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Encyclopedia > Edinburgh
City Of Edinburgh
Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann
Scots: Edinburgh, Embra, Embro, Edinburrie
Auld Reekie, Athens of the North


Top: Edinburgh From The Castle Middle: Princes St Gardens Bottom: Edinburgh Castle. Edinburgh is the name of: a city in Scotland, see: Edinburgh. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 1788 KB) Summary View over Edinburgh from Edinburgh Castle. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 262 KB)The Princes Street Gardens and some buildings -- L to R, Scott Monument, North British Hotel, Nelsons Monument & the City Observatory on Calton Hill, two bridges (Waverley in the foreground, North in the back), rooftops of Waverley Station... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...


City Of Edinburgh shown within the City of Edinburgh
Area[1]  100 sq mi (259 km²)
Population 448,624 (2001 Census)
Urban 1,250,000
OS grid reference NT275735
 - London 332 miles (535 km) SSE
Council area City of Edinburgh
Lieutenancy area Edinburgh
Constituent country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town EDINBURGH
Postcode district EH1-EH13; EH14 (part); EH15-EH17
Dialling code 0131
Police Lothian and Borders
Fire Lothian and Borders
Ambulance Scottish
European Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament Edinburgh South
Edinburgh West
Edinburgh South West
Edinburgh North and Leith
Edinburgh East
Scottish Parliament Edinburgh North and Leith
Edinburgh Central
Edinburgh East and Musselburgh
Edinburgh Pentlands
Edinburgh South
Edinburgh West
Lothians
List of places: UKScotlandEdinburgh

Coordinates: 55°56′58″N 3°09′37″W / 55.949556, -3.160288 Image File history File links Red_pog. ... City of Edinburgh (Mòr-bhaile Dhùn Èideann in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A modern compass card. ... For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as Council Areas of Scotland which are all governed by unitary authorities designated as Councils which have the option under the Local Government (Gaelic Names) (Scotland) Act 1997 (as chosen by Na h-Eileanan an Iar) of being known... Location Geography Area Ranked 23rd  - Total 264 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Edinburgh ISO 3166-2 GB-EDH ONS code 00QP Demographics Population Ranked 2nd  - Total (2005) 457,830  - Density 1,734 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Edinburgh City Council http://www. ... The Lieutenancy areas of Scotland are the areas used for the ceremonial lords-lieutenant, the monarchs representatives, in Scotland. ... // Constituent country is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a historical, currently non-legally officially recognised country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping. ... This article is about the country. ... This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged, gives an overview of states around the world with information on the extent of their sovereignty. ... A post town is a required part of all UK postal addresses. ... UK postal codes are known as postcodes. ... The EH postcode area, also known as the Edinburgh postcode area[2], is a group of postal districts around Balerno, Bathgate, Boness, Bonnyrigg, Broxburn, Currie, Dalkeith, Dunbar, East Linton, Edinburgh, Gorebridge, Gullane, Haddington, Heriot, Humbie, Innerleithen, Juniper Green, Kirkliston, Kirknewton, Lasswade, Linlithgow, Livingston, Loanhead, Longniddry, Musselburgh, Newbridge, North Berwick... +44 redirects here. ... There are a number of policing agencies in the United Kingdom. ... Lothian and Borders Police is the police force for the Scottish council areas of the City of Edinburgh, East Lothian, Midlothian, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. ... A Fire Appliance belonging to the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service The fire service in the United Kingdom has undergone dramatic changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process that has been propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational... Lothian and Borders Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering a total area 2,500 square miles and serving a total population of 890,000. ... Two Mercedes-Benz Sprinter-based ambulances of the Scottish Ambulance Service The Scottish Ambulance Service serves all of Scotland and is a special health board funded directly by the health department of the Scottish Executive. ... This is a list of Members of the European Parliament for the United Kingdom in the 2004 to 2009 session, ordered by name. ... Scotland constitutes a single constituency of the European Parliament. ... The United Kingdom House of Commons is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). ... Edinburgh South is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, first used in the general election of 1885. ... Edinburgh West has been a constituency of the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1885. ... Edinburgh South West is a constituency to be represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Edinburgh North and Leith is a constituency of the House of Commons of the UK Parliament. ... Edinburgh East is a constituency to be represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Edinburgh North and Leith is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament. ... Edinburgh Central is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood). ... Edinburgh East and Musselburgh is a constituency represented in the Scottish Parliament. ... Edinburgh Pentlands is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood). ... Edinburgh South is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament. ... Edinburgh West is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament. ... The Lothians is one of the eight electoral regions of the Scottish Parliament which were created in 1999. ... List of burghs in Scotland List of cities in the United Kingdom Lists of places within Scottish regions List of places in Orkney List of places in Shetland List of places in the Borders region of Scotland List of places in the Central region of Scotland List of places in... Edinburgh is divided into areas that generally encompass a park (or green), a high street (i. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Edinburgh ((listen), pronounced /ˈɛdɪnb(ə)rə/; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann) is the capital of Scotland, is its second largest city after Glasgow which is situated 45 miles (72 km) to the west, is one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and is the seventh largest city in the United Kingdom. // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... This article is about the country. ... Cathedral city redirects here. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The council areas of Scotland form the local government areas of Scotland, all of them unitary authorities. ...


Located in the south-east of Scotland, Edinburgh lies on the east coast of Scotland's Central Belt, along the Firth of Forth, near the North Sea. Owing to its rugged setting and vast collection of Medieval and Georgian architecture, including numerous stone tenements, it is often considered one of the most picturesque cities in Europe. Not to be confused with Central Lowlands. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... A Georgian house in Salisbury For the unrelated architecture of the country Georgia, see Architecture of Georgia (country). ... An apartment building, block of flats or tenement is a multi-unit dwelling made up of several (generally four or more) apartments (US) or flats (UK). ... Picturesque is an aesthetic ideal first introduced into English cultural debate in 1782 by William Gilpin in , a practical book which instructed Englands leisured travelers to examine the face of a country by the rules of picturesque beauty. Picturesque, along with the aesthetic and cultural strands of Gothic and...


It forms the City of Edinburgh council area; the city council area includes urban Edinburgh and a 30-square-mile (78 km²) rural area. The 32 council areas of Scotland form the local government areas of Scotland, all of them unitary authorities. ... City of Edinburgh (Mòr-bhaile Dhùn Èideann in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ...


