inquiry which animated the medieval university remains, in spite of other modification, the essential element in the university of modern times.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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