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Encyclopedia > Edmund Husserl
Western Philosophy
20th-century philosophy
Edmund Husserl
Name
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl
Birth April 8, 1859 (Prostějov, Moravia)
Death April 28, 1938 (aged 79) (Freiburg, Germany)
School/tradition Phenomenology
Main interests Epistemology, Mathematics
Notable ideas Epoché, Natural Standpoint, Noema, Noesis, Eidetic Reduction, Retention and protention
Influenced by Franz Brentano, Carl Stumpf, René Descartes, Gottlob Frege, Kant
Influenced Eugen Fink, Kurt Gödel, Martin Heidegger, Hans Blumenberg, Jacques Derrida, Milan Kundera, Bernard Stiegler, Emmanuel Lévinas, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jean-Paul Sartre, Max Scheler, Ludwig Landgrebe, Edith Stein, Rudolf Carnap, Alexandre Koyré, José Ortega y Gasset, Roman Ingarden, Millán-Puelles, Hannah Arendt, Leszek Kolakowski, Jan Patočka, Jean-Luc Marion

Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (IPA[ˈhʊsɛrl]; April 8, 1859April 26, 1938) was a philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. His work was a break with the purely positivist orientation and understanding of the science and philosophy of his day, giving weight to subjective experience as the source of all of our knowledge of objective phenomena. It has been suggested that Contemporary philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... Edmund Husserl source: http://www. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... ProstÄ›jov (-Czech, German: Prossnitz) is a city in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic. ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the city in Baden-Württemberg. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Epoché (εποχη) is a Greek term which describes the theoretical moment where all belief in the existence of the real world, and consequently all action in the real world, is suspended. ... The noema (plural: noemata) is the mental equivalent of a schema. ... Look up Noesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Eidetic reduction is a technique in the study of essences in phenomenology whose goal is to identify the basic components of phenomena. ... · Franz Brentano Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (January 16, 1838 Marienberg am Rhein (near Boppard) - March 17, 1917 Zürich) was an influential figure in both philosophy and psychology. ... Carl Stumpf (21 April 1848 - 25 December 1936) was a philosopher and psychologist. ... René Descartes (French IPA:  Latin:Renatus Cartesius) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ... Kant redirects here. ... Eugen Fink (* December 11, 1905 in Konstanz; † July 25, 1975 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German philosopher. ... Kurt Gödel (IPA: ) (April 28, 1906 Brünn, Austria-Hungary (now Brno, Czech Republic) – January 14, 1978 Princeton, New Jersey) was an Austrian American mathematician and philosopher. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Milan Kundera (IPA: ) (born April 1, 1929 in Brno, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech-born writer who writes in both Czech and French. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Emmanuel Lévinas (IPA: , January 12, 1906 Kaunas, Lithuania - December 25, 1995 Paris) was a French philosopher and Talmudic commentator. ... Maurice Merleau-Ponty (March 14, 1908 – May 4, 1961) was a French phenomenologist philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Max Scheler (August 22, 1874, Munich - May 19, 1928, Frankfurt am Main) was a German philosopher known for his work in phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology. ... Edith Stein (October 12, 1891 – August 9, 1942) was a German philosopher, a Carmelite nun, martyr, and saint of the Catholic Church, who died at Auschwitz. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf, Germany – September 14, 1970, Santa Monica, California) was an influential philosopher who was active in central Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. ... Alexandre Koyré Alexandre Koyré (1882/1892, Taganrog - April 28, 1964, Paris) was a French philosopher of Russian origin who wrote on history and the philosophy of science. ... José Ortega y Gasset (May 9, 1883 - October 18, 1955) was a Spanish philosopher. ... Roman Ingarden in his later years Roman Witold Ingarden (1893 - 1970), a Polish philosopher, working in the fields of phenomenology, ontology, and aesthetics. ... Antonio Millan Puelles. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... Photograph of Leszek Kolakowski. ... Jan Patočka (June 1, 1907 - March 13, 1977) is considered one of the most important contributors to Czech philosophical phenomenology, as well as one of the most influential central European philosophers of the 20th century. ... Jean-Luc Marion (b. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ...


Husserl was a pupil of Franz Brentano and Carl Stumpf; his philosophical work influenced, among others, Hans Blumenberg, Ludwig Landgrebe, Eugen Fink, Max Scheler, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, Emmanuel Lévinas, Rudolf Carnap, Hermann Weyl, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Pierre Bourdieu, Paul Ricœur, Jacques Derrida, Jan Patočka, Roman Ingarden, Edith Stein (St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross), and Karol Wojtyla. In 1887 Husserl converted to Christianity and joined the Lutheran Church. He taught philosophy at Halle as a tutor (Privatdozent) from 1887, then at Göttingen as professor from 1901, and at Freiburg im Breisgau from 1916 until he retired in 1928. After this, he continued his research and writing by using the library at Freiburg. · Franz Brentano Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (January 16, 1838 Marienberg am Rhein (near Boppard) - March 17, 1917 Zürich) was an influential figure in both philosophy and psychology. ... Carl Stumpf (21 April 1848 - 25 December 1936) was a philosopher and psychologist. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Eugen Fink (* December 11, 1905 in Konstanz; † July 25, 1975 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German philosopher. ... Max Scheler (August 22, 1874, Munich - May 19, 1928, Frankfurt am Main) was a German philosopher known for his work in phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Emmanuel Lévinas (IPA: , January 12, 1906 Kaunas, Lithuania - December 25, 1995 Paris) was a French philosopher and Talmudic commentator. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf, Germany – September 14, 1970, Santa Monica, California) was an influential philosopher who was active in central Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. ... Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl (November 9, 1885 – December 9, 1955) was a German mathematician. ... Maurice Merleau-Ponty (March 14, 1908 – May 4, 1961) was a French phenomenologist philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl. ... Pierre Bourdieu (August 1, 1930 â€“ January 23, 2002) was an acclaimed French sociologist whose work employed methods drawn from a wide range of disciplines: from philosophy and literary theory to sociology and anthropology. ... Paul Ricoeur, French philosopher Paul RicÅ“ur (February 27, 1913, Valence - May 20, 2005, Chatenay Malabry) was a French philosopher and anthropologist best known for his attempt to combine phenomenological description with hermeneutic interpretation. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Jan Patočka (June 1, 1907 - March 13, 1977) is considered one of the most important contributors to Czech philosophical phenomenology, as well as one of the most influential central European philosophers of the 20th century. ... Roman Ingarden in his later years Roman Witold Ingarden (1893 - 1970), a Polish philosopher, working in the fields of phenomenology, ontology, and aesthetics. ... Edith Stein (October 12, 1891 – August 9, 1942) was a German philosopher, a Carmelite nun, martyr, and saint of the Catholic Church, who died at Auschwitz. ... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg The Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg is located in the German city Halle, Saxony-Anhalt. ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) is a German university, founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... Location of Freiburg in Germany. ...

