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Encyclopedia > Edmund Burke
Western Philosophy
18th century philosophy
Rt. Hon. Edmund Burke
Name: Edmund Burke
Birth: 1729 January 12 (Dublin, Ireland)
Death: 1797 July 9 (Beaconsfield, England)
School/tradition: Classical liberalism, conservatism
Main interests: Social and political philosophy
Influenced: Lord Acton, Friedrich Hayek, Karl Popper

Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1]July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. He is mainly remembered for his support of the American colonies in the dispute with King George III and Great Britain that led to the American Revolution and for his strong opposition to the French Revolution. The latter made Burke one of the leading figures within the conservative faction of the Whig party (which he dubbed the "Old Whigs"), in opposition to the pro-revolutionary "New Whigs", led by Charles James Fox. Burke also published philosophical works on aesthetics and founded the Annual Register, a political review. He is often regarded by conservatives as the father of Anglo-American conservatism.[2] 17th-century Western philosophy is conventionally seen as being dominated by the coming of symbolic mathematics and rationalism to philosophy, many of the most noted philosophers were also mathematicians. ... Image File history File links Edmund_Burke2_c. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... Beaconsfield is a market town in Buckinghamshire, England lying almost 25 miles NW of London. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, KCVO (January 10, 1834 – June 19, 1902), commonly known as simply Lord Acton, was an English historian, the only son of Sir Ferdinand Dalberg-Acton, 7th Baronet and grandson of the Neapolitan admiral, Sir John Acton, 6th Baronet. ... Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, FRS, FBA, (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994), was an Austrian born naturalized British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Anglo-Irish was a term used historically to describe a ruling class inhabitants of Ireland who were the descendants and successors of the Protestant Ascendancy[1], mostly belonging to the Anglican Church of Ireland or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church. ... A political theorist is someone who engages in political theory. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Statue of Charles James Fox in Bloomsbury Square, erected 1816. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... The first volume of the Annual Register recapitulates the beginning of the Seven Years War. ...

Contents

Life

Burke, who was of Munster Roman Catholic stock, was born in Dublin to a prosperous, professional solicitor father (Richard; d. 1761) who converted to the Church of Ireland. His mother Mary (c. 1702–1770), whose maiden name was Nagle, belonged to the Roman Catholic Church and came from an impoverished but genteel County Cork family. Burke was raised in his father's faith and would remain throughout his life a practicing Anglican, but his political enemies would later repeatedly accuse him of harbouring secret Catholic sympathies at a time when membership in the Catholic church would have disqualified him from public office (see Penal Laws in Ireland). His sister Juliana was brought up and remained a Roman Catholic. Statistics Area: 24,607. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, but not the United States (in the United States the word has a quite different meaning—see below). ... Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Anglicanism is the term used to encapsulate... The Penal laws in Ireland refers to a series of laws imposed under British rule that sought to discriminate against the majority native Catholic population but also against Protestant dissenters in favour of the established Church of Ireland which recognised the English monarchy as its spiritual head. ...


