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Encyclopedia > Edmund Muskie
Edmund Sixtus "Ed" Muskie
Image:Edmund Muskie.jpg
Order: 58th Secretary of State
Term of Office: May 8, 1980 -
January 20, 1981
Predecessor: Cyrus Vance
Successor: Alexander Haig
Date of Birth: March 28, 1914
Place of Birth: Rumford, Maine
Spouse: Jane Muskie
Profession: politician
Political Party: Democrat
President: Jimmy Carter

Edmund Muskie (March 28, 1914March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic politician from Maine. He served as Governor of Maine, a U.S. Senator, as U.S. Secretary of State, and ran as a candidate for Vice President of the United States. From [1]. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cyrus Vance Cyrus Roberts Vance (March 27, 1917 – January 12, 2002) was the United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980. ... For other people named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Paper mill along the river in Rumford Rumford is a town located in Oxford County, Maine. ... Marriage is a relationship that plays a key role in the definition of many families. ... Jane Gray Muskie (February 12, 1927- December 25, 2004) was the widow of U.S. senator and 1968 vice presidential candidate Edmund Muskie, whose 1972 presidential campaign collapsed after he emotionally defended Mrs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... A political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Official language(s) None Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 39th 33,414 sq mi  86,542 km² 190 miles  305 km 320 miles  515 km 13. ... This is a list of Governors of Maine since statehood in 1820. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government. ...

Contents


Early life

Muskie was born Edmund Sixtus Marciszewski in Rumford, Maine, the son of Roman Catholic Polish immigrants. He graduated from Bates College in 1936 and Cornell University Law School in 1939 before serving in the United States Navy during World War II rising to Lieutenant. Paper mill along the river in Rumford Rumford is a town located in Oxford County, Maine. ... For other uses, see Bates (disambiguation), Bates (surname) Bates College is a private liberal arts college, founded in 1855, located in Lewiston, Maine, in the United States. ... This is about the university. ... The United States Navy (also known as USN or the U.S. Navy) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Lieutenant is a military, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ...


Career in Maine

After the war, he was instrumental in building up the United States Democratic Party in Maine. Maine had traditionally been a Republican state, notable for being one of the only two states that Alf Landon carried against Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1936 (the other was Vermont). The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Alfred M. Landon Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, notable nationally for his 1936 nomination as the Republican opponent of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ...


He served in the Maine House of Representatives before being elected Governor in 1954. Maines house of Representatives is part of the states legislature, the lower house, the other chamber being the Senate. ... This is a list of Governors of Maine since statehood in 1820. ...


National career

In 1958 Governor Muskie defeated incumbent Republican Senator Frederick G. Payne by 60 percent of the vote to 39 percent. Senator Muskie was reelected in 1964, 1970 and 1976 by solid margins over 60%. Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1958 was an election for the United States Senate which occurred in the middle of President Dwight D. Eisenhowers second term. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... Frederick George Payne (July 24, 1904 - June 15, 1978) was a Republican politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1964 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with the re-election of President Lyndon Baines Johnson by an overwhelming majority. ... Results -- Conservative pickups in orange, Independent pickups in yellow, Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1970 was an election for the United States Senate which was a midterm election in the term of... Results -- Independent holds in light yellow, Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1976 was an election for the United States Senate that coincided with Democrat Jimmy Carters election to the presidency. ...


Muskie became one of the first environmentalists to enter the U.S. Senate and was a leading campaigner for new and stronger measures to curb pollution and provide a cleaner environment.


In 1968, Muskie was nominated for Vice President on the Democratic ticket with sitting Vice President Hubert Humphrey. The Humphrey-Muskie campaign lost the election to Richard Nixon winning 42.72% of the vote, 13 states and 191 electoral votes to Nixon-Agnew's 43.42%, 32 states and 301 electoral votes. Third party candidate George Wallace had taken 13.53%, won 5 states in the Deep South and carried their 46 votes in the electoral college. Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Governor George Wallace (in front of door) standing defiantly against desegregation while being confronted by Deputy U.S. Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach at the University of Alabama. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... An electoral college is a set of electors who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect someone to a particular office. ...


Continuing his career in the Senate, Muskie served as Chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on the Budget through the Ninety-third to the Ninety-sixth Congresses in 1973-1980. The United States Senate Committee on Budget was established in 1974 by the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act. ... The Ninety-third United States Congress was in session from 1973 to 1975. ... Ninety-sixth United States Congress Links and spelling have to be verified. ...


In 1970, the Maine senator was chosen to articulate the Democratic party's message to congressional voters before the midterm elections. Muskie's broadcast was seen as thoughtful and definitive in comparison to the message of President Nixon, who appearing in black and white, seemed harsh and paranoid over unrest in the nation over Vietnam and the economy[citation needed]. Considering the obvious parallels drawn between the two men, Muskie's national stature was raised as a major candidate for the Democratic Presidential Nomination in 1972.


