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Encyclopedia > Edsel
Edsel
Edsel Logo
Former Type
Fate Failed
Founded 1958
Defunct 1959
Location Dearborn, Michigan
Flag of the United States United States
Industry Automobile
Products Mid-priced cars
Former Parent Ford Motor Company

The Edsel was a make of automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company during the 1958, 1959, and 1960 model years. The car brand is best known as one of the most spectacular failures in the history of the United States automobile industry. Image File history File links EdsellogoE.png Ford Corporations Edsel brand logo This is a logo of a corporation, sports team, or other organization, and is protected by copyright and/or trademark. ... Jan. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location in Michigan Coordinates: , Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Government  - Mayor John B. O’Reilly, Jr. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Car redirects here. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... A marque (French for brand and pronounced as mark) is a brand name, most commonly used for automobile brands. ... “Ford” redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Ford Vice President of Design George Walker, right, talks to I.B. "Bud" Kaufman, a member of the E-Car design team, in the mid-1950s
Ford Vice President of Design George Walker, right, talks to I.B. "Bud" Kaufman, a member of the E-Car design team, in the mid-1950s
Edsel Citation Convertible 1958
Edsel Citation Convertible 1958
Edsel 1959
Edsel 1959
Edsel Convertible
Edsel Convertible
Edsel Convertible
Edsel Convertible
Edsel Pacer 2-Door HT 1958
Edsel Pacer 2-Door HT 1958
1959 Edsel Corsair Convertible
1959 Edsel Corsair Convertible

In the early 1950s, the Ford Motor Co. became a publicly traded corporation that was no longer entirely owned by members of the Ford family. They were then able to sell cars without being hindered by Henry Ford's antiquated preferences following the sellers' market of the postwar years. The new management compared the roster of Ford makes with that of General Motors, and noted that Lincoln competed not with Cadillac, but with Oldsmobile. Since Ford had an excess of money on hand from the success of the Ford Thunderbird the plan was developed to move Lincoln upmarket with the Continental at the top, and to add another make to the intermediate slot vacated by Lincoln. Research and development had begun in 1955 under the name "E-car," which stood for "Experimental car." This represented a new division of the firm alongside that of Ford itself and the Lincoln-Mercury division, whose cars at the time shared the same body. Image File history File links Edseldevelopment. ... Image File history File links Edseldevelopment. ... George W. Walker (b. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Edsel car. ... Edsel car. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Lincoln is an American luxury automobile brand, operated under the Ford Motor Company. ... Cadillac is a brand of luxury automobile, part of the General Motors corporation, produced and mostly sold in the USA; outside of North America, they have been less successful. ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ... The Ford Thunderbird was a car manufactured in the United States by the Ford Motor Company. ... Lincoln is an American luxury automobile brand, operated under the Ford Motor Company. ... Mercury is an automobile marque of the Ford Motor Company founded in 1939 to market entry-level-luxury cars slotted between Ford-branded regular models and Lincoln-branded luxury vehicles, similar to General Motors Buick (and former Oldsmobile) brand and Chryslers Chrysler brand. ...


The Edsel was introduced amidst considerable publicity on "E Day"—September 4, 1957. It was promoted by a top-rated television special, The Edsel Show on October 13, but it was not enough to counter the adverse public reaction to the car's styling and conventional build. For months Ford had been circulating rumours that led consumers to expect an entirely new kind of car when in reality the Edsel shared its bodywork with other Ford models. is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The title image from The Edsel Show The Edsel Show was an hour-long television special broadcast live on CBS in the United States on October 13, 1957, intended to promote Ford Motor Companys new Edsel cars. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Edsel was to be sold through a new Ford division. It existed from November 1956 until January 1958, after which Edsels were made by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln division (referred to as M-E-L). Edsel was sold through a new network of 1,500 dealers. This briefly brought total dealers of all Ford products to 10,000. Ford saw this as a way to come closer to parity with the other two companies of the Big Three: Chrysler had 10,000 dealers and General Motors had 16,000. As soon as it became apparent that the Edsels were not selling, many of these dealers added Lincoln-Mercury, English Ford and/or Taunus dealerships to their lines with the encouragement of Ford Motor Company. Some dealers, however, closed. The Chrysler Corporation was a United States-based automobile manufacturer that existed independently from 1925–1998. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Ford Taunus was a large family car sold by Ford in Germany. ...


