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Encyclopedia > Edmund Grindal

Edmund Grindal (c. 15196 July 1583) was an English church leader who successively held the posts of Bishop of London, Archbishop of York and Archbishop of Canterbury. Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...

Born at Cross Hill House, St. Bees, Cumberland, his exact date of birth is uncertain. He was the son of William Grindal, a farmer in the parish of St Bees, He was educated at Magdalene and Christ's Colleges and then at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, where he graduated BA and was elected fellow in 1538. Having obtained his MA in 1541, he was ordained deacon in 1544 and was proctor and Lady Margaret preacher in 1548?1549. Probably through the influence of Nicholas Ridley, who had been master of Pembroke Hall, Grindal was selected as one of the Protestant disputants during the visitation of 1549. He had a talent for this work and was often given similar tasks. When Ridley became Bishop of London, he made Grindal one of his chaplains and gave him the precentorship of St Paul's Cathedral. He was soon promoted to be one of King Edward VI's chaplains and prebendary of Westminster, and in October 1552 was one of six to whom the Forty-two articles were submitted for examination before being sanctioned by the Privy Council. According to John Knox, Grindal distinguished himself from most of the court preachers in 1553 by denouncing the worldliness of courtiers and foretelling the evils that would follow the king's death. Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... Full name The College of Saint Mary Magdalene Motto Garde ta Foy Keep your Faith Named after Mary Magdalene Previous names Buckingham College Established 1428 Sister College(s) Magdalen College Master Duncan Robinson Location Magdalene Street Undergraduates 335 Postgraduates 169 Homepage Boatclub Magdalene College (pronounced ) was founded in 1428 as... Full name Christs College Motto Souvent me Souvient I Often Remember Named after Christ Previous names Gods-house (1437), Christs College (1505) Established 1505 Sister College(s) Wadham College Master Prof. ... Full name Pembroke College Motto - Named after Countess of Pembroke, Mary de St Pol Previous names Marie Valence Hall (1347), Pembroke Hall (?), Pembroke College (1856) Established 1347 Sister College(s) Queens College Master Sir Richard Dearlove Location Trumpington Street Undergraduates ~420 Postgraduates 194 Homepage Boatclub Pembroke College is a... Nicholas Ridley (died October 16, 1555) was an English clergyman. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... St Pauls Cathedral from the south St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, England and the seat of the Bishop of London. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Ireland on 28 January 1547, and coronated on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... A prebendary is a post connected to a cathedral or collegiate church and is a type of canon. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to as Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often considered one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... John Knox (1514?–1572) was a Scottish religious reformer who took the lead in reforming the Church in Scotland along Calvinist lines. ...

For this reason, Grindal was not made a bishop and did not consider himself bound to await the evils which he had foretold. On the accession of Queen Mary I, he made his way to Strasbourg. From there he proceeded to Frankfurt, where he tried to settle the disputes between the "Coxians", who regarded the 1552 Prayer Book as the perfection of reform, and the Knoxians, who wanted further simplification. He returned to England in January 1559, after Elizabeth I had come to the throne, was appointed to the committee to revise the liturgy, and was one of the Protestant representatives at the Westminster conference. In July he was also elected Master of Pembroke Hall in succession to the recusant Dr Thomas Young (1514?1580) and Bishop of London in succession to Edmund Bonner. Mary Tudor is the name of both Mary I of England and her fathers sister, Mary Tudor (queen consort of France). ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Alsace Département Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Richard Cox (c. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Events January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ... Throughout English history, Recusancy was generally synonymous with nonconformism. ... Edmund Boner (1500?- 5th September, 1569), Bishop of London, was an English bishop. ...