Presidential Candidate

Before the 1972 election, Muskie was viewed as the frontrunner, a moderate establishment candidate, for the Democratic Presidential nomination. The nation was at war in Vietnam and the Democratic Party was set to battle against President Nixon's conduct of the war. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


But the grassroots Iowa caucuses made the early runnings more liberal and anti-war than Muskie's perceived positions. Though the senator had built up the Democratic party in his home state of Maine, Muskie had never participated in a primary election campaign. Some observers faulted Muskie's political inexperience as one of the factors that led to the foundering of his campaign. A letter was published written by ABC news anchor Howard K. Smith to the candidate indicating the anchor's full support for his campaign. This was during a contentious period when the Nixon Administration claimed that the press was biased in its news coverage. Muskie lost momentum, and after winning the New Hampshire primary by only a small margin, saw his lead fall to South Dakota Senator George McGovern. Since 1976, the Iowa caucus has been the first indication of which candidate for President of the United States would win the nomination of his or her political party at that partys national convention. ... This article is about the American network, for the Australian network, see Australian Broadcasting Corporation The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is a television and radio network in the United States. ... Howard K. Smith Howard Kingsbury Smith (May 12, 1914 – February 15, 2002) was an American journalist and radio reporter. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,163 sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... George McGovern Dr. George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential candidate, losing the 1972 presidential election to incumbent Richard Nixon. ...


The collapse of Muskie's momentum early in the 1972 campaign is also attributed to his response to personal attacks. First, just prior to the New Hampshire primary, the so-called Canuck Letter was published in conservative New Hampshire newspaper, the Manchester Union-Leader. The letter to the editor claimed that Muskie had made disparaging remarks about French-Canadians – a remark likely to injure Muskie's support among the French-Canadian population in northern New England. Subsequently, the paper published an attack on the character of Muskie's wife Jane, reporting that she drank and used off-color language during the campaign. Muskie made an emotional defense of his wife in a speech outside the newspaper's offices during a snowstorm. Though Muskie later stated that what had appeared to the press as tears were actually melted snowflakes, the press reports that Muskie broke down and cried were to shatter the candidate's image as calm and reasoned. The New Hampshire primary is the opening gun of the quadrennial U.S. presidential election. ... The second-most famous instance of ratfucking, the Canuck Letter was a forged letter to the editor of the Manchester Union Leader, published 24 February 1972, two weeks before the New Hampshire primary. ... The Union Leader is the daily newspaper of Manchester, the largest city in the state of New Hampshire. ... Jane Gray Muskie (February 12, 1927- December 25, 2004) was the widow of U.S. senator and 1968 vice presidential candidate Edmund Muskie, whose 1972 presidential campaign collapsed after he emotionally defended Mrs. ...


Evidence later came to light during the Watergate scandal investigation that, during the 1972 presidential campaign the Nixon campaign committee maintained a "dirty tricks" unit focused on discrediting Nixon's strongest challengers. FBI investigators revealed that the Canuck Letter was a forged document as part of the dirty tricks campaign against Democrats orchestrated by the Nixon campaign. Among other tricks, literature purportedly from the Hubert Humphrey campaign attacked Muskie. During the pivotal Wisconsin primary, an arson occurred at a suburban Milwaukee Democratic campaign headquarters. A young Karl Rove was a member of this dirty tricks unit. Author Theodore White, in his book "The Making of the President 1972", cited such conduct. The term Watergate refers to a series of events, spanning from 1972 to 1975, that got their name from burglaries of the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate Hotel complex in Washington, D.C.. Though then-President Nixon had endured two years of mounting political embarrassments, the... Look up creep in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Karl Rove Karl Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush. ...


Historians believe that, prior to the "crying speech", Muskie had a strong chance to win the Democratic nomination and, as a candidate acceptable to both moderate and liberal Democrats, could have gained enough support to defeat President Nixon in the general election. The more liberal McGovern would go on to win the nomination at the 1972 Democratic National Convention, but lost the November election in a landslide to the incumbent Nixon. The 1972 Democratic National convention nominated Senator George McGovern for President and Senator Thomas Eagleton for vice president. ...


Secretary of State

Memorial to Edmund Muskie in his birthplace, Rumford, Maine
Memorial to Edmund Muskie in his birthplace, Rumford, Maine

Muskie was tapped by President Jimmy Carter to serve as Secretary of State, following the resignation of Cyrus Vance from that post in 1980. Vance had opposed a secret rescue mission as a means of bringing the Iran Hostage Crisis to an end, and after that mission failed with the loss of eight US servicemen, Vance resigned. Memorial to Edmund Muskie in Rumford, Maine (taken Sept. ... Memorial to Edmund Muskie in Rumford, Maine (taken Sept. ... Paper mill along the river in Rumford Rumford is a town located in Oxford County, Maine. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Cyrus Vance Cyrus Roberts Vance (March 27, 1917 – January 12, 2002) was the United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980. ... Combatants United States new Iranian regime Strength 500+ Casualties 8 dead, 4 injured Operation Eagle Claw (or Operation Evening Light) was a United States military operation to rescue the 53 hostages from the U.S. embassy in Tehran, Iran on April 24, 1980. ... A defaced Great Seal of the United States at the former US embassy, Tehran, Iran, as it appears today The Iran hostage crisis was a 444-day (about 14 months) period during which student proxies of the new Iranian regime held hostage 52 diplomats and citizens of the United States...