Contents

Biography

Education and early works

Husserl was born into a Jewish family in Prossnitz, Moravia, then part of the Austrian Empire, after 1918 a part of Czechoslovakia (since 1993, the Czech Republic). For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded...


He initially studied mathematics at the universities of Leipzig (1876) and Berlin (1878), under Karl Weierstrass and Leopold Kronecker. In 1881 he went to Vienna to study under the supervision of Leo Königsberger (a former student of Weierstrass), obtaining the Ph.D. in 1883 with the work Beiträge zur Variationsrechnung ("Contributions to the Calculus of Variations"). For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... The University of Leipzig (German Universität Leipzig), located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony (former Kingdom of Saxony), Germany, is one of the oldest universities in Europe. ... Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced... Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (Weierstraß) (October 31, 1815 – February 19, 1897) was a German mathematician who is often cited as the father of modern analysis. // Karl Weierstrass was born in Ostenfelde, Westphalia (today Germany). ... Leopold Kronecker Leopold Kronecker (December 7, 1823 - December 29, 1891) was a German mathematician and logician who argued that arithmetic and analysis must be founded on whole numbers, saying, God made the integers; all else is the work of man (Bell 1986, p. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Photograph of Leo Königsberger, 1886 Leo Königsberger (October 15, 1837–December 15, 1921) was a German mathematician, and historian of science. ...


In 1884, he began to attend Franz Brentano's lectures on psychology and philosophy at the University of Vienna. Husserl was so impressed by Brentano that he decided to dedicate his life to philosophy. In 1886 Husserl went to the University of Halle to obtain his Habilitation with Carl Stumpf, a former student of Brentano. Under his supervision he wrote Über den Begriff der Zahl (On the concept of Number; 1887) which would serve later as the base for his first major work, Philosophie der Arithmetik (1891). {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... The University of Vienna (German: ) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg is located in the German cities of Halle, Saxony-Anhalt and Wittenberg. ... Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ... Carl Stumpf (21 April 1848 - 25 December 1936) was a philosopher and psychologist. ... The Philosophy of Arithmetic is the English language title of Edmund Husserls first published book. ...


In these first works he tries to combine mathematics, psychology and philosophy with a main goal to provide a sound foundation for mathematics. He analyzes the psychological process needed to obtain the concept of number and then tries to build up a systematical theory on this analysis. To achieve this he uses several methods and concepts taken from his teachers. From Weierstrass he derives the idea that we generate the concept of number by counting a certain collection of objects. From Brentano and Stumpf he takes over the distinction between proper and improper presenting. In an example Husserl explains this in the following way: if you are standing in front of a house, you have a proper, direct presentation of that house, but if you are looking for it and ask for directions, then these directions (e.g. the house on the corner of this and that street) are an indirect, improper presentation. In other words, you can have a proper presentation of an object if it is actually present, and an improper (or symbolic as he also calls it) if you only can indicate that object through signs, symbols, etc. Husserl's 1901 Logical Investigations is considered the starting point for the formal theory of wholes and their parts known as mereology.[1] For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Mereology is a collection of axiomatic formal systems dealing with parts and their respective wholes. ...


Another important element that Husserl took over from Brentano is intentionality, the notion that the main characteristic of consciousness is that it is always intentional. While often simplistically summarised as "aboutness" or the relationship between mental acts and the external world, Brentano defined it as the main characteristic of mental phenomena, by which they could be distinguished from physical phenomena. Every mental phenomenon, every psychological act has a content, is directed at an object (the intentional object). Every belief, desire etc. has an object that they are about: the believed, the wanted. Brentano used the expression "intentional inexistence" to indicate the status of the objects of thought in the mind. The property of being intentional, of having an intentional object, was the key feature to distinguish mental phenomena and physical phenomena, because physical phenomena lack intentionality altogether. Intentionality, originally a concept from scholastic philosophy, was reintroduced in contemporary philosophy by the philosopher and psychologist Franz Brentano in his work Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... An object of the mind is an object which exists in the imagination, but can only be represented or modeled in the real world. ...


The elaboration of phenomenology

Some years after the publication of his main work, the Logische Untersuchungen (Logical Investigations; first edition, 1900-1901) Husserl made some key conceptual elaborations which led him to assert that in order to study the structure of consciousness, one would have to distinguish between the act of consciousness and the phenomena at which it is directed (the object-in-itself, transcendent to consciousness). Knowledge of essences would only be possible by "bracketing" all assumptions about the existence of an external world. This procedure he called epoché. These new concepts prompted the publication of the Ideen (Ideas) in 1913, in which they were at first incorporated, and a plan for a second edition of the Logische Untersuchungen. For other uses, see Essence (disambiguation). ... Bracketing (also called epoche or the phenomenological reduction) is a term derived from Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) for the act of suspending judgement about the natural world. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