As a child he sometimes spent time away from the unhealthy air of Dublin with his mother's family in the Blackwater valley. He received his early education at a Quaker school in Ballitore, some 30 miles from Dublin, and in 1744 he proceeded to Trinity College, Dublin. In 1747, he set up a Debating Club, known as Edmund Burke's Club, which in 1770 merged with the Historical Club to form the College Historical Society. The minutes of the meetings of Burke's club remain in the collection of the Historical Society. He graduated in 1748. Burke's father wished him to study for the law, and with this object he went to London in 1750 and entered the Middle Temple, but soon thereafter he gave up his legal studies in order to travel in Continental Europe. Pendle Hill, a landmark in the history of the Society of Friends. ... Trinity College, Dublin TCD,corporately designated as the Provost, Fellows and Scholars of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, was founded in 1592 by Elizabeth I, and is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... The College Historical Society (commonly known as The Hist) was founded in Trinity College in 1770 and traces its creation to the historical society founded by the philosopher Edmund Burke in Dublin in 1747. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Part of Middle Temple c. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Burke's first published work, A Vindication of Natural Society: A View of the Miseries and Evils Arising to Mankind, appeared in 1756 and was fraudulently attributed to Lord Bolingbroke. It was originally taken as a serious treatise on anarchism. Years later, with a government appointment at stake, Burke claimed that it had been intended as a satire. Many modern scholars consider it to be satire, but others take Vindication as a serious defence of anarchism (an interpretation notably espoused by Murray Rothbard.) Whether satire or not, it was the first anarchist essay, and taken seriously by later anarchists such as William Godwin. In 1757 Burke published a treatise on aesthetics, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, which attracted the attention of prominent Continental thinkers such as Denis Diderot and Immanuel Kant. The following year, with Robert Dodsley, he created the influential Annual Register, a publication in which various authors evaluated the international political events of the previous year. In London, Burke became closely connected with many of the leading intellectuals and artists, including Samuel Johnson, David Garrick, Oliver Goldsmith, and Joshua Reynolds. Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, Baron Saint John Of Lydiard Tregoze and Battersea, (September 16, 1678 – December 12, 1751), was an English statesman and philosopher. ... Anarchism is a form of social criticism, a political movement as well as a political philosophy. ... 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was a highly influential American economist, historian and natural law theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... William Godwin William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English political and miscellaneous writer, considered one of the important precursors of both utilitarian and liberal anarchist thought. ... A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful is a 1757 treatise on aesthetics, written by Edmund Burke. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... Robert Dodsley (1703 - September 23, 1764) was an English bookseller and miscellaneous writer. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... Portrait of David Garrick David Garrick (February 19, 1717 – January 20, 1779) was an English actor, dramatist, theatrical producer and theatrical manager, and a friend and pupil of Samuel Johnson. ... Oliver Goldsmith Oliver Goldsmith (November 10, 1730 or 1728 – April 4, 1774) was an Irish writer and physician known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770) (written in memory of his brother), and his plays The Good-naturd Man (1768) and... Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. ...


On March 12, 1757 he married Jane Mary Nugent (1734–1812), daughter of a Catholic physician who had treated him at Bath. His son Richard was born in February 1758. Another son, Christopher, died in infancy. March 12 is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Bath is a city in South West England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ...


At about this same time, Burke was introduced to William Gerard Hamilton (known as "Single-speech Hamilton"). When Hamilton was appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland, Burke accompanied him to Dublin as his private secretary, a position he maintained for three years. In 1765 Burke became private secretary to liberal Whig statesman Charles Watson-Wentworth, the Marquess of Rockingham, at the time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, who remained Burke's close friend and associate until his premature death in 1782. William Gerard Hamilton (January 28, 1729 - July 16, 1796), English statesman, popularly known as Single Speech Hamilton, was born in London, the son of a Scottish bencher of Lincolns Inn. ... The Chief Secretary was the most important position for determining British policy in Ireland after the Lord Lieutenant, and was frequently a cabinet level position in the 19th and early twentieth centuries. ... Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham (May 13, 1730 – July 1, 1782) was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Whig Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... The title Marquess of Rockingham in the peerage of Great Britain was created for Thomas Watson-Wentworth, 6th Baron Wentworth, in 1746. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ...


Political career

Statue of Edmund Burke in Bristol. The inscription reads: Burke 1774-1780. "I wish to be a member of parliament to have my share of doing good and resisting evil". Speech at Bristol 1780.

In 1765 Burke entered the British Parliament as a member of the House of Commons for Wendover, a pocket borough in the control of Lord Verney, later 2nd Earl Verney, a close political ally of Rockingham. Burke took a leading role in the debate over the constitutional limits to the executive authority of the King. He argued strongly against unrestrained royal power and for the role of political parties in maintaining a principled opposition capable of preventing abuses by the monarch or by specific factions within the government. His most important publication in this regard was his Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents of 1770. Burke expressed his support for the grievances of the American colonies under the government of King George III and his appointed representatives. He also campaigned against the persecution of Catholics in Ireland and denounced the abuses and corruption of the East India Company. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (802x1965, 849 KB) Summary Statue of Edmund Burke, in Bristol. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (802x1965, 849 KB) Summary Statue of Edmund Burke, in Bristol. ... The Houses of Parliament, as seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... Location within the British Isles Wendover is a picturesque market town that sits at the foot of the Chiltern Hills in Buckinghamshire, England. ... The term rotten borough (or pocket borough, as they were seen as being in the pocket of a patron) refers to a parliamentary borough or constituency in the Kingdom of England (pre-1707), the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1801), the Kingdom of Ireland (1536-1801) and the United Kingdom... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