It has been the capital of Scotland since 1437 (replacing Scone) and is the seat of the Scottish Parliament. The city was one of the major centres of the Enlightenment, led by the University of Edinburgh, earning it the nickname Athens of the North. The Old Town and New Town districts of Edinburgh were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. There are over 4,500 listed buildings within the city.[2] In the census of 2001, Edinburgh had a total resident population of 448,625. For the foodstuff see Scone (bread). ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Old Town of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... Edinburghs New Town, viewed from Edinburgh Castle. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Buckingham Palace, a Grade I listed building. ... A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ...


Edinburgh is well-known for the annual Edinburgh Festival, a collection of official and independent festivals held annually over about four weeks from early August. The number of visitors attracted to Edinburgh for the Festival is roughly equal to the settled population of the city. The most famous of these events are the Edinburgh Fringe (the largest performing arts festival in the world), the Edinburgh International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, the Edinburgh International Film Festival, and the Edinburgh International Book Festival. There is no one Edinburgh Festival but those using the term are usually referring to the collection of various festivals in August and early September of each year in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... A street performer on the Royal Mile, with volunteer (2004). ... The Edinburgh International Festival is a festival of performing arts that takes place in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, over three weeks from around the middle of August. ... The 2005 Edinburgh Military Tattoo celebrated Trafalgar 200 The Edinburgh Military Tattoo is a show given by military bands and display teams in the Scottish capital Edinburgh. ... The Edinburgh International Film Festival or EIFF has moved date and will now take place in June. ... The Edinburgh International Book Festival is a book festival that takes place in the last three weeks in August (coinciding with the general Edinburgh Festival) in Charlotte Square in the centre of Edinburgh. ...


Other notable events include the Hogmanay street party (31 December), Burns Night (25 January), St. Andrew's Day (November 30), and the Beltane Fire Festival (30 April). Hogmanay (pronounced — with the main stress on the last syllable - hog-muh-NAY) is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Burns Supper is a celebration of the life and poetry of the poet Robert Burns, author of the version of the Scots song Auld Lang Syne, which is generally sung at Hogmanay and other New Year celebrations around the English-speaking world. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... St. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Beltane Fire Festival is an annual event, held on April 30th on Calton Hill in Edinburgh to celebrate the coming of the Gaelic cross-quarter day of Beltane (May 1). ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The city is one of Europe's major tourist destinations, attracting around 13 million visitors a year, and is the second most visited tourist destination in the United Kingdom, after London.[3] The ruins of Melrose Abbey, Scottish Borders Scotland is a well-developed tourist destination, with tourism generally being responsible for sustaining 200,000 jobs mainly in the service sector, with tourist spending averaging at £4bn per year [1]. Tourists from the United Kingdom make up the bulk of visitors to... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

History

An 1802 illustration of Edinburgh from the West.
An 1802 illustration of Edinburgh from the West.

See Timeline of Edinburgh history Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article is intended to show a timeline of the history of Edinburgh, Scotland up to the present day. ...

Edinburgh started as a fort named Castle Rock (an easily defended position). However, in the 7th century, England captured this location and named it Eiden's burgh (burgh is an old word for fort). In the 10th century, the Scots again recaptured this position. Then in the 12th century a small town flourished called Edinburgh. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Etymology

Edinburgh viewed from the Castle

The origin of the city's name in English is understood to come from the Brythonic Din Eidyn (Fort of Eidyn) from the time when it was a Gododdin hillfort.[4] In the 1st century the Romans recorded the Votadini as a Brythonic tribe in the area, and about AD 600 the poem Y Gododdin, using the Brythonic form of that name, describes warriors feasting "in Eidin's great hall".[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 1788 KB) Summary View over Edinburgh from Edinburgh Castle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 1788 KB) Summary View over Edinburgh from Edinburgh Castle. ... The Etymology of Edinburgh shows that the origin of the citys name is understood to come from the Brythonic Din Eidyn (Fort of Eidyn) from the time when it was a Gododdin hillfort. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Gododdin (pronounced god-o-th-in), or Guotodin (Votadini in Latin), refers to both the people and to the region of a Dark Ages Brythonic kingdom south of the Firth of Forth, extending from the Stirling area to the Northumberland kingdom of Brynaich, and including what are now the Lothian... The term hill fort is commonly used by archeologists to describe fortified enclosures located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Votadini (the WotādÄ«nÄ«, or VotādÄ«nÄ«) were a people of the Iron Age in Great Britain, and their territory was briefly part of the Roman province Britannia. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... AD redirects here. ... Y Gododdin (The Gododdin), attributed to the 7th century poet Aneirin, is a series of 99 elegies to the men of the kingdom of Gododdin in north-eastern Britain who fell in the battle of Catraeth, thought to be Catterick in North Yorkshire, against the Angles, ca. ...

Detail of the Hereford Mappa Mundi, Edinburgh is clearly labeled on this T and O map of the British isles from c. 1300
Detail of the Hereford Mappa Mundi, Edinburgh is clearly labeled on this T and O map of the British isles from c. 1300

It came to be known to the English, the Bernician Angles, as Edin-burh, which some people once believed derived from the Old English for "Edwin's fort", with a reference to the 7th century king Edwin of Northumbria. However, since the name apparently predates King Edwin, this is highly unlikely. The burgh element means "fortress" or "walled group of buildings", i.e. a town or city and is akin to the German burg, Latin parcus, Greek πύργος (pyrgos) etc. Burh is simply a translation of Brythonic Din; Edin is untranslated. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1407x1146, 380 KB) http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1407x1146, 380 KB) http://www. ... The Hereford Mappa Mundi is a T and O map dating to ca. ... Earliest printed example of a classical T and O map (by Guntherus Ziner, Augsburg, 1472), illustrating the first page of chapter XIV of the Etymologiae. ... Bernicia was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now the South-East of Scotland, and the North-East of England. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Saint Edwin (alternately Eadwine or Æduini) (c. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Other names

The city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie[5] (Scots for Old Smoky), because when buildings were heated by coal and wood fires, chimneys would spew thick columns of smoke into the air. It has also been known as "Embray"[6] or "Embro" [3] as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy[4] This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Robert Garioch Sutherland, (9 May 1909 – 26 April 1981), was a Scottish poet and translator. ...


Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North and Auld Greekie for its intellectual history, and for its topography, with the Old Town of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis.[7] Edinburgh is also known by several Latin names; Aneda or Edinensis, the latter can be seen inscribed on many educational buildings.[8][9][10][11][12] This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ...


Edinburgh has also been known as Dunedin, deriving from the Scottish Gaelic, Dùn Èideann. Dunedin, New Zealand, was originally called "New Edinburgh" and is still nicknamed the "Edinburgh of the South". The Scots poets Robert Burns and Robert Fergusson sometimes used the city's Latin name, Edina. Ben Jonson described it as Britain's other eye,[13] and Sir Walter Scott referred to the city as yon Empress of the North.[14] Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Alternative meanings at Dunedin (disambiguation) Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, located in coastal Otago. ... For other persons named Robert Burns, see Robert Burns (disambiguation). ...   Statue of Fergusson on Edinburghs Royal Mile Robert Fergusson (September 5, 1750 - October 16, 1774), Scottish poet, son of Sir William Fergusson, a clerk in the British Linen Company, was born at Edinburgh. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ...

Panorama of the Old Town and Southside of Edinburgh from the Nelson monument. Panorama was originally coined by the Irish painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh.
Panorama of the Old Town and Southside of Edinburgh from the Nelson monument. Panorama was originally coined by the Irish painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3701x500, 690 KB) A panoramic view of Edinburgh from the Nelson monument. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3701x500, 690 KB) A panoramic view of Edinburgh from the Nelson monument. ... This article is an overview of the term Panorama. ...

Areas

Map of the city, showing New and Old Towns
Map of the city, showing New and Old Towns
Main article: Areas of Edinburgh

The Edinburgh New Town is a neo-classical masterpiece. ... The Old Town of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... Edinburgh is divided into areas that generally encompass a park (or green), a high street (i. ...

Areas of the centre

The historic centre of Edinburgh is divided into two by the broad green swath of Princes Street Gardens. To the south the view is dominated by Edinburgh Castle, perched atop the extinct volcanic crag, and the long sweep of the Old Town trailing after it along the ridge. To the north lies Princes Street and the New Town. The gardens were begun in 1816 on bogland which had once been the Nor Loch. Princes Street Gardens is in Edinburgh, Scotland in the shadow of Edinburgh Castle which was once the sewage system, called the Nor Loch, for the city whos population lived in what modern times would call highrise flats (apartments). ... The castle dominates the Edinburgh skyline as seen here from Princes Street Gardens Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which, from its position atop Castle Rock, dominates the sky-line of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands second most visited tourist attraction, after the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and... The Old Town of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... Princes Street, as viewed facing west from the Scott Monument Princes Street and the Castle at twilight Princes Street is the main shopping street in Edinburgh city centre, although it was originally designed to be a residential street. ... The Edinburgh New Town is a neo-classical masterpiece. ... Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ... Edinburgh Castle with the Nor Loch in foreground, around 1780 by Alexander Nasmyth The Nor Loch, sometimes referred to in English as the North Loch, was a body of water formerly in Edinburgh, in the area now occupied by Princes Street Gardens, which lies between the Royal Mile and Princes...

A 19th century view of Holyrood Palace from Calton Hill.
A 19th century view of Holyrood Palace from Calton Hill.

To the immediate west of the castle lies the financial district, housing insurance and banking buildings. Probably the most noticeable building here is the circular sandstone building that is the Edinburgh International Conference Centre. Image File history File links Holyrood Palace from Calton Hill by James Valentine. ... Image File history File links Holyrood Palace from Calton Hill by James Valentine. ... A 19th century view of Holyrood Palace from Calton Hill. ... Calton hill is a Site of Special Scientific Interest in Derbyshire, showing Olivine Diorite magma chamber. ... The Edinburgh International Conference Centre building in the west of the city The Edinburgh International Conference Centre, or EICC for short, is the principal convention and conference centre in Edinburgh. ...


Old Town

Main article: Old Town, Edinburgh
Looking northeast across part of Princes Street Gardens
Looking northeast across part of Princes Street Gardens

The Old Town has preserved its medieval plan and many Reformation-era buildings. One end is closed by the castle and the main artery, the Royal Mile, leads away from it; minor streets (called closes or wynds) lead downhill on either side of the main spine in a herringbone pattern. Large squares mark the location of markets or surround public buildings such as St Giles Cathedral and the Law Courts. Other notable places nearby include the Royal Museum of Scotland, Surgeons' Hall and McEwan Hall. The street layout is typical of the old quarters of many northern European cities, and where the castle perches on top of a rocky crag (the remnants of an extinct volcano) the Royal Mile runs down the crest of a ridge from it. The Old Town of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 262 KB)The Princes Street Gardens and some buildings -- L to R, Scott Monument, North British Hotel, Nelsons Monument & the City Observatory on Calton Hill, two bridges (Waverley in the foreground, North in the back), rooftops of Waverley Station... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 262 KB)The Princes Street Gardens and some buildings -- L to R, Scott Monument, North British Hotel, Nelsons Monument & the City Observatory on Calton Hill, two bridges (Waverley in the foreground, North in the back), rooftops of Waverley Station... Princes Street Gardens is in Edinburgh, Scotland in the shadow of Edinburgh Castle which was once the sewage system, called the Nor Loch, for the city whos population lived in what modern times would call highrise flats (apartments). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Much of the Royal Mile is cobbled, as seen in this view looking east down the High Street past the old Tron Kirk. ... St Giles Cathedral A prominent feature of the Edinburgh skyline, St Giles Cathedral decorates the midpoint of the Royal Mile with its rounded hollow-crown tower. ... The Courts of Scotland are the civil, criminal and heraldic courts responsible for the administration of justice in Scotland. ... The main hall of The Royal Museum of Scotland The Royal Museum of Scotland is a museum on Chambers Street, in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...