For the 1958 model year, Edsel produced four models, including the larger Mercury-based Citation and Corsair, and the smaller, more affordable Ford-based Pacer and Ranger. The Citation came in two-door and four-door hardtops and two-door convertible versions. The Corsair came in two-door and four-door hardtop versions. The Pacer came in two-door and four-door hardtops, four-door sedan, and two-door convertible. The Ranger came in two-door and four-door hardtop or sedan versions. The four-door Bermuda and Villager wagons and the two-door Roundup wagon were based on the 116" wheelbase Ford station wagon platform and shared the trim and features of the Ranger and Pacer models. It included several features that were, at the time, cutting-edge innovations, among which were its "rolling dome" speedometer and its Teletouch transmission shifting system in the center of the steering wheel. Other, less-touted but more enduring design innovations included a primitive attempt at ergonomically designed controls for the driver, and self-adjusting brakes (often claimed as a first for the industry, although this was not so—Studebaker had pioneered them earlier in the decade). The Edsel Citation was an automobile model produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958. ... The Edsel Corsair was an automobile model produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958. ... 1958 Edsel Pacer four-door sedan The Edsel Pacer was an automobile model produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958. ... The Edsel Ranger was an automobile model produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958. ... This article is about the type of car. ... The Edsel Villager was a station wagon produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln (M-E-L) Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan, and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958, 1959 and 1960. ... 1958 Edsel Roundup station wagon The Edsel Roundup was a station wagon produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln (M-E-L) Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan, and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958. ... Edsel catalog image of the Edsel Teletouch Teletouch was the trade name for the transmission controls found on many Edsel brand automobiles manufactured by the Edsel and Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln (M-E-L) Divisions of the Ford Motor Company. ... Studebaker Corporation, or simply Studebaker, was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. ...


In the first year, 63,110 Edsels were sold in the U.S. with another 4,935 sold in Canada. Though this was below expectations, it was still the second largest car launch for any brand to date, second only to the Plymouth introduction in 1928. Plymouth sailboat logo used from 1996 to 2001 Plymouth was a brand of automobile based in the United States, marketed by the Chrysler Corporation from 1928 to 2001. ...


For the 1959 model year, there were only two Edsels: the Ranger and the Corsair, which was really a relabeled Pacer. The two larger cars were not produced. The new Corsair came in two-door and four-door hardtops, four-door sedan, and two-door convertible. The Ranger came in two-door and four-door hardtops, two-door and four-door sedans, and the Villager station wagon. In the 1959 model year, 44,891 cars were sold in the U.S., with an additional 2,505 sales in Canada.


For the 1960 model year, Edsel's last, only the Ranger and Villager were produced. The 1960 Edsel, in its final model year, emerged as a Ford. Its grill, hood, and four taillights, along with its side sweep spears, were the only real differences separating the Edsel from the Ford.


End of the Edsel

Ford announced the end of the Edsel program on Thursday, November 19, 1959. However, cars continued being produced until late in November, with the final tally at 2,846 1960 models. Total sales were approximately 84,000, less than half McNamara's projected break-even point. The company lost $350 million on the venture [1]. is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On Friday, November 20, United Press International's (UPI) wire service reported that book values for used Edsels had decreased by as much as $400 [approximately $2800 in 2006 dollars] (based on condition and age) immediately following the Ford press release. In some newspaper markets, dealers scrambled to renegotiate newspaper advertising contracts involving the 1960 Edsel models, while others dropped the name from their dealership's advertising "slugs." Ford issued a statement that it would distribute coupons to consumers who purchased 1960 models (and carryover 1959 models) prior to the announcement, valued at $300 to $400 towards the purchase of new Ford products to offset the decreased values. The company also issued credits to dealers for stock unsold or received, following the announcement. is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. “UPI” redirects here. ...