In 1769 Burke published, in reply to George Grenville, his pamphlet on The Present State of the Nation. In the same year he purchased the small estate of Gregories near Beaconsfield. The 600-acre estate was purchased with mostly borrowed money, and though it contained an art collection that included works by Titian, Gregories nevertheless would prove to be a heavy financial burden on the MP in the following decades. His speeches and writings had now made him famous, and among other effects had brought about the suggestion that he was the author of the Letters of Junius. In 1774 he was elected member for Bristol, at the time "England's second city" and a large constituency with a genuine electoral contest. His address to the electors of Bristol was noted for its defence of the principles of representative democracy against the notion that elected officials should act narrowly as advocates for the interests of their constituents. Burke's arguments in this matter helped to formulate the delegate and trustee models of political representation. His support for free trade with Ireland and his advocacy of Catholic emancipation were unpopular with his constituents and caused him to lose his seat in 1780. For the remainder of his parliamentary career, Burke sat for Malton, another pocket borough controlled by Rockingham. George Grenville (14 October 1712 – 13 November 1770) was a British Whig statesman who served in government for the relatively short period of seven years, reaching the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... Beaconsfield is a market town in Buckinghamshire, England lying almost 25 miles NW of London. ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ... Junius was the pseudonym of a writer who contributed a series of letters to the London Public Advertiser, from January 21, 1769 to January 21, 1772. ... View from Cumberland Basin of the Clifton Suspension Bridge and the Avon Gorge Bristol (IPA: ) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 115 miles (185 km) west of London. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... What is it? The delegate model of representation is a model of a representative democracy. ... The trustee model of representation is a model of a representative democracy. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Malton, also called New Malton, was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England in 1295 and 1298, and again from 1640, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885. ...


Under the Tory administration of Lord North (1770-1782) the American war went on from bad to worse, and it was in part owing to the oratorical efforts of Burke that it was brought to an end. To this period belong two of his most famous performances, his speech on Conciliation with America (1775), and his Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (1777). The fall of North led to Rockingham being recalled to power. Burke became Paymaster of the Forces and Privy Councillor, but Rockingham's unexpected death in July of 1782 put an end to his administration after only a few months. For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, KG, PC (13 April 1732 – 5 August 1792), more often known by his courtesy title, Lord North, which he used from 1752 until 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782, and a major actor in the American Revolution. ... The Paymaster of the Forces was a British government position. ... This article concerns the British Sovereigns Privy Council. ...


Burke then supported fellow Whig Charles James Fox in his coalition with Lord North, a decision that many came to regard later as his greatest political error. Under that short-lived coalition he continued to hold the office of Paymaster and he distinguished himself in connection with Fox's India Bill. The coalition fell in 1783, and was succeeded by the long Tory administration of William Pitt the Younger, which lasted until 1801. Burke was accordingly in opposition for the remainder of his political life. In 1785 he made his great speech on The Nabob of Arcot's Debts, and in the next year (1786) he moved for papers in regard to the Indian government of Warren Hastings, the consequence of which was the impeachment trial of that politician. The trial, of which Burke was the leading promoter, lasted from 1787 until Hastings's eventual acquittal in 1794. Statue of Charles James Fox in Bloomsbury Square, erected 1816. ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ...


