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Encyclopedia > Editing

Editing is the process of preparing language, images, or sound through correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications in various media. A person who edits is called an editor. In a sense, the editing process originates with the idea for the work itself and continues in the relationship between the author and the editor. Editing is, therefore, also a practice that includes creative skills, human relations, and a precise set of methods. Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ...


Print media

There are various levels of editorial positions in publishing. Typically, one finds junior editorial assistants reporting to the senior-level editorial managers and directors who report to senior executive editors. Senior executive editors are responsible for developing a product to its final release. Human editors in the print (publishing) industry include those people who are responsible for:

  • Newspapers and wire services. (See below.)
  • Organizing anthologies and other compilations.
  • Organizing and publishing a magazine. The top-level editor may be called an editor-in-chief. Those who get the magazine into the hands of readers and subscribers are called circulation editors. Frequent and esteemed contributors to a magazine may acquire a title of editor at-large or the less pompous contributing editor.
  • Producing a definitive edition of a classic author's works—a scholarly editor.
  • Organizing and managing contributions to a multi-author book — symposium editor or volume editor.
  • Finding marketable ideas and presenting them to appropriate authors — a sponsoring editor.
  • Obtaining copy or recruiting authors — such as a acquisitions editor or commissioning editor for a publishing house.
  • Improving an author's writing so that they indeed say what they mean to say in an effective manner — a substantive editor. Depending on the writer's skill level, this editing can sometimes turn into ghost writing. Substantive editing is seldom a title. Many types of editors do this type of work, either in-house at a publisher or on an independent basis.
  • Correcting spelling, grammar, and matters of house style—a copyeditor. But copy editors at newspapers usually also have greater and higher responsibilities, which may include the design of pages and the selection of news stories for inclusion. At UK and Australian newspapers, the term is "sub-editor."
  • Choosing the layout of the publication and communicating with the printer — a production editor. This and similar jobs are also called "layout editor," "design editor," "news designer," or – more so in the past – "makeup editor."

The smaller the publication, the more these roles run together. In particular, the substantive editor and copy editor often overlap: fact-checking and rewriting can be the responsibility of either. In journalism, news agencies are bodies established to supply news reports to newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ... ANThology is the first major label album by Alien Ant Farm released on March 6, 2001 in the USA and March 19, 2001 in the UK. // Their first single, Smooth Criminal, was a cover of Michael Jacksons song Smooth Criminal, which started to bring popularity to the band. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about a ghostwriter, the type of writer. ... Proper spelling is the writing of a word or words with all necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... A publishing companys or periodicals house style is the collection of conventions in its manual of style. ... Copy editing is the process of an editor making formatting changes and other improvements to text. ...

Executive editor

The top editor sometimes has the title executive editor or editor-in-chief (the former is replacing the latter in the language). This person is generally responsible for the content of the publication. The exception is that newspapers that are large enough usually have a separate editor for the editorials and opinion pages in order to have a complete separation of its news reporting and its editorial content.

The executive editor sets the publication standards for performance, as well as for motivating and developing the staff. The executive editor is also responsible for developing and maintaining the publication budget. In concert with the publisher and the operating committee, the executive editor is responsible for strategic and operational planning. A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ...


Editors at newspapers supervise journalists and improve their work. Newspaper editing encompasses a variety of titles and functions. These include:

  • Copy editors
  • Department editors
  • Managing editors and assistant or deputy managing editors (the managing editor is often second in line after the top editor)
  • News editors, who oversee the news desks
  • Photo or picture editors
  • Section editors and their assistants, such as for business, features, and sports
  • Editorial Page Editor who oversees the coverage on the editorial page. This includes chairing the Editorial Board and assigning editorial writing responsibilities. The editorial page editor may also oversee the op-ed page or those duties are assigned to a separate op-ed editor.
  • Top editors, who may be called editor in chief, executive editor or sometimes just editor
  • Readers' editors, sometimes known as the ombudsman, who arbitrate complaints
  • Wire editors, who choose and edit articles from various international wire services, and are usually part of the copy desk
  • Administrative editors (who actually don't edit but perform duties such as recruiting and directing training)

The term city editor is used differently in North America and south america, where it refers to the editor responsible for the news coverage of a newspaper's local circulation area (also sometimes called metro editor), and in the United Kingdom, where (normally with a capital C) it refers to the editor responsible for coverage of business in the City of London and, by extension, coverage of business and finance in general. Copy editing is the process of an editor making formatting changes and other improvements to text. ... A managing editor is a senior member of a publications management team. ... The editorial page is the page reserved in a newspaper or magazine for the publications editorial. ... The editorial board is a group of people, usually at a print publication, who dictate the tone and direction the publications editorials will take. ... An Op-Ed is a piece of writing expressing an opinion. ... For the Canadian television series, see Ombudsman (TV series). ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ...

