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Encyclopedia > Edith Stein
Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross
Martyr
Born October 12, 1891, Breslau, German Empire
Died August 9, 1942, Auschwitz concentration camp, Nazi-occupied Poland
Venerated in Roman Catholicism
Beatified May 1, 1987, Cologne, Germany by Pope John Paul II
Canonized October 11, 1998 by Pope John Paul II
Feast August 9
Attributes Yellow Star of David
Patronage Europe; loss of parents; martyrs; World Youth Day[1]
Saints Portal

Edith Stein (October 12, 1891August 9, 1942) was a German-Jewish philosopher, a Carmelite nun, martyr, and saint of the Catholic Church, who died at Auschwitz. In 1922, she converted to Christianity, was baptized into the Roman Catholic Church and was received into the Discalced Carmelite Order in 1934. She was canonized as Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (her Carmelite monastic name) by Pope John Paul II in 1998; however, she is still often referred to, and churches named for her as, "Saint Edith Stein". Image File history File links EdithStein. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory belonging to a state passes to a hostile army. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... This article is about a Jewish symbol. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Pietro Novelli, Our Lady of Mount Carmel and Carmelite Saints (Simon Stock (standing), Angelus of Jerusalem (kneeling), Mary Magdalene dePazzi, Teresa of Avila), 1641 (Museo Diocesano, Palermo. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Saints redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later. ...

Contents

Life

Stein was born in Breslau (Wrocław), in the German Empire's Prussian Province of Silesia, into an observant Jewish family. Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ...


At the University of Göttingen, she became a student of Edmund Husserl, whom she followed to the University of Freiburg as his assistant. In 1916, she received her doctorate of philosophy there with a dissertation under Husserl, "On The Problem of Empathy." She then became a member of the faculty in Freiburg. In the previous year she had worked with Martin Heidegger in editing Husserl's papers for publication, Heidegger being appointed similarly as a teaching assistant to Husserl at Freiburg in October 1916. She had her Dissertation in 1916 with Zum Problem der Einfühlung (About the Problem of Emphathy) and held a Ph.D. since, but as a woman was rejected with further habilitational studies at the University of Freiburg and failed to successfully reach in a habilitational study Psychische Kausalität (Psychic Causality) at the University of Göttingen in 1919. At the Universities of Breslau (Wrocław) and Freiburg she further failed to successfully reach in an other habilitational study Potenz und Akt (Potence and Act). Her academic career was cut. The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (IPA: ; April 8, 1859 – April 26, 1938) was a philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. ... Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg was founded 1457 in Freiburg by the Habsburgs. ... This article refers to the city in Baden-Württemberg. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ...


While Stein had earlier contacts with Catholicism, it was then her reading the autobiography of the mystic St. Teresa of Ávila on a holiday in Göttingen in 1921 after her problems in personal life and career the years before that caused her conversion. Baptized on January 1, 1922, she gave up her assistantship with Husserl to teach at a Dominican girls' school in Speyer from 1922 to 1932. While there, she translated Thomas Aquinas' De Veritate (On Truth) into German and familiarized herself with Catholic philosophy in general and abandoned phenomenology of her former teacher Husserl for thomism. She visited Husserl and Heidegger at Freiburg in April 1929, in the same month that Heidegger gave a speech to Husserl (like Stein, a Jewish convert to Christianity) on his 70th birthday. In 1932 she became a lecturer at the Institute for Pedagogy at Münster, but anti-Semitic legislation passed by the Nazi government forced her to resign the post in 1933: the same year in which her former colleague Martin Heidegger became Rector at Freiburg and stated that "The Führer, and he alone, is the present and future law of Germany." In a letter to Pope Pius XI, she denounced the Nazi regime and asked the Pope to openly denounce the regime "to put a stop to this abuse of Christ's name." [2] Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other saints with similar names, please see Saint Teresa. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... A Mongolian Pedagogical University Graduation Award Badge. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ...


She entered the Discalced Carmelite monastery at Cologne in 1933 and took the name Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. There she wrote her metaphysical book "Endliches und ewiges Sein," which tries to combine the philosophies of Aquinas and Husserl. The Discalced Carmelites, or Barefoot Carmelites, is a Roman Catholic mendicant order. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than...

Relief of Edith Stein
Relief of Edith Stein

To avoid the growing Nazi threat, her order transferred Stein to the Carmelite monastery at Echt in the Netherlands. There she wrote Studie über Joannes a Cruce: Kreuzeswissenschaft ("The Science of the Cross: Studies on John of the Cross"). Image File history File linksMetadata Edith-Stein-Tafel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Edith-Stein-Tafel. ... Not to be confused with Nasi. ... Echt-Susteren is a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands. ... For the personification of the average Filipino, see Juan de la Cruz, and for another Saint who lived around the same time and area, see John of Avila Saint John of the Cross (San Juan de la Cruz) (June 24, 1542 – December 14, 1591) was a major figure in the...