The Royal Mile in the Old Town during the Edinburgh Festival
The Royal Mile in the Old Town during the Edinburgh Festival

Due to space restrictions imposed by the narrowness of the "tail," the Old Town became home to some of the earliest "high rise" residential buildings. Multi-storey dwellings known as lands were the norm from the 1500s onwards with ten and eleven stories being typical and one even reaching fourteen stories. Additionally, numerous vaults below street level were inhabited to accommodate the influx of mainly Irish immigrants during the Industrial Revolution. These continue to fuel legends of an underground city to this day.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1772x2362, 1412 KB) Royal Mile in Edinburgh. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1772x2362, 1412 KB) Royal Mile in Edinburgh. ... Much of the Royal Mile is cobbled, as seen in this view looking east down the High Street past the old Tron Kirk. ... There is no one Edinburgh Festival but those using the term are usually referring to the collection of various festivals in August and early September of each year in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Part of Montreals underground city, a concourse in Bonaventure metro station, showing directional signs leading to buildings accessible through the underground city An underground city is a network of tunnels that connect buildings, usually in the downtown area of a city. ...


New Town

Main article: New Town, Edinburgh
View over Auld Reekie, with the Dugald Stewart Monument in the foreground
View over Auld Reekie, with the Dugald Stewart Monument in the foreground

The New Town was an 18th century solution to the problem of an increasingly crowded Old Town. The city had remained incredibly compact, confined to the ridge running down from the castle. In 1766 a competition to design the New Town was won by James Craig, a 22-year-old architect. The plan that was built created a rigid, ordered grid, which fitted well with enlightenment ideas of rationality. The principal street was to be George Street, which follows the natural ridge to the north of the Old Town. Either side of it are the other main streets of Princes Street and Queen Street. Princes Street has since become the main shopping street in Edinburgh, and few Georgian buildings survive on it. Linking these streets were a series of perpendicular streets. At the east and west ends are St. Andrew Square and Charlotte Square respectively. The latter was designed by Robert Adam and is often considered one of the finest Georgian squares in the world. Bute House, the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland, is on the north side of Charlotte Square. The Edinburgh New Town is a neo-classical masterpiece. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 1081 KB) Summary View over Edinburgh from Calton Hill. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 1081 KB) Summary View over Edinburgh from Calton Hill. ... Dougald Stewart Monument The Dugald Stewart Monument is a memorial to the Scottish philosopher Dugald Stewart. ... James Craig (1744-1795) was a Scottish architect. ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... Situated to the north of Princes Street, George Street is a major street in the centre of Edinburgh. ... Princes Street, as viewed facing west from the Scott Monument Princes Street and the Castle at twilight Princes Street is the main shopping street in Edinburgh city centre, although it was originally designed to be a residential street. ... St Andrew Square is a square in Edinburgh, Scotland, part of the New Town, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... Bute House in Charlotte Square, official residence of the First Minister of Scotland Charlotte Square is a street in Edinburgh, Scotland part of the New Town, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... Bute House is the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland, who is the head of the Scottish Executive, the countrys devolved government created in 1999. ... The First Minister of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ; Scots: ) is, in practice, the political leader of Scotland, as head of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the Scottish Parliament. ...


Sitting in the glen between the Old and New Towns was the Nor' Loch, which had been both the city's water supply and place for dumping sewage. By the 1820s it was drained. Some plans show that a canal was intended, but Princes Street Gardens were created instead. Excess soil from the construction of the buildings was dumped into the loch, creating what is now The Mound. In the mid-19th century the National Gallery of Scotland and Royal Scottish Academy Building were built on The Mound, and tunnels to Waverley Station driven through it. Look up glen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Princes Street Gardens is in Edinburgh, Scotland in the shadow of Edinburgh Castle which was once the sewage system, called the Nor Loch, for the city whos population lived in what modern times would call highrise flats (apartments). ... View across Loch Lomond, towards Ben Lomond. ... The Mound is an artificial hill in central Edinburgh, Scotland, which connects Edinburghs New Town and its Old Town. ... The National Gallery of Scotland viewed from the south in front of the Royal Scottish Academy and Princes Street The National Gallery of Scotland, viewed from the north The Entrance of National Gallery of Scotland Montagne Sainte-Victoire by Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) Mrs Robert Scott Moncrieff by Sir... Categories: Stub | Edinburgh ... Waverley railway station- the principal mainline station in Edinburgh viewed from Edinburgh Castle. ...

The Mound, Edinburgh
The Mound, Edinburgh

The New Town was so successful that it was extended greatly. The grid pattern was not maintained, but rather a more picturesque layout was created. Today the New Town is considered by many to be one of the finest examples of Georgian architecture and planning in the world. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 1324 KB) Summary The headquarters of the Bank of Scotland in Edinburgh. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 1324 KB) Summary The headquarters of the Bank of Scotland in Edinburgh. ... A Georgian house in Salisbury For the unrelated architecture of the country Georgia, see Architecture of Georgia (country). ...


South side

A popular residential part of the city is its south side, comprising a number of areas including Saint Leonards, Marchmont, Haymarket, Polwarth, Newington, Sciennes, The Grange, Bruntsfield, Morningside, and Merchiston. "South side" is broadly analogous to the area covered by the Burgh Muir, and grew in popularity as a residential area following the opening of the South Bridge. These areas are particularly popular with families (many well-regarded[citation needed] state and private schools are located here), students (the central University of Edinburgh campus is based around George Square just north of Marchmont and the Meadows, and Napier University has major campuses around Merchiston & Morningside), and with festival-goers. These areas are also the subject of fictional work: Ian Rankin's Inspector Rebus lives in Marchmont and worked in St Leonards; and Morningside is the home of Muriel Spark's Miss Jean Brodie. Today, the literary connection continues, with the area being home to the authors J. K. Rowling, Ian Rankin, and Alexander McCall Smith. St Leonards is the name of several places: In the United Kingdom: St Leonards, Buckinghamshire St Leonards, Dorset St Leonards on Sea, Sussex In Australia: St Leonards, New South Wales St Leonards, Tasmania, suburb of Launceston St Leonards, Victoria In New Zealand: St. ... Typical Marchmont tenement Marchmont is a mainly residential area of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Haymarket is an area of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Newington is a part of Edinburgh about 15 to 20 minutes walk to the city centre, the Royal Mile and Princes Street. ... Sciennes is an area of Edinburgh, Scotland, just south of the city centre. ... The Grange is a cricket and sports club in the Stockbridge district of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... View of Barclay Church across Bruntsfield Links Bruntsfield is an area of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Morningside is a famously genteel area in the south-west of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Merchiston is an wealthy area in the south-west of Edinburgh. ... The Burgh Muir was an area to the south of Edinburgh city centre upon which much of the southern portion of the city now rests, following expansions of the 18th and 19th Centuries. ... Southbridge may refer to: Southbridge, Massachusetts Southbridge (computing) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... View across the Meadows towards Salisbury Crags (left) and Arthurs Seat The Meadows is a large public park in Edinburgh, Scotland, just to the south of the city centre. ... Ian Rankin OBE, DL. (born April 28, 1960, in Cardenden, Fife, Scotland, UK) is one of the best-selling crime writers in the United Kingdom. ... Dame Muriel Spark, DBE (February 1, 1918 – April 13, 2006) was a leading Scottish novelist. ... Joanne Jo Murray, née Rowling OBE[1] (born 31 July 1965),[2] who writes under the pen name J. K. Rowling,[3] is a British writer and author of the Harry Potter fantasy series. ... Ian Rankin OBE, DL. (born April 28, 1960, in Cardenden, Fife, Scotland, UK) is one of the best-selling crime writers in the United Kingdom. ... Ranahki 06:26, 27 April 2007 (UTC)Alexander (R.A.A.) Sandy McCall Smith, CBE, FRSE, (born August 24, 1948) is a Rhodesian-born Scottish writer and Emeritus Professor of Medical Law at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Leith