Scholarly books and journals

Editors of scholarly books and journals are of three types, each with particular responsibilities: the acquisitions editor (or commissioning editor in Britain), who contracts with the author to produce the copy, the project editor or production editor, who sees the copy through its stages from manuscript through bound book and usually assumes most of the budget and schedule responsibilities, and the copy editor or manuscript editor, who performs the tasks of readying the copy for conversion into printed form.

The primary difference between copy editing scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy editing lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy. Most scholarly publishers have a preferred style guide, usually a combination of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary and either the Chicago Manual of Style, the MLA Style Manual, or the APA Publication Manual in the US or New Hart's Rules [based on "Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford" (1893)] in the UK. Since scholars often have strong preferences, very often a publisher will adopt different styles for different fields. For instance, psychologists prefer the APA style, while linguists might prefer the MLA style. These guidelines offer sound advice on making cited sources complete and correct and making the presentation scholarly. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is a highly regarded style guide for American English, dealing with questions of style, manuscript preparation, and, to a lesser degree, usage. ... The MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd ed. ... Further information: MLA Style Manual American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely-accepted style of documentation for APA style specifies the names and order of headings, formatting and organization of citations and references, and the arrangement of tables, figures, footnotes, and appendices, as well as other manuscript and documentation...

Technical editing

Technical editing involves reviewing text written on a technical topic, and identifying errors related to the use of language in general or adherence to a specific style guide.

This activity ensures that documentation is of good quality. In large companies, experienced writers are dedicated to the technical editing function; in organizations that cannot afford dedicated editors, experienced writers typically peer-edit text produced by their relatively less experienced colleagues.

It helps if the technical editor is familiar with the subject being edited, but that is not always essential. The "technical" knowledge that an editor gains over time while working on a particular product or technology does give the editor an edge over another who has just started editing content related to that product or technology. In the long run, however, the skills that really matter are attention to detail, the ability to sustain focus while working through lengthy pieces of text on complex topics, tact in dealing with writers, and excellent communication skills.

Revising is also another form of editing. It is looking for awkward sentences, run-on sentences, and in general parts of the paper that don't make sense to the editor. Usually the writer revises their copy before turning it in.

See also

Film editing is the connecting of one or more shots to form a sequence, and the subsequent connecting of sequences to form an entire movie. ... Audio editing is the process of taking recorded sound and changing it directly on the recording medium (analog) or in RAM (digital). ... The term video editing can refer to: non-linear editing system, using computers with video editing software linear video editing, using videotape Video editing is the process of re-arranging or modifying segments of video to form another piece of video. ... Copy editing is the process of an editor making formatting changes and other improvements to text. ... “Publisher” redirects here. ... Copy refers to written material, in contrast to photographs or other elements of layout, in a large number of contexts, including magazines, advertising, and book publishing. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... A literary agent is an agent that represents writers and their written works to publishers, theatrical producers and film producers and assists in the sale and deal negotiation of the same. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Book design refers to the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design, and sequence of the various components of a book into a coherent whole. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Proofreading means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors. ... For other uses, see Print. ... Old book binding and cover Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. ...

External links

Look up Editing in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Blake Morrison is a versatile British author who has published in a wide range of fiction and non-fiction genres. ...

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In other words, edit is not the source of editor, as dive is of diver, the expected derivational pattern; rather, the reverse is the case.
Edit in the sense “to prepare for publication,” first recorded in 1793, comes from editor, first recorded in 1712 in the sense “one who edits.” There is more to the story, however.
edit can be launched by typing it into the RUN box on Windows, and by typing edit into the command line interface.
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