However, Stein was not safe in the Netherlands—the Dutch Bishops' Conference had a public statement read in all the churches of the country on July 20, 1942, condemning Nazi racism. In a retaliatory response on July 26, 1942, the Reichskommissar of the Netherlands, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, ordered the arrest of all Jewish converts, who had previously been spared. Stein and her sister Rosa, also a convert, were captured and shipped to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where they died in the gas chambers on August 9, 1942. is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reichskommissar (Commissionary of the Empire) was an official title of authorized representative of the Deutsches Reich (after 1871) who was appointed to a special task, e. ... Arthur Seyss-Inquart Arthur Seyss-Inquart (born Arthur Zajtich, officially (German) Arthur Seyß-Inquart) (July 22, 1892 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official in Austria and for wartime Germany in Poland and the Netherlands. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Legacy

Stein was beatified as a martyr on May 1, 1987 in Cologne, Germany by Pope John Paul II, and canonized by him on October 11, 1998 under the name Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross.The miracle which was the basis for her canonization was the cure of a little girl who had swallowed a large amount of Tylenol which causes hepatic necrosis in small children. Immediately her relatives prayed to Edith Stein ( intercessory prayer ). Shortly thereafter the nurses in the intensive care unit saw her sit up completely healthy.This girl as teenager was present at the canonization ceremony in the Vatican. is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Today, there is a school named in tribute to Stein in Darmstadt, Germany,[3] as well as one in Hengelo, the Netherlands.[4] The University of Tübingen has a women's dormitory named for her as well. [5] For other uses, see Darmstadt (disambiguation). ... Hengelo is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands, in the province of Overijssel. ... A view of the campus Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (German: Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, sometimes called the Eberhardina) is a public university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...


In 2008, her bust is to be introduced to the Walhalla temple in Regensburg. Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... View of the Walhalla from the Danube View of the Walhalla main hall The Walhalla, Hall of Fame and Honor is a hall of fame located on the Danube River 10 km from Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ...


Controversy

Some Jewish groups[citation needed] have challenged the beatification of Edith Stein. They point out that a martyr is, according to Catholic doctrine, someone who died for his or her religion; whether Stein was killed for her Jewish ethnicity, her faith, or both, is, for them, open to debate. The position of the Catholic Church in this matter is that Edith Stein also died because of the Dutch hierarchy's public condemnation of Nazi racism in 1942—in other words, that she died to uphold the moral position of the Church, and is thus a martyr.[citation needed] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ...


James P. Carroll states that Stein was to be beatified as a confessor (which required one confirmed miracle), but that was changed to "martyr" (which requires none). In either case, another miracle would still be needed for a Canonisation. Carroll further states that the miracle attributed to Stein was in fact the result of medicine alone.[6] James P. Carroll (born 1943 in Chicago, Illinois) is a noted author, novelist, and columnist for the Boston Globe. ...


Writings

  • Life in a Jewish Family: Her Unfinished Autobiographical Account, translated by Josephine Koeppel, 1986
  • On the Problem of Empathy, Translated by Waltraut Stein 1989
  • Essays on Woman, translated by Freda Mary Oben, 1996
  • The Hidden Life, translated by Josephine Koeppel, 1993
  • The Science of the Cross, translated by Josephine Koeppel, 1998
  • Knowledge and Faith
  • Finite and Eternal Being: An Attempt to an Ascent to the Meaning of Being
  • Philosophy of Psychology and the Humanities, translated by Mary Catharine Baseheart and Marianne Sawicki, 2000
  • An Investigation Concerning the State, translated by Marianne Sawicki, 2006
  • Martin Heidegger's Existential Philosophy, translated by Mette Lebech, 2007
  • Self-Portrait in Letters, 1916-1942
  • The Hidden Life

References

  1. ^ "Patron Saints Index: Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross" Accessed 26 January 2007.
  2. ^
    As a child of the Jewish people who, by the grace of God, for the past eleven years has also been a child of the Catholic Church, I dare to speak to the Father of Christianity about that which oppresses millions of Germans. For weeks we have seen deeds perpetrated in Germany which mock any sense of justice and humanity, not to mention love of neighbor. For years the leaders of National Socialism have been preaching hatred of the Jews. But the responsibility must fall, after all, on those who brought them to this point and it also falls on those who keep silent in the face of such happenings.

    Everything that happened and continues to happen on a daily basis originates with a government that calls itself "Christian." For weeks not only Jews but also thousands of faithful Catholics in Germany, and, I believe, all over the world, have been waiting and hoping for the Church of Christ to raise its voice to put a stop to this abuse of Christ’s name." —Edith Stein, Letter to Pope Pius XI.

  3. ^ Edith Stein Schule
  4. ^ Hogeschool Edith Stein
  5. ^ Edith Stein-Studentinnen-Wohnheim
  6. ^ Carroll, James. Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews -- A History, New York: Mariner, 2002 ISBN 9780618219087
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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Intellectual and Spiritual Contemporaries of Note

Dietrich Bonhoeffer [] (February 4, 1906 – April 9, 1945) was a German Lutheran pastor, theologian, participant in the German Resistance movement against Nazism, and a founding member of the Confessing Church. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... The Catholic Worker Movement is a Catholic organization founded by the Servant of God Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin in 1933. ... Servant of God Catherine Doherty (August 15, 1896–December 14, 1985) was a social activist and foundress of the Madonna House Apostolate. ... The Madonna House Apostolate is a Catholic Christian community of lay men, women, and priests. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ...

See also

Personalism is the school of thought that consists of three main principles, and which can broadly be qualified as species of Humanism : Only people are real (in the ontological sense), Only people have value, and Only people have free will. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... The eremitic Rule of St. ... The Book of the First Monks[1] is a medieval Christian work in the contemplative and eremetic tradition of the Carmelites. ... The Constitutions of the Carmelite Order stand as an expression of the ideals and spirit of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Edith Stein (2151 words)
Edith and her sister Rosa, also a convert, were captured and shipped to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where they died in the gas chambers on August 9, 1942.
Edith Stein's excitement at her discovery of phenomenology was crucial to her decision to move to the University of Gottingen (located in the Kingdom of Hanover) and to study under Husserl.
Edith Stein was subsequently baptized as a Roman Catholic at Bergzabern on 1 January 1922.
Edith Stein, Racism and the Church. (816 words)
Edith Stein was a Roman Catholic convert from a Jewish background.
Edith Stein renounced Judaism and became an atheist in 1904.
When she was forced to resign her post in 1933, Edith Stein was not a member of the Jewish religious community.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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