Leith is the port of Edinburgh. It still retains a separate identity from Edinburgh, and it was a matter of great resentment when, in 1920, the burgh of Leith was merged[16] into the county of Edinburgh. Even today the parliamentary seat is known as 'Edinburgh North and Leith'. With the redevelopment of Leith, Edinburgh has gained the business of a number of cruise liner companies which now provide cruises to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Leith also has the Royal Yacht Britannia, berthed behind the Ocean Terminal as well as being home to Hibernian F.C. The Water of Leith looking upriver from the docks, with the old buildings along Leith Shore including The Kings Wark and The Old Ship Hotel and Kings Landing. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Legend of the Seas moored at San Diego, California A cruise ship, or less commonly cruise liner, is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the amenities of the ship are considered an essential part of the experience. ... Britannia HM Yacht Britannia was the 83rd Royal Yacht since the restoration of King Charles II in 1660 (Charles II himself had 25 Royal Yachts, while five were simultaneously in service in 1831). ... Ocean Terminal in Edinburgh, Scotland is a shopping centre, designed by Terence Conran. ... This article is about the Scottish football club. ...


Viewpoints

The varied terrain of the city includes several summits which command sweeping views over Edinburgh. Scott Monument (alternate view) The Scott Monument is a victorian gothic monument to Scottish author Sir Walter Scott. ...


To the southeast of central Edinburgh stands the eminence known as Arthur's Seat, overlooking Holyroodhouse and the Old Town beside it. The crag is a collection of side vents of the main volcano on which Edinburgh is built. The volcano slipped and tipped sideways, leaving these vents as the highest points for kilometres around. Arthur's Seat is now part of Holyrood Park, originally owned by the monarch and part of the grounds of the Palace of Holyroodhouse. It contains the United Kingdom's largest concentration of geological SSSIs, as well as providing the people of Edinburgh with spectacular views of and from Arthur's Seat and somewhere to relax after a long day in the city. It is not surprising that it was in Edinburgh that James Hutton revolutionised scientific geology. Arthurs Seat on a summer evening Arthurs Seat is the main peak of the group of hills which form most of Holyrood Park, a remarkably wild piece of highland landscape in the centre of the city of Edinburgh, about a mile to the east of Edinburgh Castle. ... Holyrood Palace The Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly known as Holyrood Palace, originally founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland since the 15th century. ... Holyrood Park is a royal park in central Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Holyrood Palace The Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly known as Holyrood Palace, originally founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland since the 15th century. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A Site of Special Scientific Interest or SSSI is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom. ... James Hutton, painted by Abner Lowe. ...


To the northeast, overlooking the New Town, is Calton Hill. It is topped by an assortment of buildings and monuments: two observatories, Nelson's Monument (a tower dedicated to Admiral Horatio Nelson), the old Royal High School (once almost the home of a devolved Scottish Assembly), and the unfinished National Monument, which is modelled on the Parthenon from the Athenian Acropolis and is nicknamed "Edinburgh's Disgrace". The nickname of the city, "Athens of the North", also hails partly from this monument. Calton Hill plays host to the Beltane Fire Festival on May 1 each year. The top of Calton Hill with the National Monument and Nelsons Monument View over Edinburgh, with the Dugald Stewart Monument in the foreground Calton Hill is a hill in Edinburgh, Scotland, just to the east of the city centre. ... This article is about scientific observatories. ... Nelsons Monument, Edinburgh Nelsons Monument is a commemorative tower to Admiral Horatio Nelson, situated on top of Calton Hill, Edinburgh. ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 РOctober 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... The Royal High School (RHS) of Edinburgh can trace its roots back to 1128, and is one of the oldest schools in Scotland. ... A devolved Scottish Assembly that would have some form of legislative powers in jurisdiction over Scotland was a long-held political priority for many individuals and organisations. ... The National Monument, on Calton Hill, Edinburgh, viewed from the front The National Monument, Edinburgh is Scotlands memorial to those who died in the Napoleonic Wars. ... The Parthenon west fa̤ade For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Acropolis (Gr. ... Beltane Fire Festival is an annual event, held on April 30th on Calton Hill in Edinburgh to celebrate the coming of the Gaelic cross-quarter day of Beltane (May 1). ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Royal Observatory rests on Blackford Hill, the third and Southernmost viewpoint of the city. The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (ROE) is located on Blackford Hill in the south of the city of Edinburgh. ... Blackford Hill (164m) is a hill in the south of the Scottish capital city of Edinburgh, in the area of Blackford, near Morningside, The Grange, and the Braid Hills. ...


