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Encyclopedia > Edmund Bonner

Edmund Bonner (c. 1500September 5, 1569), Bishop of London, was an English bishop. Initially an instrumental figure in the schism of Henry VIII from Rome, he was antagonized by the Protestant reforms introduced by Somerset and reconciled himself to Roman Catholicism. He became notorious as Bloody Bonner for his role in the persecution of heretics under the Catholic government of Mary I of England, and ended his life as a prisoner under Queen Elizabeth. 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy sees, the term Holy See is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church) to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop of Rome, commonly called... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Edward Seymour Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ...

Contents

Early life

He was the son of Elizabeth Frodsham, who was married to Edmund Bonner, a sawyer of Hanley in Worcestershire. John Strype (Eccles. Mem. III. i.17 2-173) printed an accounting, with many circumstantial details, stating that Bonner was the natural son of George Savage, rector of Davenham, Cheshire, and that his mother married Bonner only after the future bishop's birth. This account was disputed by Strype's contemporary, Sir Edmund Lechmere, who asserted (ib. Annals, I.ii.300) that Bonner was of legitimate birth. Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ... John Strype (November 1, 1643 - December 11, 1737) was an English historian and biographer. ...


He was educated at Broadgates Hall, now Pembroke College, Oxford, graduating bachelor of civil and canon law in June 1519. He was ordained about the same time, and admitted doctor of civil law (DCL) in 1525. College name Pembroke College Collegium Pembrochianum Named after The Earl of Pembroke Established 1624 Sister College Queens College Master Giles Henderson JCR President Dawn Rennie Undergraduates 408 MCR President Ross Nicolson Graduates 119 College Homepage Boat Club The lodge and the entrance to Pembroke College in Pembroke Square. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ...


An agent of royal supremacy

In 1529 he was Thomas Cardinal Wolsey's chaplain, which brought him to the notice of the king and Thomas Cromwell. After the fall of Wolsey he remained faithful to him and was with him at the time of his arrest at Cawood and death at Leicester in 1530. Subsequently he was transferred, perhaps through Cromwell's influence, to the service of the king, and in January 1532 he was sent to Rome as the king's agent when the question of the king's divorce was raised. There he sought to obstruct the judicial proceedings against Henry in the papal curia. In October 1533 he was entrusted with the task of suggesting to Clement VII (while he was the guest of Francis I at Marseille) Henry's appeal from the pope to a general council; but there seems to be no good authority for Gilbert Burnet's story that Clement threatened to have him burnt alive. For these and other services Bonner had been rewarded by successive grants of the livings of Cherry Burton (Yorks), Ripple (Worcester), Blaydon (Durham), and East Dereham (Norfolk), and in 1535 he was made archdeacon of Leicester. Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, (c. ... Thomas Cromwell: detail from a portrait by Hans Holbein, 1532-3 Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex ( 1485 - July 28, 1540) was an English statesman, one of the most important political figures of the reign of Henry VIII of England. ... Cawood (Other names: Carwood, Thorpe Lane) is a large village in North Yorkshire. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. ... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... Gilbert Burnet (September 18, 1643-March 17, 1715) was a Scottish divine and historian, and Bishop of Salisbury. ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ... , Blaydon (or Blaydon-on-Tyne) is a town in the North East of England in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, and is commonly described as one of the most pleasant places to live in the United Kingdom. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... East Dereham, also known simply as Dereham, is a town and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For the Major League Baseball player, see Maurice Archdeacon. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ...