From the Ideen onward, Husserl concentrated on the ideal, essential structures of consciousness. The metaphysical problem of establishing the material reality of what we perceive was of little interest to Husserl despite being a transcendental idealist. Husserl proposed that the world of objects and ways in which we direct ourselves toward and perceive those objects is normally conceived of in what he called the "natural standpoint", which is characterized by a belief that objects materially exist and exhibit properties that we see as emanating from them. Husserl proposed a radical new phenomenological way of looking at objects by examining how we, in our many ways of being intentionally directed toward them, actually "constitute" them (to be distinguished from materially creating objects or objects merely being figments of the imagination); in the Phenomenological standpoint, the object ceases to be something simply "external" and ceases to be seen as providing indicators about what it is, and becomes a grouping of perceptual and functional aspects that imply one another under the idea of a particular object or "type". The notion of objects as real is not expelled by phenomenology, but "bracketed" as a way in which we regard objects instead of a feature that inheres in an object's essence founded in the relation between the object and the perceiver. In order to better understand the world of appearances and objects, Phenomenology attempts to identify the invariant features of how objects are perceived and pushes attributions of reality into their role as an attribution about the things we perceive (or an assumption underlying how we perceive objects). This article is about the philosophical movement. ...


In a later period, Husserl began to wrestle with the complicated issues of intersubjectivity (specifically, how communication about an object can be assumed to refer to the same ideal entity) and tries new methods of bringing his readers to understand the importance of Phenomenology to scientific inquiry (and specifically to Psychology) and what it means to "bracket" the natural attitude. The Crisis of the European Sciences is Husserl's unfinished work that deals most directly with these issues. In it, Husserl for the first time attempts a historical overview of the development of Western philosophy and science, emphasizing the challenges presented by their increasingly (one-sidedly) empirical and naturalistic orientation. Husserl declares that mental and spiritual reality possess their own reality independent of any physical basis,[2] and that a science of the spirit ('Geisteswissenschaft') must be established on as scientific a foundation as the natural sciences have managed: This article is about the philosophical movement. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... This article is about methodological naturalism. ... Spiritual science refers to the application of scientific methodology to experiences or phenomena of mind, culture or spirit. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ...

It is my conviction that intentional phenomenology has for the first time made spirit as spirit the field of systematic scientific experience, thus effecting a total transformation of the task of knowledge.[3]

The Nazi era

Professor Husserl was denied the use of the library at Freiburg as a result of the anti-Jewish legislation the National Socialists (Nazis) passed in April 1933. It is rumored that his former pupil and Nazi Party member, Martin Heidegger, informed Husserl that he was discharged, but Heidegger later denied this, labelling it as slander[4]. Heidegger (whose philosophy Husserl considered to be the result of a faulty departure from, and grave misunderstanding of Husserl's own teachings and methods) removed the dedication to Husserl from his most widely known work, Being and Time, when it was reissued in 1941. This was not due to diminishing relations between the two philosophers, however, but rather as a result of a suggested censorship by Heidegger's publisher who feared that the book may be banned by the Nazi regime[4]. The dedication can still in fact be read in the footnote of page 38, which thanks Husserl for his guidance and generosity. The philosophical relation between Husserl and Heidegger is discussed at length by Bernard Stiegler in the film The Ister. Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... // Being and Time (German Sein und Zeit, 1927) is the most important work of German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


After his death, Husserl's manuscripts, amounting to approximately 40,000 pages of "Gabelsberger" stenography and his complete research library, were smuggled to Belgium by Herman Van Breda in 1939 and deposited at Leuven to form the Husserl-Archives of the Higher Institute of Philosophy. Much of the material in his research manuscripts has been published in the Husserliana critical edition series. Gabelsberger shorthand, named for its creator Franz Xaver Gabelsberger, is a form of shorthand previously common in Germany. ... Shorthand is a writing method that can be done at speed because an abbreviated or symbolic form of language is used. ... Herman Leo Van Breda (born Leo Marie Karel) (28 February 1911, Lier, Belgium – 4 March 1974, Leuven) was a Franciscan, philosopher and founder of the Husserl archives at the Higher Institute of Philosophy of the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ... The Higher Institute of Philosophy of the Catholic University of Leuven was founded in 1889 by Cardinal Désiré Mercier to be a beacon of Neo-Thomist philosophy. ... The Husserliana is the complete works project of the philosopher Edmund Husserl, which was made possible by Herman Van Breda after he saved the manuscripts of Husserl. ...


Husserl's philosophy

Meaning and object in Husserl

From Logical Investigations (1900/1901) to Experience and Judgment (published in 1939), Husserl expressed clearly the difference between meaning and object. He identified several different kinds of names. For example, there are names that have the role of properties that uniquely identify an object. Each of these names express a meaning and designate the same object. Examples of this are "the victor in Jena" and "the loser in Waterloo", or "the equilateral triangle" and "the equiangular triangle"; in both cases, both names express different meanings, but designate the same object. There are names which have no meaning, but have the role of designating an object: "Aristotle", "Socrates", and so on. Finally, there are names which designate a variety of objects. These are called "universal names"; their meaning is a "concept" and refers to a series of objects (the extension of the concept). The way we know sensible objects is called "sensible intuition".


Husserl also identifies a series of "formal words" which are necessary to form sentences and have no sensible correlates. Examples of formal words are "a", "the", "more than", "over", "under", "two", "group", and so on. Every sentence must contain formal words to designate what Husserl calls "formal categories". There are two kinds of categories: meaning categories and formal-ontological categories. Meaning categories relate judgments; they include forms of conjunction, disjunction, forms of plural, among others. Formal-ontological categories relate objects and include notions such as set, cardinal number, ordinal number, part and whole, relation, and so on. The way we know these categories is through a faculty of understanding called "categorial intuition".


Through sensible intuition our consciousness constitutes what Husserl calls a "situation of affairs" (Sachlage). It is a passive constitution where objects themselves are presented to us. To this situation of affairs, through categorial intuition, we are able to constitute a "state of affairs" (Sachverhalt). One situation of affairs through objective acts of consciousness (acts of constituting categorially) can serve as the basis for constituting multiple states of affairs. For example, suppose a and b are two sensible objects in a certain situation of affairs. We can use it as basis to say, "a<b" and "b>a", two judgments which designate different states of affairs. For Husserl a sentence has a proposition or judgment as its meaning, and refers to a state of affairs which has a situation of affairs as a reference base.