Geography

Climate

Like much of the rest of Scotland, Edinburgh has a temperate maritime climate, which is relatively mild despite its northerly latitude. Winters are especially mild, considering that Moscow, Labrador and Newfoundland lie on the same latitude, with daytime temperatures rarely falling below freezing. Summer temperatures are normally moderate, with daily upper maxima rarely exceeding 18 °C. The proximity of the city to the sea mitigates any large variations in temperature or extremes of climate. Given Edinburgh's position between the coast and hills, it is renowned as a windy city, with the prevailing wind direction coming from the south-west which is associated with warm, unstable air from the Gulf Stream that can give rise to rainfall - although considerably less than cities to the west, such as Glasgow. Indeed, Edinburgh receives a lower annual precipitation total than most UK cities outside the south-east of England. Winds from an easterly direction are usually drier but colder. Rainfall is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year. Vigorous Atlantic depressions - sometimes called European windstorms can affect the city between October and March. For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the worlds continents, and in southeastern Australia; similar climates are also found at high elevations within the tropics. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... A European windstorm is a severe cyclonic storm that tracks across the North Atlantic towards north-west Europe in the winter months. ...



Average / Month Average Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
High temperature Celsius (°F) 12.1 (53.8) 6.2 (43.2) 6.5 (43.7) 8.7 (47.7) 11.1 (52.0) 14.2 (57.6) 17.3 (63.1) 18.8 (65.8) 18.5 (65.3) 16.2 (61.2) 13.2 (55.8) 8.7 (46.6) 6.9 (44.4)
Low temperature Celsius (°F) 4.8 (40.6) 0.3 (32.5) 0.0 (32.0) 1.5 (34.7) 3.1 (37.6) 5.7 (42.3) 8.7 (47.7) 10.3 (50.5) 10.2 (50.4) 8.4 (47.1) 5.9 (42.6) 2.1 (35.8) 0.9 (33.6)
Precipitation millimetres (in) year: 668 (26.3) 57 (2.24) 42 (1.65) 51 (2.01) 41 (1.61) 51 (2.01) 51 (2.01) 57 (2.24) 65 (2.56) 67 (2.64) 65 (2.56) 63 (2.48) 58 (2.28)
Number of rain days year: 182.8 17.2 13.6 16.2 14.0 14.4 13.3 13.1 15.2 16.5 16.7 16.3 16.3
Source: World Meteorological Organization

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Demographics

Portobello Beach
Portobello Beach

As of 2006, the General Register Office for Scotland estimated that the City of Edinburgh council area had a resident population of 463,510.[17] The 2001 UK census reported the population to be 448,624, making the city the seventh largest in the United Kingdom.[18] The General Register Office also reported that this resident population was split between 220,094 males and 237,736 females. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Portobello Beach Portobello Police Station, built in 1878 as the Town Hall Portobello is a beach resort 3 miles (5 km) to the east of Edinburgh city centre along the coast of the Firth of Forth from Leith, in Scotland. ... Logo of the General Register Office General Register Office for Scotland is a government agency, accountable to Scottish ministers, that administers the registration of births, deaths, marriages, divorces and adoptions, and is responsible for the statutes relating to the formalities of marriage and conduct of civil marriage. ... Census 2001 is the name by which the national census conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 is known. ...


Though Edinburgh's population is ageing, a very large and transient population of young students studying at the city universities has helped to offset this demographic problem. There are estimated to be around 100,000 students studying at the various institutions of higher education in the city.[19] A demographic or demographic profile is a term used in marketing and broadcasting, to describe a demographic grouping or a market segment. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ...


The population of the greater Edinburgh area (including parts of Fife and the Scottish Borders) is 1.25 million and is projected to grow to 1.33 million by 2020. City of Edinburgh Council hopes this will continue to grow to 1.5 million by 2040, which is in line with the current average population of the three leading city regions in northern Europe: Stockholm, Helsinki and Oslo.[20]

Year 1755 1791 1811 1831 1851 1871 1891 1911 1931 1951 1971 1991 2001 2006
Population 57,195 81,865 82,624 136,054 160,511 196,979 261,225 320,318 439,010 466,761 453,575 418,914 448,624 463,510
Source: City of Edinburgh Council and Edinphoto

Geology

Some 350 and 400 million years ago, the cores of several volcanic vents in the area cooled and solidified to form tough basalt volcanic plugs. Later, during the last ice age, glaciers moving from west to east eroded the area to its current conformation. Louis Agassiz, who first proposed the scientific theory of ice ages, used evidence from Blackford Glen to support the theory. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The castle dominates the Edinburgh skyline as seen here from Princes Street Gardens Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which, from its position atop Castle Rock, dominates the sky-line of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands second most visited tourist attraction, after the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and... Princes Street, as viewed facing west from the Scott Monument Princes Street and the Castle at twilight Princes Street is the main shopping street in Edinburgh city centre, although it was originally designed to be a residential street. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Volcanic plug near Rhumsiki, Far North Province, Cameroon A volcanic plug, also called a volcanic neck or lava neck, is a volcanic landform created when lava hardens within a vent on an active volcano. ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... Louis Agassiz After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Stanford President David Starr Jordan wrote, Somebody—Dr. Angell, perhaps—remarked that Agassiz was great in the abstract but not in the concrete. ...


Old Town

Castle Rock is one such plug, which during ice ages sheltered the softer rock to the east forming a mile-long tail of material to the east, creating a distinctive crag and tail formation. This structure, along with a ravine to the south and a swampy valley to the north, formed an ideal natural fortress and recent excavations found material dating back to the Late Bronze Age, around 850 BC.[21] Edinburgh Castle is an ancient stronghold which from its lofty position dominates views of the City of Edinburgh and is Scotlands most famous landmark. ... The Abbey Craig, a crag with tail near The University of Stirling. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ...