During the following years he was much employed on important embassies in the king's interests, first to the pope to appeal against the excommunication pronounced in July 1533, afterwards to the Emperor to dissuade him from attending the general council which the pope wished to summon at Vicenza. Towards the end of 1535 he was sent to further what he called "the cause of the Gospel" (Letters and Papers, 1536, No. 469) in North Germany; and in 1536 he wrote a preface to Stephen Gardiner's De vera Obedientia, which asserted the royal and denied the papal supremacy, and was received with delight by the Lutherans. After a brief embassy to the Emperor in the spring of 1538, Bonner succeeded Gardiner as ambassador to the French Court in Paris. In this capacity he proved capable and successful, though irritation was frequently caused by his overbearing and dictatorial manner. He began his mission by sending Cromwell a long list of accusations against his predecessor. He was almost as bitter against Wyatt and Mason, whom he denounced as a "papist," and the violence of his conduct led Francis I to threaten him with a hundred strokes of the halberd. He seems, however, to have pleased his patron, Cromwell, and perhaps Henry, by his energy in seeing the king's "Great" Bible in English through the press in Paris. He was already king's chaplain; his appointment at Paris had been accompanied by promotion to the see of Hereford (27th November 1538) but owing to his absence he could neither be consecrated nor take possession of his see, and he was still abroad when he was translated to the Bishopric of London (October, 1539). Bonner returned to England and was consecrated 4th April, 1540. Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Vicenza is a city in northern Italy, is the capital of the eponymous province in the Veneto region, at the northern base of the Monte Berico, straddling the Bacchiglione. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Stephen Gardiner (c. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ... Stephen Gardiner (c. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503 – October 6, 1542) was a poet and Ambassador in the service of Henry VIII. He first entered Henrys service in 1516 as Sewer Extraordinary, and the same year he began studying at St Johns College of the University of Cambridge. ... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... The Diocese of Hereford is a Church of England diocese based in Hereford, covering Herefordshire, southern Shropshire and a few parishes within Worcestershire in England; and a few parishes within Powys and Monmouthshire in Wales. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


Hitherto Bonner had had a reputation as a somewhat coarse and unscrupulous tool of Cromwell – a sort of ecclesiastical Wriothesley, he is not known to have protested against any of the changes effected by his masters; he professed to be no theologian, and was in the habit, when asked technical questions, to refer his interrogators to the theologians. He had graduated in law, and not in theology. There was nothing in the Reformation to appeal to him, except the repudiation of papal control; and he was one of those numerous Englishmen whose views were faithfully reflected in Henry's Act of the Six Articles. Indeed, almost his first duty as Bishop of London was to try heretics under these articles; accusations of excessive cruelty and bias against the accused were spread broadcast by his enemies, and from the first he seems to have been unpopular in London. He became a staunch conservative. During the years 1542-43 he was again abroad in Spain and Germany as ambassador to the emperor, at the end of which time he returned to London. Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, 1603, in the Tower, atrributed to John de Critz. ... The Six Articles of 1539 (short title ), also called the Bloody Statute and the Bloody Whip with Six Strings, was an Act of Parliament which reaffirmed Henry VIIIs general Catholicism. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ...


The death of the king on 28th January 1547, proved the turning point in Bonner's career. Hitherto he had shown himself entirely subservient to the sovereign, supporting him in the matter of the divorce, approving of the suppression of the religious houses, taking the oath of Supremacy which Fisher and More refused at the cost of life itself. But while accepting the schism from Rome, he had always resisted the innovations of the Reformers, and held to the doctrines of the old religion. Therefore from the first he put himself in opposition to the religious changes introduced by Protector Somerset and Archbishop Cranmer. Bonner began to doubt that supremacy when he saw to what uses it could be put by a Protestant council, and either he or Gardiner evolved the theory that the royal supremacy was in abeyance during a royal minority. The ground was skilfully chosen, but it was not legally nor constitutionally tenable. Both he and Gardiner had in fact sought fresh licences to exercise their ecclesiastical jurisdiction from the young king Edward VI; and, if he was supreme enough to confer jurisdiction, he was supreme enough to issue the injunctions and order the visitation to which Bonner objected. It was on this question that he came into conflict with Edward's government. is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Oath of Supremacy, imposed by the Act of Supremacy 1559, provided for any person taking public or church office in England to swear allegiance to the monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. ... For other persons named John Fisher, see John Fisher (disambiguation). ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... Edward Seymour Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Edward I of Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ...


Realignment with Catholicism

Bonner resisted the visitation of August 1547, and was committed to the Fleet Prison; but he withdrew his opposition, and was released in time to take an active part against the government in the parliament of November 1547. In the next session, November 1548-March 1549, he was a leading opponent of the first Act of Uniformity and Book of Common Prayer. When these became law, he neglected to enforce them, and on September 1, 1549 he was required by the council to maintain at St Paul's Cross that the royal authority was as great as if the king were forty years of age. He did so, but with such significant omissions in the matter which had been prescribed touching the king's authority, that after a seven days' trial he was deprived of his bishopric by an ecclesiastical court over which Cranmer presided, and sent as a prisoner to the Marshalsea. The fall of Somerset in the following month raised Bonner's hopes, and he appealed from Cranmer to the council. After a struggle the Protestant faction gained the upper hand, and on February 7, 1550 Bonner's deprivation was confirmed by the council sitting in the Star Chamber, and he was further condemned to perpetual imprisonment. Here he remained till the accession of Mary in 1553. Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Pray remember ye poor debtors: inmates of the Fleet Prison beg passers by for alms. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... The Act of Uniformity 1549 (citation 2 & 3 Edward VI, c. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... The Marshalsea Marshalsea was a debtors prison in Southwark, London best known for being the place where Charles Dickenss father was imprisoned for debt and as the central location in Dickenss book Little Dorrit. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey...