Philosophy of logic and mathematics

Edmund Husserl held the belief that truth-in-itself has as ontological correlate being-in-itself, just as meaning categories have formal-ontological categories as correlates. The discipline of logic is a formal theory of judgment, that studies the formal a priori relations among judgments using meaning categories. Mathematics, on the other hand, is formal ontology, it studies all the possible forms of being (of objects). So, in both of these disciplines, formal categories, in their different forms, are the objects of study, not the sensible objects themselves. The problem with the psychological approach to mathematics and logic is that it fails to account for the fact that it is about formal categories, not abstractions from sensibility alone. The reason why we do not deal with sensible objects in mathematics is because of another faculty of understanding called "categorial abstraction". Through this faculty we are able to get rid of sensible components of judgments, and just focus on formal categories themselves. This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... For other uses, see Believe. ... The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ...


Thanks to "eidetic intuition" (or "essential intuition"), we are able to grasp the possibility, impossibility, necessity and contingency among concepts or among formal categories. Categorial intuition, along with categorial abstraction and eidetic intuition, are the basis for logical and mathematical knowledge.


Husserl criticized logicians of his time for not focusing on the relation between subjective processes that give us objective knowledge of pure logic. All subjective activities of consciousness need an ideal correlate, and objective logic (constituted noematically) as it is constituted by consciousness needs a noetic correlate (the subjective activities of consciousness).


He stated that logic has three strata, each further away from consciousness, and further away from psychology.


Logic's first stratum is what Husserl called a "morphology of meanings" concerning a priori ways to relate judgments to make them meaningful. In this stratum we elaborate a "pure grammar" or a logical syntax, and he would call its rules "laws to prevent non-sense", which would be similar to what logic calls today " formation rules". Mathematics, as logic's ontological correlate, also has a similar stratum, a "morphology of formal-ontological categories". In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a formal language is a language that is defined by precise mathematical or machine processable formulas. ...


Logic's second stratum would be called by Husserl "logic of consequence" or the "logic of non-contradiction" which explores all possible forms of true judgments. He includes here syllogistic classic logic, propositional logic and that of predicates. This is a semantic stratum, and the rules of this stratum would be the "laws to avoid counter-sense" or "laws to prevent contradiction". They are very similar to today's logic " transformation rules". Mathematics also has a similar stratum which is based among others on pure theory of pluralities, and a pure theory of numbers. They provide a science of the conditions of possibility of any theory whatsoever. In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a formal language is a language that is defined by precise mathematical or machine processable formulas. ...


He also talked about what he called "logic of truth" which consists of formal laws of possible truth and its modalities, and is previous to the third logical third stratum.


Husserl recognized a logical third stratum, a meta-logical level, what he called a "theory of all possible forms of theories". It explores all possible theories in a priori fashion, rather than the possibility of theory in general. We could establish theories of possible relations between pure forms of theories, investigate these logical relations and the deductions from such general connection. The logician is free to see the extension of this deductive, theoretical sphere of pure logic. Husserl finds as ontological correlate to this the "theory of manifolds" It is, in formal ontology, a free investigation where a mathematician can assign several meanings to several symbols, and all their possible valid deductions in a general and indeterminate manner. It is, properly speaking, the most universal mathematics of all. Through the posit of certain indeterminate objects (formal-ontological categories) as well as any combination of mathematical axioms, mathematicians can explore the apodeictic connections between them just as long as consistency is preserved. In mathematics, a manifold M is a type of space, characterized in one of two equivalent ways: near every point of the space, we have a coordinate system; or near every point, the environment is like that in Euclidean space of a given dimension. ...


This view of logic and mathematics accounted, according to him, for the objectivity of a series of mathematical development of his time, such as n-dimensional manifolds, whether Euclidean or non-Euclidean, Hermann Grassmann's theory of extensions, William Rowan Hamilton's Hamiltonians, Sophus Lie's theory of transformation groups, and Cantor's set theory. On a sphere, the sum of the angles of a triangle is not equal to 180° (see spherical trigonometry). ... In mathematics, Euclidean geometry is the familiar kind of geometry on the plane or in three dimensions. ... The term non-Euclidean geometry (also spelled: non-Euclidian geometry) describes both hyperbolic and elliptic geometry, which are contrasted with Euclidean geometry. ... Hermann Günther Grassmann (April 15, 1809, Stettin – September 26, 1877, Stettin) was a German polymath, renowned in his day as a linguist and now admired as a mathematician. ... In mathematics, the exterior product or wedge product of vectors is an algebraic construction generalizing certain features of the cross product to higher dimensions. ... For other persons named William Hamilton, see William Hamilton (disambiguation). ... In physics, Hamiltonian has distinct but closely related meanings. ... Marius Sophus Lie (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced Lee) (December 17, 1842 - February 18, 1899) was a Norwegian-born mathematician. ... In mathematics, a Lie group is an analytic real or complex manifold that is also a group such that the group operations multiplication and inversion are analytic maps. ... Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (March 3, 1845[1] – January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician. ... Set theory is the mathematical theory of sets, which represent collections of abstract objects. ...