Edsel and its failures

There is no single reason why the Edsel failed, and failed so spectacularly. Popular culture often faults the car’s styling. Consumer Reports cited poor workmanship. Marketing experts hold the Edsel up as a supreme example of corporate America’s failure to understand the nature of the American consumer. Business analysts cite the weak internal support for the product inside Ford’s executive offices. According to author and Edsel scholar Jan Deutsch, the Edsel was "the wrong car at the wrong time." Consumer Reports is an American magazine published monthly by Consumers Union. ... Jan G. Deutsch (1935-) is a philosopher and legal scholar best known for his work on the philosophy of corporate law, jurisprudence, and the cultural underpinnings of capitalist democracy. ...


"The aim was right, but the target moved"

One popular misconception was that the Edsel was an engineering failure, or a lemon, although it shared the same general reliability of its sister Mercury and Ford models that were built in the same factories.[citation needed] The Edsel is most famous for being a marketing disaster. Indeed, the name Edsel came to be synonymous with commercial failure, and similar ill-fated products have often been colloquially referred to as Edsels. Since it was such a debacle, it provided a case study for marketers on how not to market a product. The main reason the Edsel's failure is so famous was that it flopped despite Ford’s investment of $400,000,000 in its development. A lemon is a defective car that, when purchased new or used, is found by the purchaser to have numerous or severe defects not readily apparent before the purchase. ...


The prerelease advertising campaign touted the car as having "...more YOU ideas," and the teaser advertisements in magazines only revealed glimpses of the car through a highly blurred lens or wrapped in paper or under tarps. Edsels were shipped to the dealerships undercover and remained wrapped on the dealer lots.


But the public also had a hard time understanding what the Edsel was, mostly because Ford made the mistake of pricing the Edsel within Mercury’s market price segment. Theoretically, the Edsel was conceived to fit into Ford’s marketing plans as the brand slotted in between Ford and Mercury. However, when the car arrived in 1958, its least expensive model—the Ranger—was priced within $73 (US) of the most expensive and best-trimmed Ford sedan and $63 (US) less than Mercury’s base Medalist model. In its midrange pricing, Edsel's Pacer and Corsair models were more expensive than their Mercury counterparts. Edsel's top-of-the-line Citation four door hardtop model was the only model priced to correctly compete with Mercury’s mid-range Montclair Turnpike Cruiser model, as illustrated in the chart below.

1958 Ford Motor Company Pricing (FOB) Structure
FORD EDSEL MERCURY LINCOLN
      Continental $4,802-$4,927
      Capri $4,803-$4,951
      Premiere $4,334-$4,798
    Park Lane $4,280-$4,405  
  Citation $3,500-$3,766 Montclair $3,236-$3,597  
  Corsair $3,311-$3,390    
  Pacer $2,700-$2,993 Monterey $2,652-$3,081  
Fairlane 500 $2,410-3,138 Ranger $2,484-$2,643 Medalist $2,547-$2,617  
Fairlane $2,196-3,407      
Custom 300 $1,977-2,119      


Not only was the Edsel competing against its own sister divisions, but model for model, consumers did not understand what the car was supposed to be—a step up or a step below the Mercury.


After its introduction to the public, the Edsel did not live up to its overblown hype, even though it did have many new features, such as self-adjusting rear brakes and automatic lubrication. While consumer focus groups had said these and other features would make the "E" car attractive to them as car buyers, the cost of the cars outstripped what the public was willing to pay. When many potential buyers saw the base price tag, they simply left the dealership, and others were frightened by the price for a fully loaded, top of the line model.


The wrong car at the wrong time

One of the external forces working against the Edsel that Ford had no control over was the onset of the recession in late 1957.