Muskie attempted to bring the hostages home by diplomatic means, appealing to the United Nations and Iran. Muskie left public office following Carter's loss of the 1980 presidential election to Ronald Reagan and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Carter on January 16, 1981. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States, considered the equivalent of the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Retirement and death

Muskie retired to his home in Washington in 1981. He continued to work as a lawyer for some years. In 1987, as an elder statesman, Muskie was appointed a member of the President's Special Review Board known as the 'Tower Commission' to investigate whether President Ronald Reagan's administration's funnelling of money in the Iran-Contra Scandal. Commissioned on November 26, 1986 by President Reagan, the Tower Commission was in response to the Iran Contra scandal. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... In the Iran-Contra Affair, United States President Ronald Reagans administration secretly sold arms to Iran, which was engaged in a bloody war with its neighbor Iraq from 1980 to 1988 (see Iran-Iraq War), and diverted the proceeds to the Contra rebels fighting to overthrow the leftist and...


Muskie died in Washington, D.C. of congestive heart failure in 1996, two days before his 82nd birthday. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Muskie's papers are kept at the Edmund S. Muskie Archives at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine. Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... The Tomb of the Unknowns Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington, Virginia, is an American military cemetery established during the American Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, formerly the estate of the family of Robert E. Lees wife Mary. ... For other uses, see Bates (disambiguation), Bates (surname) Bates College is a private liberal arts college, founded in 1855, located in Lewiston, Maine, in the United States. ... Location Location in Androscoggin County, Maine Coordinates , Government Counties Androscoggin County Mayor Geographical characteristics Area     City 35. ...


See also


Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This is an incomplete list of Political appointees in the United States Government whose party was different from that of the President who made the appointment. ...

Preceded by:
Burton M. Cross
Governor of Maine
1955 – 1959
Succeeded by:
Robert Haskell
Preceded by:
Frederick Payne
United States Senator (Class 1) from Maine
1959 – 1980
Served alongside: Margaret Chase Smith, William Hathaway, William Cohen
Succeeded by:
George Mitchell
Preceded by:
Hubert H. Humphrey
Democratic Party Vice Presidential nominee
1968 (lost)
Succeeded by:
Thomas Eagleton,
Sargent Shriver (a)
Preceded by:
Cyrus Vance
United States Secretary of State
May 8, 1980January 18, 1981
Succeeded by:
Alexander M. Haig
(a) Thomas Eagleton was the original Vice Presidential nominee in 1972. He withdrew from the race and was replaced by Sargent Shriver.
United States Democratic Party Vice Presidential Nominees
CalhounVan BurenR JohnsonDallasButlerKingBreckinridge • H Johnson/Lane(SD), PendletonBlairBrownHendricksEnglishHendricksThurmanStevensonSewallStevenson • Davis • KernMarshallRooseveltBryanRobinsonGarner • Wallace • TrumanBarkleySparkmanKefauverL JohnsonHumphreyMuskieEagleton/ShriverMondaleFerraroBentsenGoreLiebermanEdwards
United States Secretaries of State Seal of the United States Department of State
JeffersonRandolphPickeringJ MarshallMadisonSmithMonroeAdams • Clay • Van BurenLivingstonMcLaneForsythWebsterUpshurCalhounBuchananClaytonWebsterEverettMarcyCassBlackSewardWashburneFishEvartsBlaineFrelinghuysenBayardBlaineFosterGreshamOlneyShermanDayHayRootBaconKnoxBryanLansingColbyHughesKellogg • Stimson • HullStettiniusByrnesG MarshallAchesonDullesHerterRuskRogers • Kissinger • VanceMuskieHaigShultzBakerEagleburgerChristopherAlbrightPowellRice
Governors of Maine Maine State Flag
W. KingWilliamsonAmesParris • Lincoln • Cutler • Hall • Hunton • Smith • DunlapKentFairfieldKentFairfield • Kavanagh • Anderson • Dana • Hubbard • Crosby • A. Morrill • Wells • Hamlin • Williams • L. MorrillWashburn • Coburn • Cony • Chamberlain • Perham • Dingley • Connor • Garcelon • Davis • Plaisted • Robie • Bodwell • Marble • Burleigh • Cleaves • Powers • Hill • Cobb • Fernald • F. Plaisted • Haines • O. Curtis • MillikenParkhurstBaxterBrewster • Gardiner • Brann • Barrows • Sewall • HildrethPayneN. HaskellCrossMuskie • R. Haskell • Clauson • ReedK. CurtisLongleyBrennanMcKernanA. KingBaldacci

  Results from FactBites:
 
Edmund Muskie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1328 words)
Muskie was born Edmund Sixtus Marciszewski in Rumford, Maine, the son of Roman Catholic Polish immigrants.
Muskie became one of the first environmentalists to enter the U.S. Senate and was a leading campaigner for new and stronger measures to curb pollution and provide a cleaner environment.
Muskie was tapped by President Jimmy Carter to serve as Secretary of State, following the resignation of Cyrus Vance from that post in 1980.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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