Response to the French Revolution

Given his record as a strong supporter of American independence and as a campaigner against royal prerogative, many were surprised when Burke published his Reflections on the Revolution in France in 1790. With it, Burke became one of the earliest and fiercest British critics of the French Revolution, which he saw not as movement towards a representative, constitutional democracy but rather as a violent rebellion against tradition and proper authority and as an experiment disconnected from the complex realities of human society, which would end in disaster. He specifically denounced democracy : "The occupation of a hairdresser or of a working tallow-chandler cannot be a matter of honour to any person - to say nothing of a number of other more servile employments. Such [...] men ought not to suffer oppression by the state, but the state suffers oppression if such as they, either individually or collectively, are permitted to rule." Former admirers of Burke, such as Thomas Jefferson and fellow Whig politician Charles James Fox, proceeded to denounce Burke as a reactionary and an enemy of democracy. Thomas Paine penned The Rights of Man in 1791 as a response to Burke. However, other pro-democratic politicians, such as the American John Adams, agreed with Burke's assessment of the French situation. Reflections on the Revolution in France is a work of political commentary written by Anglo-Irish statesman and philosopher Edmund Burke, first published on 1 November 1790. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Statue of Charles James Fox in Bloomsbury Square, erected 1816. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... Thomas Paine (Thetford, England, 29 January 1737 – 8 June 1809, New York City, USA) was a pamphleteer, revolutionary, radical intellectual, and deist. ... Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791 as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke, and as such, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ...


These events, and the disagreements which arose regarding them within the Whig party, led to its breakup and to the rupture of Burke's friendship with Fox. In 1791 Burke published his Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs, in which he renewed his criticism of the radical revolutionary programmes inspired by the French Revolution and attacked the Whigs who supported them. Eventually most of the Whigs sided with Burke and voted their support for the conservative government of Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, which declared war on the revolutionary government of France in 1793. A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ...


In 1794 a terrible blow fell upon Burke in the loss of his son Richard, to whom he was tenderly attached, and in whom he saw signs of promise. In the same year the Hastings trial came to an end. Burke felt that his work was done and indeed that he was worn out; he soon took leave of Parliament. The King, whose favour he had gained by his attitude on the French Revolution, wished to make him Lord Beaconsfield, but the death of his son had deprived such an honour of all its attractions, and the only reward he would accept was a pension of £2,500. This pension was attacked by the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Lauderdale, to whom Burke replied in the Letter to a Noble Lord (1796). His last publications were the Letters on a Regicide Peace (1796), called forth by negotiations for peace with France. John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford (6 July 1766 - 20 October 1839) was a younger son of the Marquess of Tavistock (eldest son and heir of the 4th Duke of Bedford who had died during the lifetime of his father). ... James Maitland, 8th Earl of Lauderdale (1759-1839), was a British politician and writer. ...


After a prolonged illness Burke died in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire in 1797 and six days later was buried there alongside his son and brother. His wife survived him by nearly fifteen years. Beaconsfield is a market town in Buckinghamshire, England lying almost 25 miles NW of London. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is one of the home counties in South East England. ...


Influence and reputation

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Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France was extremely controversial at the time of its publication. Its intemperate language and factual inaccuracies even convinced many readers that Burke had lost his judgement. But it grew to become his best-known and most influential work. In the English-speaking world, Burke is often regarded as one of the fathers of modern conservatism, and his thinking has exerted considerable influence over the political philosophy of such classical liberals as Friedrich Hayek and Karl Popper. Burke's 'liberal' conservatism, which claimed to oppose the implementation of governing based on abstract ideas and supported 'organic' reform, can be contrasted with the autocratic conservatism of such Continental figures as Joseph de Maistre. This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Cultural conservatism is conservatism with respect to culture. ... Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism that combines the classical conservative concern for established tradition, respect for authority and (sometimes) religious values with liberal ideas, especially on economic issues (see economic liberalism, which advocates free market capitalism). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about Neoconservatism in the United States, for neoconservatism in other regions, see Neoconservatism (disambiguation). ... Paleoconservatism (sometimes shortened to paleo or paleocon when the context is clear) is an anti-communist and anti-authoritarian[1] right wing movement based primarily in the United States that stresses tradition, civil society and classical federalism, along with familial, religious, regional, national and Western identity. ... Libertarianism is a political philosophy that holds that individuals should be allowed complete freedom of action as long as they do not infringe on the freedom of others. ... Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic liberalism) is a term used in the United States to refer to economic and political policy that advocates restraint of government taxation, government expenditures and deficits, and government debt. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Many countries have political parties that are deemed to represent conservative, center-right, or Tory views which may be referred to informally as conservative parties even if not explicitly named so. ... The International Democrat Union (IDU) is an international grouping of conservative, neoconservative and Christian democratic political parties. ... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest European political party. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, FRS, FBA, (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994), was an Austrian born naturalized British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... Joseph de Maistre (portrait by Karl Vogel von Vogelstein, 1810) Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (April 1, 1753- February 26, 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard lawyer, diplomat, writer, and philosopher. ...