When the Edsel was in its planning stages in the early and mid-1950s, the American economy was robust and growing. However, in the years that spanned the planning to its introduction, an economic recession hit, and American consumers not only shifted their idea of what an ideal car should be; in prior economic downturns, buyers flocked to the lower price marques like Plymouth, Chevrolet, and Ford. But in 1958, even these cars were perceived by some as unnecessarily large, and while the compact Rambler saw itself shoot to the third best selling make, none of the Big Three had anything compact to sell except their European cars built for Vauxhall, Simca, and Opel. The compacts introduced by the Big Three in 1960 were the direct result of the recession of 1958. Rambler logo, 1960s Rambler was an automobile brand name used by the Thomas B. Jeffery Company between 1900 and 1914, then by its successor, Nash Motors in 1950, and finally by Nashs successor, American Motors Corporation from 1954 to 1969. ... The Rambler American introduced in the late 1950s was an early compact car. ... Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ... Simca Rallye 2 Simca is a now-defunct French automobile manufacturer, which also produced cars in Brazil and Spain in the 1960s. ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... The Recession of 1958 was a sharp worldwide economic downturn in 1958. ...


Compounding Edsel's problems was that the car had to appeal to buyers of other well established nameplates from the Big Three, such as Pontiac, Oldsmobile, Dodge, DeSoto, and even its internal sister division, Mercury -- itself never a stellar sales success. This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dodge (disambiguation). ... DeSoto Logo, used in the 1950s The DeSoto (sometimes De Soto) was a brand of automobile based in the United States, marketed by the Chrysler Corporation from 1928 to 1961. ...


Even if the 1958 recession hadn't hit when it did, the Edsel was entering into a shrinking marketplace. While Ernest Breech convinced Ford management that this market segment offered great untapped opportunity in the early 1950s, when the "E" car was in its earliest stages, by 1957, independent manufacturers in the mid-price field were drifting towards insolvency. Hoping to turn around their losses, Packard acquired Studebaker, yet the venerable Packard was no longer produced after 1958. On the other hand, American Motors changed its focus to the compact Rambler models, while their pre-merger brands (Nash and Hudson) were discontinued after the 1957 model year. Even Chrysler saw sales of its DeSoto marque drop dramatically from its 1957 high by over 50% in 1958. Following a disastrous 1959 model year, plans were made in Highland Park to discontinue DeSoto during its 1961 model year run. For people named Packard, see Packard (surname). ... Studebaker Corporation, or simply Studebaker, was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. ... American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed on January 14, 1954 by the merger of the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and the Hudson Motor Car Company. ... Also see: Kelvinator and American Motors Corporation Nash Motors was an automobile manufacturer based in Kenosha, Wisconsin in the United States from 1916 to 1938. ... Hudson Six-40, 1914 1937 Hudson Custom Eight 1950 Hudson The Hudson Motor Car Company made Hudson brand automobiles in Detroit, Michigan, from 1909 to 1957. ... DeSoto Logo, used in the 1950s The DeSoto (sometimes De Soto) was a brand of automobile based in the United States, marketed by the Chrysler Corporation from 1928 to 1961. ...


Thus, the large, expensive Edsel that was planned to be all things to all people suddenly stood for excess, not progress.


Edsel, a difficult name to place

The name of the car, Edsel, is also often cited as a further reason for its unpopularity. Naming the vehicle after Edsel Ford was proposed early in its development. However, the Ford family strongly opposed its use, Henry Ford II stating that he didn't want his father's good name spinning around on thousands of hubcaps. Ford also ran internal studies to decide on a name and even dispatched employees to stand outside movie theaters to poll audiences as to what their feelings were on several ideas. They reached no conclusions. Edsel Bryant Ford (November 6, 1893 – May 26, 1943), son of Henry Ford, was born in Detroit. ...


Ford hired the advertising firm Foote, Cone and Belding to come up with a name. However, when the advertising agency issued its report, citing over 6,000 possibilities, Ford's Ernest Breech commented that they had been hired to develop a name, not 6,000. Early favorites for the name brand included Citation, Corsair, Pacer, and Ranger, which were ultimately chosen for the vehicle's series names.


David Wallace, Manager of Marketing Research, and coworker Bob Young unofficially invited poet Marianne Moore for input and suggestions. Moore's unorthodox contributions (among them "Utopian Turtletop," "Pastelogram," and "Mongoose Civique") were meant to stir creative thought and were not officially authorized or contractual in nature. History has greatly exaggerated her relationship to the project. Marianne Moore photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1948 Marianne Moore (December 11, 1887 - February 5, 1972) was a Modernist American poet and writer. ...