Psychologism

Philosophy of Arithmetic and Frege

It has been suggested by some analytic philosophers that Edmund Husserl, after obtaining his PhD in mathematics, began analysing the foundations of mathematics from a rather psychological point of view, as Brentano's disciple. In his professorship doctoral dissertation called "On the Concept of Number" (1886) and his Philosophy of Arithmetic (1891) Husserl enhanced the approach taken by Weierstrass and other mathematicians of the time in defining the natural numbers by counting with Brentano's methods of descriptive psychology. Later, when attacking the psychologistic point of view of logic and mathematics in the first volume of his Logical Investigations called "The Prolegomena of Pure Logic", he appeared to reject much of his early work, though the forms of psychologism analysed and refuted in the Prolegomena did not apply directly to his Philosophy of Arithmetic. While some scholars point to Gottlob Frege's negative review of the Philosophy of Arithmetic, this did not turn Husserl towards Platonism, as he had already discovered the work of Bernhard Bolzano around 1890/91 and explicitly mentions Bolzano, Leibniz and Lotze as inspirations for his newer position. Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ... Bernard Bolzano Bernard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano (October 5, 1781 – December 18, 1848) was a German-speaking Czech mathematician, theologian, philosopher and logician. ... Leibniz redirects here. ... Rudolf Herman Lotze (May 21, 1817 - July 1, 1881), was a German philosopher. ...

The Frege industry routinely informs us that the review quite transformed poor Husserl's philosophy; but elementary attention to chronology and sources (Hill 1991a, pt. 1) shows that this claim refers far more to the False than to the True.

Grattann-Guinness "The Search for Mathematical Roots 1870-1948", p. 204

Likewise the opinion that Husserl's notion of noema and object is due to Frege's notion of sense and reference is anachronistic, as already in Husserl's review of Schröder a clear distinction is made between sense and reference and in Husserl's criticism of Frege in the Philosophy of Arithmetic he remarks on the distinction between content and extension of a concept. The distinction between the subjective mental act, the content of a concept and the (external) object was developed independently in the School of Brentano and might have surfaced as early as Brentano's 1870's lectures on logic. This article is about the senses of living organisms (vision, taste, etc. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The School of Brentano refers to the philosophers and psychologists who studied with Franz Brentano and were essentially influenced by him. ...


Philosophers and scholars such as J. N. Mohanty, Claire Ortiz Hill and Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock, among others, have discovered and explained repeatedly that Husserl's change from psychologism to platonism had nothing to do with Frege's review.[5] For example, the review falsely attributes to Husserl the view that he subjectivizes everything so no objectivity is possible, and also falsely attributed to him a notion of abstraction whereby the objects disappear until we are left with the number (or at least with two ghosts). Contrary to what Frege states, already in Husserl's Philosophy of Arithmetic we find two different kinds of representations: a subjective representation and objective representation. Objectivity is clearly stated in that work. Frege's attack seems rather to be addressed at the idea on the foundations of mathematics current in the Berlin School of Weierstrass, of which Husserl and Cantor, however, can not be said to be orthodox representatives. Psychologism in the philosophy of mathematics is the explanation or derivation of mathematical or logical laws in terms of psychological facts. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ...


Furthermore, from various sources it is quite clear that Husserl changed his mind about psychologism as early as 1890, a year before his Philosophy of Arithmetic was published. Husserl stated that when it was published, he had already changed his mind. In fact, he says that he had doubts about psychologism from the very beginning. He attributed his change of mind to Leibniz, Bolzano, Lotze, and David Hume.[6] He makes no mention of Frege as being decisive for the change. In his Logical Investigations, Husserl mentions Frege only twice, one of them in a footnote to point out that he retracted three pages of his criticism of Frege's The Foundations of Arithmetic, and the other one was to question Frege's use of the word Bedeutung to designate reference rather than meaning (sense). For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ...


About the difference of sense and reference, Frege thanked Husserl in a letter dated May 24, 1891 for sending him a copy of Philosophy of Arithmetic and Husserl's review of E. Schröder's Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik, and in that same letter, he takes Husserl's review of Schröder's book to compare both his and Husserl's notion of sense of reference of concept words. In other words, Frege did recognize, as early as 1891, that Husserl made the difference between sense and reference. The inevitable conclusion is that Gottlob Frege and Edmund Husserl, before 1891, independently reached a theory of sense and reference.


Others point to the fact that Husserl's notion of noema has nothing to do with Frege's notion of sense. For Husserl, noemata are necessarily fused with noeses which are the conscious activities of consciousness. Also, noemata have three different levels: the substratum, which is never presented to consciousness and is the supporter of all the properties of the object; the noematic senses, which are the different ways the objects are presented to us; and modalities of being (possible, doubtful, existent, non-existent, absurd, and so on). Hence, in intentional activities, even non-existent objects can be constituted, and form part of the whole noema. Frege, on the other hand, did not conceive objects as forming part of senses, and if a proper name denotes a non-existent object, then it does not have a reference, hence concepts with no object as argument have no truth value. Also Husserl did not hold that predicate of sentences designate concepts. Also, for Frege, the reference of a sentence is a truth value. Husserl thinks that the reference of a sentence is a state of affairs. So, Husserl's notion of noema is totally unrelated to Frege's notion of sense, just as Husserl's notion of meaning and object is different from that of Frege. Look up Noesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Finally, a comparison between Husserl's conception of logic and mathematics differ from Frege's. While Frege supported the idea that arithmetic could be derived from logic, Husserl's position was that this is not the case. For him, mathematics (with the exception of geometry) is logic's ontological correlate, they are both sister disciplines, but none of them is reducible to the other. Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835 Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. ...


Husserl's criticism of psychologism

Psychologism in logic stipulated that logic itself was not an independent discipline, but a branch of psychology. Husserl, after his Platonic turn, pointed out that the failure of anti-psychologists to defeat psychologism is a result of being unable to distinguish between the theoretical side of logic (which tells us what is - descriptive), and the normative side (which tells us how we ought to think - prescriptive). Anti-psychologists at that time conceived logic as being normative in nature, when pure logic does not deal at all with "thoughts" but about a priori conditions for any judgments and any theory whatsoever. Image File history File links Acap. ... Psychologism in the philosophy of mathematics is the explanation or derivation of mathematical or logical laws in terms of psychological facts. ... The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ...