Grindal had qualms about vestments and other traces of "popery" as well as about the Erastianism of Elizabeth's ecclesiastical government. Firmly Protestant, he did not mind recommending that a priest "might be put to some torment" (Hatfield manuscripts i. 269); and in October 1562 he wrote to William Cecil, begging to know "if that second Julian, the king of Navarre, is killed; as he intended to preach at St Paul's Cross, and might take occasion to mention God's judgements on him" (Domestic Cal., 1547?1580, p. 209). Nevertheless, he was reluctant to execute judgments on English Puritans, and failed to give Matthew Parker much assistance in rebuilding the shattered fabric of the English Church. Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1521–4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Matthew Parker Matthew Parker (August 6, 1504 - May 17, 1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559. ...

Grindal lacked that firm faith in the supreme importance of uniformity and autocracy which enabled John Whitgift to persecute nonconformists whose theology was identical to his own. London, which was always a difficult see, involved Bishop Sandys in similar troubles when Grindal had gone to York. As it was, although Parker said that Grindal "was not resolute and severe enough for the government of London," his attempts to enforce the use of the surplice evoked angry protests, especially in 1565, when many nonconformists were suspended; and Grindal of his own accord denounced Thomas Cartwright to the Council in 1570. Other anxieties were brought upon him by the burning of his cathedral in 1561, for although Grindal himself is said to have contributed £1200 towards its rebuilding, the laity and even the clergy of his diocese were not generous. John Whitgift (c. ... An Anglican priest wearing a surplice as part of his choir dress. ... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ... Thomas Cartwright (c. ...

In 1570 Grindal became Archbishop of York, where Puritans were few and coercion would be required mainly for Roman Catholics. His first letter from Cawood to Cecil told that he had not been well received, that the gentry were not "well-affected to godly religion and among the common people many superstitious practices remained." It is admitted by his Anglican critics that he did the work of enforcing uniformity against the Roman Catholics with good-will and considerable tact. He must have given general satisfaction, for even before Parker's death two persons so different as Burghley and Dean Nowell independently recommended Grindal's appointment as his successor, and Edmund Spenser speaks warmly of him in The Shepheardes Calender as the "gentle shepherd Algrind." Burghley wished to conciliate the moderate Puritans and advised Grindal to mitigate the severity which had characterized Parker's treatment of the nonconformists. Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... Edmund Spenser Edmund Spenser (c. ... The Shepheardes Calendar was Edmund Spensers first attempt at poetry. ...

Grindal indeed attempted a reform of the ecclesiastical courts, but his activity was cut short by a disagreement with the queen. Elizabeth wanted Grindal to suppress the "prophesyings" or meetings for discussion which had come into vogue among the Puritan clergy, and she even wanted him to discourage preaching. Grindal remonstrated, claiming some voice for the Church, and in June 1577 was suspended from his jurisdictional, though not his spiritual, functions for disobedience. He stood firm, and in January 1578 Secretary Wilson informed Burghley that the queen wished to have the archbishop deprived. She was dissuaded from this extreme course, but Grindal's sequestration was continued in spite of a petition from Convocation in 1581 for his reinstatement. Elizabeth then suggested that he should resign; he declined to do so, and after apologising to the queen he was reinstated towards the end of 1582. But his infirmities were increasing, and while making preparations for his resignation, he died and was buried in Croydon parish church. He left considerable benefactions to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, the Queen's College, Oxford, and Christ's College, Cambridge; he also endowed a free school at St Bees, and left money for the poor of St Bees, Canterbury, Lambeth and Croydon. Croydon, Greater London is a major urban town and commercial centre 9. ... A parish church is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish, the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches. ... College name The Queens College Collegii Reginae Named after Queen Philippa of Hainault Established 1341 Sister College Pembroke College Provost Sir Alan Budd JCR President Vishal Mashru Undergraduates 304 MCR President Matthias Range Graduates 133 Homepage Boatclub High Street entrance to Queens College from the main quad. ... St Peters St, Canterbury, from the West Gate, 1993 Canterbury (Latin: Duroverum) is a cathedral city in the county of Kent in southeast England. ... Lambeth is a place in the London Borough of Lambeth. ...