Bonner was at once restored to his see, his deprivation being regarded as invalid and Ridley as an intruder. He vigorously restored Roman Catholicism in his diocese, made no difficulty about submitting to the papal jurisdiction which he had foresworn. During 1554 Bonner carried out a visitation of his diocese, restoring the Mass and the manifold practices and emblems of Catholic life, but the work was carried out slowly and with difficulty. To help in the work, Bonner published a list of thirty-seven "Articles to be enquired of", but these led to such disturbances that they were temporarily withdrawn. Nicholas Ridley (died October 16, 1555) was an English clergyman. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


There was in London at this time a determined Reforming element which opposed in every way the restoration of Catholic worship; although the Parliament in 1554 welcomed Pole as Papal Legate and sought absolution and reconciliation from him with apparent unanimity, there was a real hostility to the whole proceeding among a considerable section of the populace. Street brawls arising out of religious disputes were frequent, and Bonner himself was physically attacked on at least two occasions. The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ...


Mary's administration thought that the Reformers would best be dealt with by the ecclesiastical tribunals, rather than by the civil power, and on Bonner, as Bishop of London, fell the chief burden to stamp out religious dissent. Therefore, in 1555 began the persecution to which he owes his notoriety among his detractors as Bloody Bonner. Besides his judicial work in his own diocese, Bonner was appointed to degrade Cranmer at Oxford in February 1556. The part he took in these affairs gave rise to intense hatred on the part of the Reformers. Foxe in his "Book of Martyrs" summed up this view in two lines: Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... John Foxe, line engraving by George Glover, first published in the 1641 edition of Actes and Monuments John Foxe (1516–April 8, 1587) is remembered as the author of the famous Foxes Book of Martyrs. ...

"This cannibal in three years space three hundred martyrs slew
They were his food, he loved so blood, he spared none he knew."

His apologists, including defenders of Catholicism in England, contend that his action was merely "official", and that "he had no control" over the fate of the accused "once they were declared to be irreclaimable heretics and handed over to the secular power; but he always strove by gentle suasion first to reconcile them to the Church" (Mr Gairdner, qtd in Catholic Encyclopedia). The Catholic Encyclopedia estimates the number of persons executed as heretics in his jurisdiction as about 120, rather than 300. Bonner did not go out of his way to persecute; many of his victims were forced upon him by the king and queen in Council, which at one point addressed a letter to Bonner on the express ground that he was not proceeding with sufficient severity. So completely had the state dominated the church that religious persecutions had become state persecutions, and Bonner was acting as an ecclesiastical sheriff in the most refractory district of the realm. Even John Foxe records instances in which Bonner failed to persecute. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... John Foxe, line engraving by George Glover, first published in the 1641 edition of Actes and Monuments John Foxe (1516–April 8, 1587) is remembered as the author of the famous Foxes Book of Martyrs. ...

Bonner punishing a heretic from John Foxe’s book (1563)
Bonner punishing a heretic from John Foxe’s book (1563)