Since "truth-in-itself" has "being-in-itself" as ontological correlate, and psychologists reduce truth (and hence logic) to empirical psychology, the inevitable consequence is scepticism. Besides, also psychologists have not been so successful in trying to see how from induction or psychological processes we can justify the absolute certainty of logical principles, such as the principles of identity and non-contradiction. It is therefore futile to base certain logical laws and principles on uncertain processes of the mind.


This confusion made by psychologism (and related disciplines such as biologism and anthropologism) can be due to three specific prejudices:


1. The first prejudice is the supposition that logic is somehow normative in nature. Husserl argues that logic is theoretical, i.e., that logic itself proposes a priori laws which are themselves the basis of the normative side of logic. Since mathematics is related to logic, he cites an example from mathematics: If we have a formula like (a+b)(a-b)=a²-b² it does not tell us how to think mathematically. It just expresses a truth. A proposition that says: "The product of the sum and the difference of a and b should give us the difference of the squares of a and b" does express a normative proposition, but this normative statement is based on the theoretical statement "(a+b)(a-b)=a²-b²".


2. For psychologists, the acts of judging, reasoning, deriving, and so on, are all psychological processes. Therefore, it is the role of psychology to provide the foundation of these processes. Husserl states that this effort made by psychologists are a "μετάβασις εἰς ἄλλο γένος" (a transgression to another field). It is a μετάβασις because psychology cannot possibly provide any foundations for a priori laws which themselves are the basis for all the ways we should think correctly. Psychologists have the problem of confusing intentional activities with the object of these activities. It is important to distinguish between the act of judging and the judgment itself, the act of counting and the number itself, and so on. Counting five objects is undeniably a psychological process, but the number 5 is not.


3. Judgments can be true or not true. Psychologists argue that judgments are true because they become "evidently" true to us. This evidence, a psychological process that "guarantees" truth, is indeed a psychological process. Husserl responds to it saying that truth itself as well as logical laws remain valid always regardless of psychological "evidence" that they are true. No psychological process can explain the a priori objectivity of these logical truths.


From this criticism to psychologism, the distinction between psychological acts from their intentional objects, and the difference between the normative side of logic from the theoretical side, derives from a platonist conception of logic. This means that we should regard logical and mathematical laws as being independent of the human mind, and also as an autonomy of meanings. It is essentially the difference between the real (everything subject to time) and the ideal or irreal (everything that is atemporal), such as logical truths, mathematical entities, mathematical truths and meanings in general.


Philosophers influenced by Husserl

Hans Blumenberg received his postdoctoral qualification in 1950, with a dissertation on 'Ontological distance', an inquiry into the crisis of Husserl's phenomenology. This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Hermann Weyl's interest in intuitionistic logic and impredicativity appears to have resulted from contacts with Husserl. Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl (November 9, 1885 – December 9, 1955) was a German mathematician. ... Intuitionistic logic, or constructivist logic, is the logic used in mathematical intuitionism and other forms of mathematical constructivism. ... In mathematics, impredicativity is the property of a self-referencing definition. ...


Rudolf Carnap was also influenced by Husserl, not only concerning Husserl's notion of essential insight that Carnap used in his Der Raum, but also his notion of "formation rules" and "transformation rules" is founded on Husserl's philosophy of logic. Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf, Germany – September 14, 1970, Santa Monica, California) was an influential philosopher who was active in central Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. ...


Ludwig Landgrebe became assistant to Husserl in 1923. From 1939 he collaborated with Eugen Fink at the Husserl-Archives in Leuven, authorized by Husserl. In 1954 he became leader of the Husserl-Archives. Landgrebe is known as one of Husserl's closest associates, but also for his independent views relating to history, religion and politics as seen from the viewpoints of existentialist philosophy and metaphysics.. The Higher Institute of Philosophy of the Catholic University of Leuven was founded in 1889 by Cardinal Désiré Mercier to be a beacon of Neo-Thomist philosophy. ...


Max Scheler met Husserl in Halle and found in his phenomenology a methodological breakthrough for his own philosophical endeavors. Even though Scheler later criticised Husserl's idealistic logical approach and proposed instead a "phenomenology of love", he states that he remained "deeply indebted" to Husserl throughout his work. Husserl also had some influence on Pope John-Paul II, which appears strongly in a work by the latter, The Acting Person, or Person and Act. It was originally published in Polish in 1969 under his pre-papal name Karol Wojtyla (in collaboration with the polish phenomenologist: Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka)[2] and combined phenomenological work with Thomistic Ethics.[7] Max Scheler (August 22, 1874, Munich - May 19, 1928, Frankfurt am Main) was a German philosopher known for his work in phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as Pope of the Catholic... Aquinas redirects here. ...


Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception is influenced by Edmund Husserl's work on perception and temporality, including Husserl's theory of retention and protention. Maurice Merleau-Ponty (March 14, 1908 – May 4, 1961) was a French phenomenologist philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl. ... The Phenomenology of Perception was the mangum opus of French phenomenological philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty. ...


Wilfrid Sellars, an influential figure in the so-called "Pittsburgh school" (Robert Brandom, John McDowell) had been a student of Marvin Farber, a pupil of Husserl, and was influenced by phenomenology through him: Wilfrid Stalker Sellars (May 20, 1912 - July 2, 1989) was an American philosopher. ... Robert Brandom (1950- ), nicknamed the Iron City Kant, is American philosopher who teaches at the University of Pittsburgh. ... John Henry McDowell (born 1942) is a contemporary philosopher, formerly a fellow of University College, Oxford and now University Professor at the University of Pittsburgh. ... Marvin Farber (December 12, 1901, Buffalo, New York - 1980, Minneapolis) was an American philosopher. ...

