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Encyclopedia > Edmond H. Fischer

Dr Edmond H. Fischer (born April 6, 1920) is a Swiss-American biochemist. He and his collaborator Edwin G. Krebs were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1992 for describing how reversible phosphorylation works as a switch to activate proteins and regulate various cellular processes. April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Dr Edwin Gerhard Krebs (born June 6, 1918) is an American biochemist. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein or a small molecule. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Fisher was born in Shanghai, China. At age 7 he and his two older brothers were sent to the Swiss boarding school La Ch√Ętaigneraie. At high school he made a pact with a childhood friend, one of them would become a doctor and the other a scientist and then they could cure the ills of the world. While at high school Fisher was admitted to the Geneva Conservatory of Music, he also considered becoming a professional musician. Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; pinyin: ; Shanghainese IPA: ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta, is Chinas largest city. ... Geneva (French: Genève) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland located where Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman, but the Genevois are fond of calling it Lac de Genève) empties into the Rhône River. ...


At the completion of high school Fisher wanted to study microbiology, however he was advised to study chemistry. He studied at the University of Geneva during World War II, he enjoyed organic chemistry and also studied biology. He completed a PhD in organic chemistry under the supervision of Kurt H. Meyer, who worked on the structure of polysaccharides, and the enzymes needed for their synthesis and breakdown. Fischer worked on alpha-amylase. Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including viruses, prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes. ... The University of Geneva (Université de Genève) is one of the oldest universities in the world. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons—the atom bomb being the ultimate. ... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... A ribbon diagram showing the tertiary structure of neuraminidase. ... Link title // Headline text Link title α-Amylase Amylase (EC 3. ...

Reversible protein phosphorylation
Reversible protein phosphorylation

Fischer went to the United States in 1950 for post-doctoral research. He was supposed to take up a position at CalTech, but he was also, unexpectedly , offered a position at the University of Washington, Seattle. Seattle reminded Fischer and his wife of Switzerland so they chose to settle there. Image File history File links Basic outline of reversible protein phosphorylation. ... Image File history File links Basic outline of reversible protein phosphorylation. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a major public research university in the Seattle metropolitan area. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ...


Six months after his arrival in Seattle, Fischer began collaborating with Ed Krebs. They worked on glycogen phosphorylase, Krebs and Fischer definied a series of reactions leading to the activation/inactivation of this enzyme as triggered by hormones and calcium, and in the process discovering reversible protein phosphorylation. Dr Edwin Gerhard Krebs (born June 6, 1918) is an American biochemist. ... Glycogen is the principal storage form of glucose in animal cells. ... An enzyme that catalyzes the production of glucose phosphate from glycogen and inorganic phosphate. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ...


Explained simply reversible protein phosphorylation works like this : a protein kinase moves a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a protein. The shape and the function of the protein is altered enabling it to take part in some biological process. When the protein has completed its role a protein phosphatase removes the phosphate and the protein reverts to its original state. This cycle takes place to control an enormous number of metabolic processes. A protein kinase is an enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). ... In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the nucleotide known in biochemistry as the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells. ... A phosphatase is an enzyme that hydrolyses phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and a molecule with a free hydroxy group. ...


For the key discovery of reversible protein phosphorylation, Fischer and Krebs were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1992. 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Through his career Fischer's research continued to look at the role reversible protein phosphorylation played in a variety of cellular processes.


References

  • Fischer, E.H. Autobiography.
  • Pacific Northwest Research Institute. About Edmond H. Fischer, Ph.D.
  • Hughes, R. 1998. After the Prize

External links

  • Fischer's biography at UW

  Results from FactBites:
 
PNRI | About Edmond H. Fischer, Ph. D. (333 words)
Edmond H. Fischer was born in Shanghai in 1920.
Fischer and Krebs went on to define the series of reactions in the cascade leading to the activation/inactivation of this enzyme as triggered by hormones and calcium.
Fischer has served on numerous scientific advisory boards, including those for NIH and NSF, the Muscular Dystrophy Association, the Friedrich Miescher Institute of CIBA-GEIGY, the Biozentrum of the University of Basel, the Basel Institute for Immunology, the Scientific Governors of the Scripps Research Institute and the Weizmann Institute of Science.
Edmond H. Fischer 1920 and Edwin G. Krebs 1918 (352 words)
Edmond H. Fischer 1920 and Edwin G. Krebs 1918
This is called "phosphorylation." Fischer and Krebs first purified and described an enzyme which regulates proteins by removing phosphate groups from the protein-"reversible protein phosphorylation." They did this by studying how muscles get energy to contract.
Edmond Fischer was born in Shanghai, China, April 6, 1920 to an Austrian father and French mother.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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