At the behest of Ernest Breech, who was chairing a meeting in the absence of Henry Ford II, the car was finally called "Edsel" in honor of Edsel Ford, former company president and son of Henry Ford. Marketing surveys later found the name was thought to sound like the name of a tractor (Edson) and therefore was unpopular with the public. Moreover, several consumer studies showed that people associated the name "Edsel" with "weasel" and "dead cell" (dead battery), drawing further unattractive comparisons. Ernest R. Breech (1897-1978) was an American corporate executive. ... Henry Ford II Henry Ford II (September 4, 1917 — September 29, 1987), commonly known as Hank the Deuce, was the son of Edsel Ford and grandson of Henry Ford. ... Edsel Bryant Ford (November 6, 1893 – May 26, 1943), son of Henry Ford, was born in Detroit. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ...


Too big when small was in

Perhaps the most important factor in the Edsel's failure, however, was that when the car was introduced, the U.S. was entering a period of recession. Sales for all car manufacturers, even those not introducing new models, were down; consumers entered a period of preferring less expensive, more fuel-efficient automobiles. In macroeconomics, a recession is a decline in a countrys real gross domestic product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense, is the same as thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. ...


Edsels were fast, but required premium gas and did not have the fuel economy desired during a recession. Mechanics disliked the bigger engine because of its unique design. The cylinder head had no combustion chamber and was perfectly flat, with the head set at an angle and "roof" pistons forming both a squish zone on one side and a combustion chamber on the other, meaning that the combustion took place entirely within the cylinder bore. This design reduced the cost of manufacture and possibly carbon buildup, but appeared strange to mechanics.


There were also reports of mechanical flaws in the models originating in the factory, due to lack of quality control and confusion of parts with other Ford models. Edsels in their first (1958) model year were made in both Mercury and Ford factories; the longer wheelbase models, Citation and Corsair, were produced alongside the Mercury products, and the shorter wheelbase models, Pacer and Ranger, were produced alongside the Ford products. There was never a stand-alone Edsel factory devoted solely to Edsel model production; workers making Fords and Mercurys literally had to change parts bins and tools to assemble extra Edsels once their hourly quota of regular Fords and Mercurys was achieved. As such, the desired quality control of the different Edsel models was difficult to attain for the new make of car. Many Edsels left the line unfinished, with the extra parts having been put into the trunks, with assembly instructions for the mechanics at the dealerships. For the Jurassic 5 album, see Quality Control (album) In engineering and manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or exceed customer requirements. ... Mercury is an automobile marque of the Ford Motor Company founded in 1939 to market entry-level-luxury cars slotted between Ford-branded regular models and Lincoln-branded luxury vehicles, similar to General Motors Buick (and former Oldsmobile) brand and Chryslers Chrysler brand. ...


Design controversies

The Edsel is best remembered for its trademark "horsecollar" grille, which made it stand out from other cars of the period. A widely circulated wisecrack at the time was that "It looked like an Oldsmobile sucking on a lemon." Men often referred to the horsecollar grille as being akin to a woman’s genitalia. In fact, Robin Jones, a Ford designer at the time, later recalled that someone in the design studio - presumably as a cruel joke - actually taped hair to the inside of the grille area on one of the clay models produced during the design process; the end result, according to Jones, "looked like a hormonally-disturbed cow after giving birth." Two horse collars A horse collar is a device used to distribute load around a horses neck, for pulling a wagon or plow. ... The vulva (from Latin, vulva, plural vulvae or vulvas; see etymology) is the region of the external genital organs of the female, including the labia majora, mons pubis, labia minora, clitoris, bulb of the vestibule, vestibule of the vagina, greater and lesser vestibular glands, and vaginal orifice. ...