Burke had a strong influence on economic thought of the time. He was a strong supporter of free trade and the free market system. He felt the principles of the market were violated if the government attempted to manipulate the market in any way. In fact, Burke took a strong "laissez-faire" approach to government. Burke lays out many of his economic thoughts in his Thoughts and Details on Scarcity. Adam Smith remarked that "Burke is the only man I ever knew who thinks on economic subjects exactly as I do without any previous communication having passed between us".[1] The Liberal historian Lord Acton considered Burke as one of the three greatest liberals, along with William Ewart Gladstone and Thomas Babington Macaulay.[2] Thoughts and Details on Scarcity, Originally Presented to the Right Hon. ... Adam Smith FRSE (baptised June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. ... John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, KCVO (January 10, 1834 – June 19, 1902), commonly known as simply Lord Acton, was an English historian, the only son of Sir Ferdinand Dalberg-Acton, 7th Baronet and grandson of the Neapolitan admiral, Sir John Acton, 6th Baronet. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... Thomas Macaulay Thomas Babington (or Babbington) Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, PC (October 25, 1800 - December 28, 1859) was a nineteenth-century British poet, historian and Whig politician. ...


Two contrasting assessments of Burke were offered long after his death by Karl Marx and Winston Churchill. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier and author. ...


Karl Marx was a radical opponent of Burke's thought. In Das Kapital, he wrote:: Das Kapital (Capital, in the English translation) is an extensive treatise on political economy written by Karl Marx in German. ...

The sycophant—who in the pay of the English oligarchy played the romantic laudator temporis acti against the French Revolution just as, in the pay of the North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles, he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy—was an out-and-out vulgar bourgeois. Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ...

According to Winston Churchill's "Consistency in Politics":

On the one hand [Burke] is revealed as a foremost apostle of Liberty, on the other as the redoubtable champion of Authority. But a charge of political inconsistency applied to this life appears a mean and petty thing. History easily discerns the reasons and forces which actuated him, and the immense changes in the problems he was facing which evoked from the same profound mind and sincere spirit these entirely contrary manifestations. His soul revolted against tyranny, whether it appeared in the aspect of a domineering Monarch and a corrupt Court and Parliamentary system, or whether, mouthing the watch-words of a non-existent liberty, it towered up against him in the dictation of a brutal mob and wicked sect. No one can read the Burke of Liberty and the Burke of Authority without feeling that here was the same man pursuing the same ends, seeking the same ideals of society and Government, and defending them from assaults, now from one extreme, now from the other.

Burke is also the namesake of a variety of prominent associations and societies across the country.


Speeches

Burke made several famous speeches while serving in the British House of Commons. The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...

  • On American Taxation (1774): "Whether you were right or wrong in establishing the Colonies on the principles of commercial monopoly, rather than on that of revenue, is at this day a problem of mere speculation. You cannot have both by the same authority. To join together the restraints of an universal internal and external monopoly, with an universal internal and external taxation, is an unnatural union; perfect uncompensated slavery."
  • On Conciliation with America (1775)[3]: "The proposition is peace. Not peace through the medium of war; not peace to be hunted through the labyrinth of intricate and endless negotiations; not peace to arise out of universal discord fomented, from principle, in all parts of the Empire, not peace to depend on the juridical determination of perplexing questions, or the precise marking the shadowy boundaries of a complex government. It is simple peace; sought in its natural course, and in its ordinary haunts. It is peace sought in the spirit of peace, and laid in principles purely pacific…"

Also famous is his speech to the Electors of Bristol during the 1774 election, on the duties of a Member of Parliament. On American Taxation was a speech given by Edmund Burke in the British House of Commons on April 19, 1774, advocating the full repeal of the Townshend Revenue Act of 1767. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ...