Over the last few hundred years, the area occupied by this geological feature has come to be known as the Old Town. Edinburgh Castle stands on the crag, and the Royal Mile follows the narrow crest of the steep-sided tail, descending from the castle to meet general ground level at Holyrood Palace. The Grassmarket and Cowgate run east–west through the ravine to the south, while the swamp of the Nor Loch has now been drained to form Princes Street Gardens, and accommodates Edinburgh Waverley railway station. The Old Town of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... The castle dominates the Edinburgh skyline as seen here from Princes Street Gardens Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which, from its position atop Castle Rock, dominates the sky-line of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands second most visited tourist attraction, after the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and... Much of the Royal Mile is cobbled, as seen in this view looking east down the High Street past the old Tron Kirk. ... A 19th century view of Holyrood Palace from Calton Hill. ... The Grassmarket, with Edinburgh Castle towering above it The Grassmarket is an area of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Cowgate, viewed from George IV Bridge The Cowgate is a street in Edinburgh located about 5 minutes walk from Edinburgh Castle. ... Edinburgh Castle with the Nor Loch in foreground, around 1780 by Alexander Nasmyth The Nor Loch, sometimes referred to in English as the North Loch, was a body of water formerly in Edinburgh, in the area now occupied by Princes Street Gardens, which lies between the Royal Mile and Princes... Princes Street Gardens is in Edinburgh, Scotland in the shadow of Edinburgh Castle which was once the sewage system, called the Nor Loch, for the city whos population lived in what modern times would call highrise flats (apartments). ... Waverley railway station- the principal mainline station in Edinburgh viewed from Edinburgh Castle. ...


Arthur's Seat

Like the castle rock on which Edinburgh Castle is built, Arthur's Seat was formed by an extinct volcano system of the Carboniferous period, which was eroded by a glacier moving from west to east during the Quaternary, exposing rocky crags to the west and leaving a tail of material swept to the east.[22] This is how the Salisbury Crags formed and became teschenite cliffs between Arthur's Seat and the city centre.[23] Arthurs Seat on a summer evening Arthurs Seat is the main peak of the group of hills which form most of Holyrood Park, a remarkably wild piece of highland landscape in the centre of the city of Edinburgh, about a mile to the east of Edinburgh Castle. ... Arthurs Seat on a summer evening Arthurs Seat is the main peak of the group of hills which form most of Holyrood Park, a remarkably wild piece of highland landscape in the centre of the city of Edinburgh, about a mile to the east of Edinburgh Castle. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 340 million years ago (mya), to the beginning of the Permian period, about 280 mya. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... Look up crag in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Salisbury Crags is a series of tall cliffs rising from the middle of Holyrood Park in Edinburgh. ... Theralite (from Greek to pursue) is, in petrology, a group of plutonic holocrystalline rocks consisting of nepheline, basic plagioclase, augite and olivine, and so called because of its rare occurrence. ...

Panoramic view of Edinburgh from the top of Arthur's Seat
Panoramic view of Edinburgh from the top of Arthur's Seat

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x299, 86 KB) Summary Photo by Hamid Sarve Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x299, 86 KB) Summary Photo by Hamid Sarve Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Arthurs Seat on a summer evening Arthurs Seat is the main peak of the group of hills which form most of Holyrood Park, a remarkably wild piece of highland landscape in the centre of the city of Edinburgh, about a mile to the east of Edinburgh Castle. ...

Culture

Festivals

Culturally, Edinburgh is best known for the Edinburgh Festival, although this is in fact a series of separate events, which run from the end of July until early September each year. The longest established festival is the Edinburgh International Festival, which first ran in 1947. The International Festival centres on a programme of high-profile theatre productions and classical music performances, featuring international directors, conductors, theatre companies and orchestras. There is no one Edinburgh Festival but those using the term are usually referring to the collection of various festivals in August and early September of each year in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Edinburgh International Festival is a festival of performing arts that takes place in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, over three weeks from around the middle of August. ...


The International Festival has since been taken over in both size and popularity by the Edinburgh Fringe. What began as a programme of marginal acts has become the largest arts festival in the world, with 1867 different shows being staged in 2006, in 261 venues. Comedy is now one of the mainstays of the Fringe, with numerous notable comedians getting their 'break' here, often through receipt of the Perrier Award. A street performer on the Royal Mile, with volunteer (2004). ... The Perrier Comedy Award is a prestigious award for comedy, awarded to the best comedy show at the Edinburgh Fringe sponsored by the Perrier brand of bottled water. ...

The Iron Duke in bronze by John Steell outside the Balmoral Hotel

Alongside these major festivals, there is also the Edinburgh Art Festival, Edinburgh International Film Festival, the Edinburgh Jazz and Blues Festival, and the Edinburgh International Book Festival. T on the Fringe, a popular music offshoot of the Fringe, began in 2000, replacing the smaller Flux and Planet Pop series of shows. Tigerfest is an independent music festival which ran concurrently with the Fringe in 2004 and 2005 before moving to a May slot in 2006. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (824x571, 151 KB) Summary A picture of the statue of the Duke of Wellington located in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. The Register House, home to the Registers of Scotland is to the photographers back, and the building in the background is the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (824x571, 151 KB) Summary A picture of the statue of the Duke of Wellington located in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. The Register House, home to the Registers of Scotland is to the photographers back, and the building in the background is the... Iron Duke may refer to: Two dukes, both military officers, were nicknamed the Iron Duke during their lifetimes: Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva HMS Iron Duke is also the name of three ships in the Royal Navy, one of which is still... Sir John Steell (1804 - 1891) was a Scottish sculptor. ... North elevation, seen across Princes Street past the Iron Duke of Wellington in bronze by John Steell The hotel from the south east, beyond Waverley Station which is under the North Bridge The Balmoral is a luxury five-star hotel and landmark in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Edinburgh International Film Festival or EIFF has moved date and will now take place in June. ... The Edinburgh International Book Festival is a book festival that takes place in the last three weeks in August (coinciding with the general Edinburgh Festival) in Charlotte Square in the centre of Edinburgh. ... T On The Fringe, sponsored by Tennents Lager, is a music festival which runs as part of the Edinburgh Festival. ...


Running concurrently with the summer festivals, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo occupies the Castle Esplanade every night, with massed pipers and fireworks. The 2005 Edinburgh Military Tattoo celebrated Trafalgar 200 The Edinburgh Military Tattoo is a show given by military bands and display teams in the Scottish capital Edinburgh. ... The bagpiper, by Hendrick ter Brugghen (17th Century, Netherlands) Bagpipes are a class of musical instrument, aerophones using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. ...


The Edinburgh International Science Festival is held annually in April and is one of the most popular science festivals in the world. The Edinburgh International Science Festival takes place each April for 12 days, in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Celebrations

A Viking longship being burnt during Edinburgh's annual Hogmanay celebrations.
A Viking longship being burnt during Edinburgh's annual Hogmanay celebrations.