Marvin Farber led me through my first careful reading of the Critique of Pure Reason and introduced me to Husserl. His combination of utter respect for the structure of Husserl's thought with the equally firm conviction that this structure could be given a naturalistic interpretation was undoubtedly a key influence on my own subsequent philosophical strategy.[8]

Husserl's formal analysis of language also inspired Stanisław Leśniewski and Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz in the development of categorial grammar.[9] Stanislaw Lesniewski (March 30, 1886–May 13, 1939) was a Polish mathematician, philosopher and logician. ... Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz (born on December 12, 1890 in Tarnopol, Galicia (now Ternopil, Ukraine) - April 12, 1963 in Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish philosopher, mathematician and logician. ... Categorial grammar is a term used for a family of formalisms in natural language syntax motivated by the principle of compositionality and organized according to the view that syntactic constituents should generally combine as functions or according to a function-argument relationship. ...


Husserl also influenced Martin Heidegger, who was Husserl's assistant, and who Husserl himself considered best suited as his successor until Heidegger started supporting the Nazi ideology. Heidegger's magnum opus Being and Time is dedicated to Husserl. Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... // Being and Time (German Sein und Zeit, 1927) is the most important work of German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ...


Kurt Gödel expressed very strong appreciation for Husserl's work, especially with regard to "bracketing" or epoche. Kurt Gödel (IPA: ) (April 28, 1906 Brünn, Austria-Hungary (now Brno, Czech Republic) – January 14, 1978 Princeton, New Jersey) was an Austrian American mathematician and philosopher. ...


Jean-Paul Sartre was also largely influenced by Husserl, although he didn't agree with every aspect of his analyses. Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ...


The influence of the Husserlian phenomenological tradition in the 21st century is extending beyond the confines of the European and North American legacies. It has already started to impact (indirectly) scholarship in Eastern and Oriental thought, including research on the impetus of philosophical thinking in the history of ideas in Islam.[10][11] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Bibliography

Primary literature

  • Über den Begriff der Zahl. Psychologische Analysen (1887)
  • Philosophie der Arithmetik. Psychologische und logische Untersuchungen (Philosophy of Arithmetic, 1891)
  • Logische Untersuchungen. Erste Teil: Prolegomena zur reinen Logik (Logical Investigations, Vol 1, 1900)
  • Logische Untersuchungen. Zweite Teil: Untersuchungen zur Phänomenologie und Theorie der Erkenntnis (Logical Investigations, Vol 2, 1901)
  • Philosophie als strenge Wissenschaft (1911, included in Phenomenology and the Crisis of Philosophy: Philosophy as Rigorous Science and Philosophy and the Crisis of European Man)
  • Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie. Erstes Buch: Allgemeine Einführung in die reine Phänomenologie (1913, Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology)
  • Erste Philosophie. Zweiter Teil: Theorie der phänomenologischen Reduktion (1923-1924, First Philosophy, Vol 2: Phenomenological Reductions)
  • Erste Philosophie. Erste Teil: Kritische Ideengeschichte (1925, First Philosophy Vol 1: Critical History of Ideas)
  • Vorlesungen zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins (1928)
  • Formale und transzendentale Logik. Versuch einer Kritik der logischen Vernunft (1929, Formal and Transcendental Logic)
  • Méditations cartésiennes (1931, Cartesian Meditations) (english 1960)
  • Die Krisis der europäischen Wissenschaften und die transzentale Phänomenologie: Eine Einleitung in die phänomenologische Philosophie (1936, The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology: An Introduction to Phenomenological Philosophy)
  • Erfahrung und Urteil. Untersuchungen zur Genealogie der Logik. (1939, Experience and Judgment)
  • Ideen II: Phänomenologische Untersuchungen zur Konstitution (1952)
  • Ideen III: Die Phänomenologie und die Fundamente der Wissenschaften (1952)

Cartesian Meditations: An Introduction to Phenomenology is a book by the philosopher Edmund Husserl. ...

Secondary literature

  • Derrida, Jacques, 1954 (French; published 1900), 2003 (English). The Problem of Genesis in Husserl's Philosophy. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press.
  • Derrida, Jacques, 1962 (French), 1976 (English). Introduction to Husserl's The Origin of Geometry. This work included Derrida's own translation of Husserl's appendix III of his 1936 work The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology.
  • Derrida, Jacques, 1967 (French), 1973 (English). Speech and Phenomena (La Voix et le Phénomène), and other Essays on Husserl's Theory of Signs. ISBN 0-8101-0397-4
  • Everdell, William R. (1998). The First Moderns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-22480-5. 
  • Hill, C. O., 1991. Word and Object in Husserl, Frege, and Russell: The Roots of Twentieth-Century Philosophy. Ohio Uni. Press.
  • Hill, C. O., and Rosado Haddock, G. E., 2000. Husserl or Frege? Meaning, Objectivity, and Mathematics. Open Court.
  • Levinas, Emmanuel, 1963 (French), 1973 (English). The Theory of Intuition in Husserl's Phenomenology. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
  • Köchler, Hans, "The Relativity of the Soul and the Absolute State of the Pure Ego," in: Analecta Husserliana, Vol. 16 (1983), pp. 95-107.
  • Köchler, Hans, Phenomenological Realism. Selected Essays. Frankfurt a. M./Bern: Peter Lang, 1986.
  • Mohanty, J. N., 1982. Edmund Husserl's Theory of Meaning. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
  • Mohanty, J. N., 1982. Husserl and Frege. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Mohanty, J. N., 1974. "Husserl and Frege: A New Look at Their Relationship." Research in Phenomenology. 4: 51-62.
  • Natanson, Maurice, 1973. Edmund Husserl: Philosopher of Infinite Tasks. Evanston: Northwestern University Press. ISBN 0-8101-0425-3
  • Ricoeur, Paul, 1967. Husserl: An Analysis of His Phenomenology. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
  • Rollinger, R. D., 1999. Husserl’s Position in the School of Brentano, Phaenomenologica 150. Kluwer. ISBN 0-7923-5684-5
  • Schuhmann, K., 1977. Husserl – Chronik (Denk- und Lebensweg Edmund Husserls). Number I in Husserliana Dokumente. Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 90-247-1972-0
  • Simons, Peter, 1987. Parts: A Study in Ontology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Smith, B. & Woodruff Smith, D., eds., 1995. The Cambridge Companion to Husserl. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43616-8
  • Stiegler, Bernard, 1996 (French). La technique et le temps. Tome 2: La désorientation. Paris: Galilée.
  • Tieszen, Richard, 1995. "Mathematics," in David Smith & Barry Smith, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Husserl (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Woodruff Smith, David, 2007. Husserl London: Routledge.

Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Emmanuel Lévinas (IPA: , January 12, 1906 Kaunas, Lithuania - December 25, 1995 Paris) was a French philosopher and Talmudic commentator. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Paul Ricœur (February 27, 1913 Valence France – May 20, 2005 Chatenay Malabry France) was a French philosopher best known for combining phenomenological description with hermeneutic interpretation. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

References

  1. ^ Simons, Peter, Parts: A Study in Ontology, Oxford University Press 
  2. ^ This assumption led Husserl to an idealistic position (which he originally had tried to overcome or avoid). On Husserl's phenomenological idealism see Hans Köchler, Die Subjekt-Objekt-Dialektik in der transzendentalen Phänomenologie. Das Seinsproblem zwischen Idealismus und Realismus. (Monographien zur philosophischen Forschung, Vol. 112.) Meisenheim a. G.: Anton Hain, 1974.
  3. ^ Crisis of European Humanity, Pt. II, 1935
  4. ^ a b "Nur noch ein Gott kann uns retten". Der Spiegel. 31 May 1967.
  5. ^ Consider Jitendra Nath Mohanty "The Development of Husserl’s Thought" in Barry Smith & David Woodruff Smith, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Husserl. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995. For further commentaries on the review, see Dallas Willard Logic and the Objectivity of Knowledge (Athens [Ohio]: Ohio University, 1984, p. 63; J. Philip Miller Numbers in Presence and Absence. Phaenomenologica 90 (Den Haag: Nijhoff, 1982), p. 19 ff. and Jitendra Nath Mohanty "Husserl, Frege and the Overcoming of Psychologism" in Philosophy and Science in phenomenological Perspective, Phaenomenologica 95, ed. Kay Kyung Cho (Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster: Nijhoff, 1984), p. 145.
  6. ^ Husserl-Chronik, p. 25-26
  7. ^ Wojtyla, Karol (2002), The Acting Person: A Contribution to Phenomenological Anthropology, Springer, ISBN 90-277-0985-8 
  8. ^ Sellars, Wilfrid (1975), “Autobiographical Reflections”, in Hector-Neri Castañeda, Action, Knowledge, and Reality: Critical Studies in Honor of Wilfrid Sellars, Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company 
  9. ^ Cf. Smith, Barry (1989), “On the Origins of Analytic Philosophy”, Grazer Philosophische Studien 34: 153–173, <http://ontology.buffalo.edu/smith/articles/dummett.pdf> 
  10. ^ See for instance: Nader El-Bizri, The Phenomenological Quest Between Avicenna and Heidegger (Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Publications SUNY at Binghamton, 2000); and also refer to: Nader El-Bizri, "Avicenna’s De Anima between Aristotle and Husserl," in The Passions of the Soul in the Metamorphosis of Becoming, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 67-89
  11. ^ Refer also to the book-series published by SPRINGER on phenomenology and Islamic philosophy: [1]

Peter Simons, FBA, (born 23 March 1950) is a professor of philosophy at the University of Leeds. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... Wilfrid Stalker Sellars (May 20, 1912 - July 2, 1989) was an American philosopher. ... Barry Smith is Julian Park Distinguished Professor of Philosophy in the University at Buffalo (New York, USA) and Director of the Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science in Saarbrücken, Germany. ... For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ... Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher. ... For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Edmund Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 - April 26, 1938), philosopher, was born into a Jewish family in Prossnitz, Moravia (Prostejov, Czech Republic), Empire of Austria-Hungary. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ...

External links

Husserl archives

Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

Other links

  • www.husserlpage.com.
  • Husserl.net, open content project.
  • Husserl.info, articles, phenomenological
  • Directory and bibliographies Database, Guides, Wesenschau, e-Journal for Transcendental Logic and Comparative Philosophy, Phenomenological Dictionary and Forums.
  • Ontology. A resource guide for philosophers, Edmund Husserl's logic and formal ontology, with an annotated bibliography.
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry.
  • The Husserl Circle.
  • [3] Spanish Web about Husserl and Phenomenology.
  • www.ehusserl.com, website devoted to Husserl's Phenomenology and its relation to art and architecture with specific reference to architectural drawings.
Persondata
NAME Husserl, Edmund
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Husserl, Edmund Gustav Albrecht
SHORT DESCRIPTION German philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology
DATE OF BIRTH April 8, 1859(1859-04-08)
PLACE OF BIRTH Prostějov, Moravia, Czech Republic
DATE OF DEATH April 26, 1938
PLACE OF DEATH Freiburg, Germany
A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... . Prostějov (Prossnitz in German) is town in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic. ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the city in Baden-Württemberg. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Edmund Husserl [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] (9021 words)
Husserl suggested that only by suspending or bracketing away the "natural attitude" could philosophy becomes its own distinctive and rigorous science, and he insisted that phenomenology is a science of consciousness rather than of empirical things.
Edmund Husserl was born April 8, 1859, into a Jewish family in the town of Prossnitz in Moravia, then a part of the Austrian Empire.
Husserl has succeeded in distinguishing between natural and artificially synthesized wholes, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, those totalities that are known as having been accomplished neither by natural aggregation nor by mental combination.
Edmund Husserl - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1274 words)
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 - April 26, 1938, Freiburg) was a German philosopher, known as the "father" of phenomenology.
Husserl initially studied mathematics at the universities of Leipzig (1876) and Berlin (1878), under Karl Weierstrass and Leopold Kronecker.
Husserl proposed that the world of objects and ways in which we direct ourselves toward and perceive those objects is normally conceived of in what he called the "natural attitude", which is characterized by a belief that objects materially exist and exhibit properties that we see as emanating from them.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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