  • Speech to the Electors of Bristol (1774)[4]: "...it ought to be the happiness and glory of a representative to live in the strictest union, the closest correspondence, and the most unreserved communication with his constituents. Their wishes ought to have great weight with him; their opinion, high respect; their business, unremitted attention. It is his duty to sacrifice his repose, his pleasures, his satisfactions, to theirs; and above all, ever, and in all cases, to prefer their interest to his own. But his unbiased opinion, his mature judgement, his enlightened conscience, he ought not to sacrifice to you, to any man, or to any set of men living. These he does not derive from your pleasure; no, nor from the law and the constitution. They are a trust from Providence, for the abuse of which he is deeply answerable. Your representative owes you, not his industry only, but his judgement; and he betrays, instead of serving you, if he sacrifices it to your opinion. ."

Writings

  • 1920 (1775). "Conciliation with the Colonies". Allyn and Bacon: The Academy Classics. Norwood Press; J.S. Cushing Co. -- Berwick & Smith Co., Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. [Edited by Cornelius Beach Bradley, Professor of Rhetoric, University of California. This 74 page speech was delivered to the House of Commons on March 22, 1775. A random selection of quotations (eleven in all) taken from this speech is presented in the preface and is as relevant today (2007) as it was when published (after the "Great" War) in the present form in 1920. Of the eleven quotations, most striking is the following: "The use of force alone is but temporary. Conciliation failing, force remains; but force failing, no further hope of conciliation is left."
  • 1982 (1756). A Vindication of Natural Society: A View of the Miseries and Evils Arising to Mankind. Liberty Fund. ISBN 0-86597-009-2. Also in Burke (1999). This article, outlining radical political theory, was first published anonymously and, when Burke was revealed as its author, he explained that it was a satire. The academic consensus is that Burke's explanation was not disingenuous. Murray Rothbard dissented, arguing that Burke wrote the Vindication in earnest and later disavowed it out of expediency.
  • 1998 (1757). A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283580-7. Also in Burke (1999). Begun when the author was 19 and published when he was 27.
  • 1999a (1790). Reflections on the Revolution in France. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283978-0. Burke's criticisms of the French Revolution and its connection to Rousseau's philosophy, made before the revolution was radicalised, predicted that it would fall into terror, tyranny, and misrule. Burke, who had supported the American Revolution, wrote the Reflections in response to a young correspondent who mistakenly assumed that he would support the French Revolution as well.
  • 1999 (Isaac Kramnick, ed.) The Portable Edmund Burke. Penguin Books. A 573pp anthology of his essays, speeches, and letters.

Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was a highly influential American economist, historian and natural law theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful is a 1757 treatise on aesthetics, written by Edmund Burke. ... Reflections on the Revolution in France is a work of political commentary written by Anglo-Irish statesman and philosopher Edmund Burke, first published on 1 November 1790. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ...

Trivia

  • Having lost his only heir, in 1794 Burke refused King George III's offer to raise him to the peerage as Lord Beaconsfield. That title would later be chosen by Benjamin Disraeli, the Conservative politician and Prime Minister, when he was awarded a peerage.
  • On the February 7, 2007 episode of Lost, a character named Edmund Burke was introduced as the ex-husband of Juliet Burke. The show has yet to make any significant connection between the real Burke's political and philosophical attitudes and the character.

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (December 21, 1804 – April 19, 1881), born Benjamin DIsraeli was a British Conservative statesman and literary figure. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and is the second oldest extant political party in the world. ... Reflections on the Revolution in France is a work of political commentary written by Anglo-Irish statesman and philosopher Edmund Burke, first published on 1 November 1790. ... Victor Marie du Pont de Nemours (October 1, 1767 - January 30, 1827) was a French diplomat, and after emigrating to the United States, an American businessman. ... Eleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours (June 24, 1771 – October 31, 1834) was born in Paris, France and emigrated with his father Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours to the United States in 1799. ... E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (NYSE: DD) was founded in July 1802 as a gun powder mill by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont on Brandywine Creek, near Wilmington, Delaware. ... Lost is an Emmy and Golden Globe award-winning serial drama television series that follows the lives of a group of plane crash survivors on a mysterious tropical island, somewhere in the South Pacific. ... Dr. Juliet Burke is one of the main characters of the hit ABC drama Lost. ...