Bonner's detractors, beginning with his Protestant contemporaries John Foxe and John Bale and continuing through most English historiography of the period, paint a different picture. Bonner, they point out, was one of those who brought it to pass that the condemnation of heretics to the fire should be part of his ordinary official duties, and he was represented as hounding men and women to death with merciless vindictiveness. Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham, was as loyal a Roman Catholic as Bonner, but he left a different reputation behind him. Bale, formerly a friar and ex-Bishop of Ossory, published from his place of exile at Basle in 1554, an attack on the bishop, in which he speaks of him as "the bloody sheep-bite of London", "bloody Bonner", and still coarser epithets. Bonner is seen at his worst, by many critics, in his brutal jeers at Cranmer, his former superior. Others contend that, in spite of his prominence, neither Henry VIII nor Mary should ever have admitted him to the privy council. He seems to have been regarded by his own party as a useful instrument, especially in disagreeable work, rather than as a desirable colleague. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 580 pixelsFull resolution (1436 × 1041 pixels, file size: 460 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood cut of Bonner punishing a heretic from John Foxe’s book (1563) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 580 pixelsFull resolution (1436 × 1041 pixels, file size: 460 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood cut of Bonner punishing a heretic from John Foxe’s book (1563) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... John Foxe, line engraving by George Glover, first published in the 1641 edition of Actes and Monuments John Foxe (1516–April 8, 1587) is remembered as the author of the famous Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... John Bale John Bale (21 November 1495–November, 1563) was an English churchman, historian and controversialist, Bishop of Ossory. ... Cuthbert Tunstall (or Tonstall) (1474 - November 18, 1559) was an English church leader, twice Bishop of Durham. ... The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ... The diocese of Ossory in south central Ireland (in the province of Leinster and counties Kilkenny and Laois) took its name from a former a petty kingdom , Osraige. ... Basel (English traditionally: Basle [ba:l], German: Basel [ba:z@l], French Bâle [ba:l], Italian Basilea [bazilE:a]) is Switzerlands third most populous city (188,000 inhabitants in the canton of Basel-City as of 2004; the 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ...


Bonner's most important writings date from this time. They include Responsum et Exhortatio in laudem Sacerdotii (1553); Articles to be enquired of in the General Visitation of Edmund Bishop of London (1554); and Homelies sette forth by Eddmune Byshop of London, . . . to be read within his diocese of London of all Parsons, vycars and curates, unto their parishioners upon Sondayes and holy days (1555). There was also published under his name a catechism, probably written by his chaplains, Harpsfield and Pendleton, entitled "A profitable and necessary doctrine" (1554, 2d ed. 1555).


Under Elizabeth

A man so regarded could expect small consideration when the death of Mary (November 17, 1558) placed Elizabeth on the throne. On her accession the new Anglican queen refused to allow him to kiss her hand; but he sat and voted in the parliament and convocation of 1559. From 24 June 1559, the Mass was forbidden as well as all other services not in the Book of Common Prayer, but long before that date the Mass ceased in most London churches, though Bonner took care that in his cathedral at least it should still be celebrated. In May he refused to take the oath of supremacy, acquiring like his colleagues consistency with old age. According to an envoy from the Court of Mantua, Bonner resisted orders to remove the service of the Mass by saying, "I possess three things soul, body, and property. Of the two latter, you can dispose at your pleasure, but as to the soul, God alone can command me." The Council ordered him to resign the bishopric, which he refused to do, adding that he preferred death. He was sent again to the Marshalsea on April 20, 1560. During the next two years representatives of the reforming party frequently clamored for the execution of Bonner and the other imprisoned bishops. When the Parliament of 1563 met, a new Act was passed by which the first refusal of the oath of royal supremacy was praemunire, the second, high treason. The bishops had refused the oath once, so that by this Act, which became law on April 10, 1563, their next refusal of the oath might be followed by their death. Thanks to the intervention of the Spanish ambassador, action against the bishops was delayed; but a year later, on April 29, 1564, Bonner was indicted on a charge of praemunire on refusing the oath when tendered him by his diocesan, Bishop Horne of Winchester. He challenged the legality of Horne's consecration, and a special act of parliament was passed to meet the point, while the charge against Bonner was withdrawn. Four times a year for three years he was forced to in the courts at Westminster only to be further remanded. The last of these appearances took place in the Michaelmas term of 1568, so that the last year of the bishop's life was spent in prison. His demeanor during his long imprisonment was remarkable for unfailing cheerfulness, and even Jewel describes him in a letter as "a most courteous man and gentlemanly both in his manners and appearance" (Zurich Letters, I, 34). Bishop Jewel in a letter to Peter Martyr related this event however, "Being confined to the tower of London upon accession of Queen Elizabeth, the highest punishement inflicted, he went to visit some of the criminals kept in that prision, and wishing to ingratiate them, called them his friends and neighbors. Upon this, one of them answered "Go beast, into hell, and find your friends there, for we are none of them. I killed but one man upon a provocation, and do truly repent of it; but you have killed many holy persons of all sorts, without any provocation from them, and are hardened in your impenitence." He died in the Marshalsea on September 5, 1569, and was buried in St George's, Southwark, at midnight to avoid the risk of a hostile demonstration. According to Catholic sources, the coffin was soon secretly removed to Copford, near Colchester, where it was buried under the north side of the altar. 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Mantua (in Italian Mantova, in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo language Mantua) is an important city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province with the same name. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Praemunire (an error, from Latin præmonere, to pre-admonish or forewarn), was an offence in English law that took its name from the introductory words of the writ of summons issued to the defendant to answer the charge, Præmunire facias A.B., &c. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Praemunire (an error, from Latin præmonere, to pre-admonish or forewarn), was an offence in English law that took its name from the introductory words of the writ of summons issued to the defendant to answer the charge, Præmunire facias A.B., &c. ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... For other places with the same name, see Southwark (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Colchester (disambiguation). ...