Jokes aside, the front of the original Edsel turned out nothing like what was originally intended. Roy Brown, the original chief designer on the project, wanted a slender, almost delicate opening in the center; engineers, fearing engine cooling problems, vetoed the intended design, which led to the "horsecollar." The vertical grille theme, while improved for the 1959 models, was discontinued for the 1960 models, which were almost indistinguishable from Ford models of the same year, although the new front-end design bore no small resemblance to that of the 1959 Pontiac. This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ...


Many drivers disliked having the automatic transmission as pushbuttons (above) mounted on the steering wheel hub: this was the traditional location of the horn, and drivers ended up shifting gears instead of honking the horn. While the Edsel was fast, the location of the transmission pushbuttons was not conducive to street racing. There were jokes about stoplight dragsters and the buttons: D for Drag, L for Leap, and R for Race (instead of Drive, Low and Reverse).


There were also complaints about the taillights on 1958-model Edsel station wagons, which were boomerang-shaped and placed in a reverse fashion; at a distance, they appeared as arrows pointed in the opposite direction of the turn being made. While the left turn signal blinked, its arrow shape pointed right, and vice versa. However, there was little that could be done to give the Ford-based station wagons a unique appearance from the rear; corporate management insisted that no sheetmetal could be changed. Only the taillights and trim could be touched. This article is about the wooden implement. ...


The role of Robert McNamara

While the car and Ford’s planning of the car are the most often cited reasons for its failure, internal politics within the executive offices at Ford are as much to blame for the failure of the Edsel. Following World War II, Henry Ford II brought on Robert McNamara as one of the "whiz kids" to help turn Ford around. McNamara’s cost cutting and cost containment skills helped Ford emerge from its near collapse after the war. As such, McNamara eventually assumed a great deal of power at Ford. In many ways, McNamara was very much like Henry Ford: both men were committed to Ford above all other things and had little use for Continental, Lincoln, Mercury, and Edsel brand cars made by the company. For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ...


McNamara was against the formation of the separate divisions for Continental, Lincoln, Mercury, and Edsel cars, and moved to consolidate Lincoln, Mercury, and Edsel into the M-E-L division. McNamara saw to it that the Continental program was canceled and that the model was merged into the Lincoln range for 1958. He next set his sights on Edsel by maneuvering for elimination of the dual wheelbases and separate body used in 1958; instead, the Edsel would share the Ford platform and use Ford’s inner body structure for 1959. In 1960, the Edsel emerged as a Ford with different trim. McNamara also moved to reduce Edsel’s advertising budget for 1959, and for 1960, he virtually eliminated it. The final blow came in the fall of 1959, when McNamara convinced Henry Ford II and the management structure that the Edsel was doomed and that it was time to end production before the Edsel bled the company dry. (Note: McNamara also attempted to end the Lincoln nameplate; however, that effort ended with Elwood Engel's now classic redesign of 1961.) McNamara left Ford when he was named Secretary of Defense by President John F. Kennedy. Lincoln is an American luxury automobile brand, operated under the Ford Motor Company. ... Mercury is an automobile marque of the Ford Motor Company founded in 1939 to market entry-level-luxury cars slotted between Ford-branded regular models and Lincoln-branded luxury vehicles, similar to General Motors Buick (and former Oldsmobile) brand and Chryslers Chrysler brand. ... Elwood Engel was Chrysler Corporations design chief from 1961 until 1974. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


The Edsel Comet

The scheduled 1960 Edsel Comet compact car was hastily rebranded the Comet and assigned to Mercury dealerships. The Comet was an instant success, selling more cars in its first year than all models of Edsel produced during its three-year run. Styling touches seen in the Comets sold to the public that allude to being part of the Edsel family of models included the instrument cluster, rear tailfins (though canted diagonally), and the taillight shape (the lens is visually similar to that used on the 1960 Edsel, and even retained the embossed "E" code). The Comet's keys were even shaped like Edsel keys, with the center bar removed from the "E" to form a "C." For 1962, Ford officially assigned the Comet to the Mercury brand. 1960 promotional art used in Comet advertising The Mercury Comet was an automobile produced by the Mercury division of the Ford Motor Company between 1960 and 1977. ...