Quotes

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • "Manners are of more importance than laws. .. Manners are what vex or soothe, corrupt or purify, exalt or debase, barbarize or refine us, by a constant, steady, uniform, insensible operation like that of the air we breathe in."[3]
  • "There is a sort of enthusiasm in all projectors, absolutely necessary for their affairs, which makes them proof against the most fatiguing delays, the most mortifying disappointments, the most shocking insults; and, what is severer than all, the presumptuous judgement of the ignorant upon their designs."[4]
  • The quote "The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing" is often attributed to Burke, but does not appear in his works or recorded speeches.[5]
  • "But the age of chivalry is gone. - That of sophisters, economists, and calculators, has succeeded; and the glory of Europe is extinguished for ever."[6]

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

Summary

Preceded by
Richard Rigby
Paymaster of the Forces
1782
Succeeded by
Isaac Barré
Preceded by
Isaac Barré
Paymaster of the Forces
1783–1784
Succeeded by
William Wyndham Grenville
Preceded by
Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville
Rector of the University of Glasgow
1783 – 1785
Succeeded by
Robert Graham

Richard Rigby, Secretary of Ireland, Paymaster of the Forces, was a member of the Rigby family also known as Rigby of Mistley Hall in Essex, the site of their manor. ... The Paymaster of the Forces was a British government position. ... Isaac Barré (1726—1802), British soldier and politician, was born at Dublin in 1726, the son of a French refugee. ... Isaac Barré (1726—1802), British soldier and politician, was born at Dublin in 1726, the son of a French refugee. ... The Paymaster of the Forces was a British government position. ... William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville (October 25, 1759 - January 12, 1834), was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. ... Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville (April 28, 1742 - May 28, 1811) was a British statesman. ... The position of Lord Rector of the University of Glasgow is elected every three years by the students at the University of Glasgow. ... Robert Graham (1735 – 1797) who took the name Cunninghame-Graham, was a Scottish politician and poet. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The exact year of his birth is the subject of a great deal of controversy; 1728, 1729 and 1730 have been proposed. His date of birth is also subject to question, a problem compounded by the Julian-Gregorian changeover in 1752, during his lifetime. For a fuller treatment of the question, see Lock, pp. 16-17.
  2. ^ Andrew Heywood, Political Ideologies: An Introduction. Third Edition (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p. 74.
  3. ^ Burke, Edmund, Three Letters addressed to a Member of the present Parliament, on the Proposals for Peace with the Regicide Directory of France: Letter 1, On the Overtures of Peace, p. 172, in The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke: A New Edition, v. VIII. London: F. C. and J. Rivington, 1815.
  4. ^ An account of the European Settlements in America, pp. 19-20, in The Works of Edmund Burke in Nine Volumes, Vol. IX. Boston: Little, Brown, 1839.
  5. ^ "Attributed to Edmund Burke, but never found in his works. It may be a paraphrase of Burke’s view that 'When bad men combine, the good must associate; else they will fall one by one, an unpitied sacrifice in a contemptible struggle' (Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents, April 23, 1770)."
    Platt, Suzy, Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations, p. 555. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1993. See also A study of a Web quotation by Martin Porter
  6. ^ Burke, Edmund, Reflections on the Revolution in France (New York: Prometheus Books, 1987), p. 80.

The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ...

References

The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature is a collection of biographies of writers by John W. Cousin, published around 1910. ... Conor Cruise OBrien (Irish: ; born 3 November 1917) is an Irish politician, writer and academic. ... Russell Kirk Russell Kirk (1918, Plymouth, Michigan – 29 April 1994, Mecosta, Michigan), was an American political theorist, historian, social critic, and man of letters, best known for his influence on 20th century American conservatism. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ...

See also

Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham (May 13, 1730 – July 1, 1782) was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Whig Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... Statue of Charles James Fox in Bloomsbury Square, erected 1816. ... This is a list of people on the postage stamps of the Republic of Ireland, including the years when they appeared on a stamp. ... Thomas Paine Thomas Paine (January 29, 1737–June 8, 1809) was a widely recognized intellectual, scholar, and idealist who is considered to be one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ...

External links

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Persondata
NAME Burke, Edmund
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH January 12, 1729
PLACE OF BIRTH Dublin, Ireland
DATE OF DEATH July 9, 1797
PLACE OF DEATH Beaconsfield, England

 
 

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