Bonner in historical memory

Contemporary Catholic writers attributed to Bonner and the other bishops who died in prison the honor of martyrdom: in vinculis obierunt martyres. On the walls of the English College, Rome, an inscription recording the death of the eleven bishops, but without naming them, found a place among the paintings of the martyrs. Bonner was attacked during life with a hatred which has followed him even after death, so that in English history few names have been so execrated and vilified as his.


A more charitable assessment of Bonner's character was made by an Anglican historian, S.R. Maitland, who considers him,

"a man, straightforward and hearty, familiar and humorous, sometimes rough, perhaps coarse, naturally hot tempered, but obviously (by the testimony of his enemies) placable and easily intreated, capable of bearing most patiently much intemperate and insolent language, much reviling and low abuse directed against himself personally, against his order, and against those peculiar doctrines and practices of his church for maintaining which he had himself suffered the loss of all things, and borne long imprisonment. [...] In short, we can scarcely read with attention any one of the cases detailed by those who were no friends of Bonner, without seeing in him a judge who (even if we grant that he was dispensing bad laws badly) was obviously desirous to save the prisoner's life."

This verdict was generally followed by later historians. Lord Acton in the Cambridge Modern History (1903) argued: "The number of those put to death in his diocese of London was undoubtedly disproportionately large, but this would seem to have been more the result of the strength of the reforming element in the capital and in Essex than of the employment of exceptional rigor; while the evidence also shows that he himself patiently dealt with many of the Protestants, and did his best to induce them to renounce what he conscientiously believed to be their errors."

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Tregear Homilies

Bonner's Homelies to be read within his diocese of London of all Parsons, vycars and curates (1555) were translated into Cornish by John Tregear, and are now the largest single work of traditional Cornish prose. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ...


A bridge, gate in Victoria Park and two streets are named after him in the East End of London. Victoria Park lake (2004) The Bathing Pond in Victoria Park. ... The East End of London, known locally as the East End, is an area, with no formal authority or boundaries, that spans a number of administative districts of London in England. ...


His name lives on in folk memory in Norfolk where ladybirds are named bishibarnabees (Bishop Bonner's bee) perhaps after their ecclesiastical colouring, or, more likely, the association of red and black with blood and death. The Norfolk dialect, also known as Broad Norfolk, is a dialect that was once spoken by those living in the county of Norfolk in England. ...


References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Edmund Bonner - LoveToKnow 1911 (1313 words)
EDMUND BONNER (1500?-1569), bishop of London, was perhaps the natural son of George Savage, rector of Davenham, Cheshire, by Elizabeth Frodsham, who was afterwards married to Edmund Bonner, a sawyer of Hanley in Worcestershire.
After a struggle the Protestant faction gained the upper hand, and on the 7th of February 1550 Bonner's deprivation was confirmed by the council sitting in the Star Chamber, and he was further condemned to perpetual imprisonment.
Tunstal was as good a Catholic as Bonner; he left a different repute behind him, a clear enough indication of a difference in their deeds.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Edmund Bonner (2377 words)
He was the son of Edmund Bonner, a sawyer of Potter's Henley in Worcestershire, England, and Elizabeth Frodsham.
Bishop Bonner's conduct on his restoration to his see the difficulties of the position must be recalled.
As Bonner sat at St. Paul's Cross to hear Gilbert Bourne preach, when reference was made to the bishop's sufferings under Edward VI a dagger was thrown at the preacher.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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