Popular culture

  • As the Edsel was a large commercial failure, the name became a popular joke in various media. An acronym "Every Day Something Else Leaks" was invented because of the car's failure. Television programs, cartoons, video games, and films have all used the Edsel as humor, usually as a quick joke or as a sight gag.
  • The car has developed a following in American car culture. Fewer than 6,000 Edsels survive and are considered collectors’ items. Top condition Citation convertibles sometimes sell for over $100,000. [1]

A television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... A visual gag is a joke that relies on a physical object or action. ... The Edsel Citation was an automobile model produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958. ...

Highly collectible

Fifty years after its spectacular failure, Edsel has become a highly collectible item amongst vintage car hobbyists. A mint 1958 car can sell up to $100,000, while rare models, like 1960 convertible, may price up to $200,000. While the design was considered "ugly" fifty years ago, many other car manufacturers, such as Pontiac and Alfa Romeo, have employed similar vertical grille successfully on their car designs. This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... Alfa Romeo is an Italian automobile manufacturing company, founded as Darracq Italiana by Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan in partnership with the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq. ...


Many of the Edsel's features, such as transmission lock on ignition, adjustable brakes, gear selection as steering wheel buttons etc, which were considered "too impractical" in the late 1950s, are today standard features of sports cars.


Trivia

In May 1958, then Vice President Richard Nixon was on a trip to Peru, riding in an Edsel convertible, when he was pelted with eggs and tomatoes by demonstrators. Nixon later joked: "They were throwing eggs at the car, not me."[2] Nixon redirects here. ...


References

  1. ^ Collier and Horowitz, Fords: An American Family, 1987, Simon & Schuster, p. 263
  2. ^ To Ford, a Disaster. To Edsel Owners, Love. - New York Times
  • Bonsall, Thomas E. (2002). Disaster in Dearborn: The Story of the Edsel. Stanford University Press. 
  • Duetsch, Jan (1976). The Edsel and Corporate Responsibility. Yale University Press. 
  • Wallace, David (Second Quarter 1975). "Naming the Edsel". Automotive Quarterly Magazine XIII (2): 182-191. 
  • Barron, James. "To Ford, a Disaster. To Edsel Owners, Love.", The New York Times, 2007-08-01. 

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Edsel vehicles (category)
Image File history File links Etineyedsel. ... 2001 BMW 750iL The Ford Falcon, a popular Australian full-size car A full-size car is a marketing term used in North America for an automobile larger than a mid-size car. ... The Edsel Ranger was an automobile model produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958. ... 1958 Edsel Pacer four-door sedan The Edsel Pacer was an automobile model produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958. ... The Edsel Corsair was an automobile model produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958. ... The Edsel Citation was an automobile model produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958. ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... 1958 Edsel Roundup station wagon The Edsel Roundup was a station wagon produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln (M-E-L) Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan, and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958. ... The Edsel Villager was a station wagon produced by the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln (M-E-L) Division of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan, and sold through its Edsel marque in 1958, 1959 and 1960. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Edsel (921 words)
Perhaps the most important factor in the Edsel's failure, however, was that when the car was introduced, the U.S. was entering a period of recession.
Various other problems were cited, including the unpopularity of the Edsel's trademark "horsecollar" grille, which made it stand out from other cars of the period, and reports that there were mechanical flaws in the model originating in the factory, due to lack of quality control and confusion of parts with other Ford models.
The "horsecollar" grille was dropped for the 1960 model; 1960 Edsels had a body-type almost indistinguishable from the Mercury cars released that year.
Driving Today (1591 words)
First, a word about Edsel Ford: He was, by all accounts, a thoroughly decent man, unlikely his often-pigheaded father, and in the vernacular, he was a "car guy" in the best sense, because it is obvious that he loved cars.
Edsel also loved fast, attractive autombiles, and he commissioned Ford employees and designers to build several of them for him, the most famous, of course, the inspiration for the Lincoln Continental.
Edsel did spearhead a revival of Ford fortunes, beginning with the Model A and continuing through many well-received Fords and Lincolns of the Thirties, but by 1943 the son of the founder was spent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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