The most enduring monument to Grindal has proved to be the "free grammar school" which he founded in his native village of St Bees, where he had not been for perhaps forty-five years. The school was to be built and at a cost of £366.3s.4d. and endowed with annual revenues of £50. Nicholas Copland was nominated by Grindal as the first Headmaster.

Only three days before his death Grindal had published statutes for the school, a series of minute and specific regulations which are a noted treasury of information for historians of Tudor education. Although the school was to be sometimes at risk in its early years, a school building had been erected by 1588 and a tradition of learning had begun which has continued without a break for over four centuries.


  • Strype J. (1710), Life and Acts of Edmund Grindal, Archbishop of Canterbury
  • "Archbishop Grindal 1519-1583 The struggle for a reformed church" - Patrick Collinson 1979 ISBN 0-224-01703-9
  • Dictionary of National Biography
  • Henry Gough (1855), A General Index to the Publications of the Parker Society. Cambridge
  • Acts of the Privy Council
  • Cal. of Hatfield manuscripts
  • Dixon's History of the Church of England
  • W. H. Frere (1904), History of the English Church, 1558-1625, ed. W. R. W. Stephens and W. Hunt
  • Archbishop Grindal's birthplace: Cross Hill, St Bees, Cumbria By John Todd and Mary Todd. CWAAS transactions
  • Cambridge Modern History vol. iii.
  • Gee's Elizabethan Clergy
  • Birt's Elizabethan Religious Settlement
  • William Pierce (1909) An Historical Introduction to the Marprelate Tracts. London: Archibald Constable
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Religious Posts
Preceded by
Edmund Bonner
Bishop of London
Succeeded by
Edwin Sandys
Preceded by
Thomas Young
Archbishop of York
Succeeded by
Edwin Sandys
Preceded by
Matthew Parker
Archbishop of Canterbury
Succeeded by
John Whitgift
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Reformation to present: Thomas Cranmer | Reginald Pole | Matthew Parker | Edmund Grindal | John Whitgift | Richard Bancroft | George Abbot | William Laud | William Juxon | Gilbert Sheldon | William Sancroft | John Tillotson | Thomas Tenison | William Wake | John Potter | Thomas Herring | Matthew Hutton | Thomas Secker | Frederick Cornwallis | John Moore | Charles Manners-Sutton | William Howley | John Bird Sumner | Charles Thomas Longley | Archibald Campbell Tait | Edward White Benson | Frederick Temple | Randall Thomas Davidson | Cosmo Lang | William Temple | Geoffrey Fisher | Michael Ramsey | Donald Coggan | Robert Runcie | George Carey | Rowan Williams
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  Results from FactBites:
Edmund Grindal - LoveToKnow 1911 (983 words)
Grindal lacked that firm faith in the supreme importance of uniformity and autocracy which enabled Whitgift to persecute with a clear conscience nonconformists whose theology was indistinguishable from his own.
As it was, although Parker said that Grindal "was not resolute and severe enough for the government of London," his attempts to enforce the use of the surplice evoked angry protests, especially in 1565, when considerable numbers of the nonconformists were suspended; and Grindal of his own motion denounced Cartwright to the Council in 1570.
Grindal indeed attempted a reform of the ecclesiastical courts, but his metropolitical activity was cut short by a conflict with the arbitrary temper of the queen.
Archbishop Edmund Grindal of St Bees (1833 words)
Grindal was soon promoted to be one of King Edward VI's chaplains and prebendary of Westminster, and in Oct 1552 was one of six Protestant authorities to whom the Forty-two Articles of Religion, compiled by Archbishop Cranmer, were submitted for examination before being sanctioned by the Privy Council.
Grindal objected strongly, to no avail, and in June 1577 he was suspended from his legal juristriction and was effectively put under "house arrest" in his palace at Croydon.
It was Grindal's task to enforce the uniformity of the state protestant religion, and at the same to strive for a truly reformed church.
  More results at FactBites »



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