Equally famous is the annual Hogmanay celebration. Originally simply a street party held on Princes Street and the Royal Mile, the Hogmanay event has been officially organised since 1993. In 1996, over 300,000 people attended, leading to ticketing of the main street party in later years, with a limit of 100,000 tickets. Hogmanay now covers four days of processions, concerts and fireworks, with the actual street party commencing on New Years Eve. During the street party Princes Street is accessible only by ticket holders, and tickets are available for a £5 administration fee. This ticket allows access into Princes Street where there are live bands playing, food and drink stalls, and a clear view of the castle and fireworks. Alternative tickets are available for entrance into the Princes Street Gardens concert and Ceilidh for around £40, where well known artists perform live and ticket holders are invited to participate in some traditional Scottish Ceilidh dancing. The event attracts thousands of people from all over the world. On the night of 30 April, the Beltane Fire Festival takes place on Edinburgh's Calton Hill. The festival involves a procession followed by the re-enactment of scenes inspired by pagan spring fertility celebrations. Image File history File linksMetadata Edinburgh_Hogmanay_Longship. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Edinburgh_Hogmanay_Longship. ... Hogmanay (pronounced — with the main stress on the last syllable - hog-muh-NAY) is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner. ... Hogmanay (pronounced — with the main stress on the last syllable - hog-muh-NAY) is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner. ... Princes Street, as viewed facing west from the Scott Monument Princes Street and the Castle at twilight Princes Street is the main shopping street in Edinburgh city centre, although it was originally designed to be a residential street. ... Much of the Royal Mile is cobbled, as seen in this view looking east down the High Street past the old Tron Kirk. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Beltane Fire Festival is an annual event, held on April 30th on Calton Hill in Edinburgh to celebrate the coming of the Gaelic cross-quarter day of Beltane (May 1). ... The top of Calton Hill with the National Monument and Nelsons Monument View over Edinburgh, with the Dugald Stewart Monument in the foreground Calton Hill is a hill in Edinburgh, Scotland, just to the east of the city centre. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...


Museums and libraries

Edinburgh is home to a large number of museums and libraries, especially ones that are considered the main national institutions, the most important are the Museum of Scotland, the Royal Museum, the National Library of Scotland, National War Museum of Scotland, the Museum of Edinburgh, Museum of Childhood and the Royal Society of Edinburgh. The Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, is a museum dedicated to the history, people and culture of Scotland. ... The main hall of the Royal Museum of Scotland The Royal Museum is a museum on Chambers Street, in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The building on George IV bridge The National Library of Scotland is the legal deposit library of Scotland. ... The National War Museum of Scotland is housed in Edinburgh, Scotland, and forms part of the National Museums of Scotland. ... The Museum of Edinburgh is a museum in Edinburgh, Scotland, depicting the towns origins, history and legends. ... The Museum of Childhood is a collection of items relating to childrens toys and playthings, situated in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Royal Society of Edinburghs Building on the corner of George St. ...


Literature and philosophy

Edinburgh has a long literary tradition, going back to the Scottish Enlightenment. Edinburgh's Enlightenment produced philosopher David Hume and the pioneer of economics, Adam Smith. Writers such as James Boswell, Robert Louis Stevenson, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and Sir Walter Scott all lived and worked in Edinburgh. J K Rowling, author of the Harry Potter novels, is a resident of Edinburgh. Edinburgh has also become associated with the crime novels of Ian Rankin; and the work of Leith native Irvine Welsh, whose novels are mostly set in the city and are often written in colloquial Scots. Edinburgh is also home to Alexander McCall Smith and a number of his book series. Edinburgh has also been declared the first UNESCO City of Literature. The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck and 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... -1... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Joanne Rowling OBE (born July 31, 1965 in Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire), commonly known as J.K. Rowling (pronunciation: roll-ing; her former students used to joke with her name calling her the Rolling Stone), is a British fiction writer. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Ian Rankin OBE, DL. (born April 28, 1960, in Cardenden, Fife, Scotland, UK) is one of the best-selling crime writers in the United Kingdom. ... The Water of Leith looking upriver from the docks, with the old buildings along Leith Shore including The Kings Wark and The Old Ship Hotel and Kings Landing. ... Irvine Welsh (born Leith, Edinburgh, September 27, 1958) is an acclaimed contemporary Scottish novelist, most famous for his novel Trainspotting. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Ranahki 06:26, 27 April 2007 (UTC)Alexander (R.A.A.) Sandy McCall Smith, CBE, FRSE, (born August 24, 1948) is a Rhodesian-born Scottish writer and Emeritus Professor of Medical Law at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ...


Music, theatre and film

Outside festival season, Edinburgh continues to support a number of theatres and production companies. The Royal Lyceum Theatre has its own company, while the King's Theatre, Edinburgh Festival Theatre, and Edinburgh Playhouse stage large touring shows. The Traverse Theatre presents a more contemporary programme of plays. Amateur theatre companies productions are staged at the Bedlam Theatre, Church Hill Theatre, and the King's Theatre amongst others. Download high resolution version (480x640, 50 KB)Royal Mile, Edinburgh, where it bisects North and South Bridge. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 50 KB)Royal Mile, Edinburgh, where it bisects North and South Bridge. ... Much of the Royal Mile is cobbled, as seen in this view looking east down the High Street past the old Tron Kirk. ... The Royal Lyceum Theatre is a 904-seat theatre in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, named after the Theatre Royal Lyceum and English Opera House, the residence at the time of legendary Shakespearean actor Henry Irving. ... The Edinburgh Festival Theatre is a performing arts venue located on Nicolson Street in Edinburgh Scotland used primarily for performances of opera and ballet, large-scale musical events, and touring groups. ... Edinburgh Playhouse is a theatre in Edinburgh, Scotland which plays host to numerous touring musicals as well as many touring bands. ... The Traverse Theatre building off Lothian Road in Edinburgh. ... Edinburgh boasts a large number of active amateur dramatics and musical theatre companies. ... Bedlam Theatre is a student-run theatre owned by Edinburgh University. ...


The Usher Hall is Edinburgh's premier venue for classical music, as well as the occasional prestige popular music gig. Other halls staging music and theatre include The Hub, the Assembly Rooms and the Queen's Hall. The Scottish Chamber Orchestra is based in Edinburgh. The Usher Hall is a concert hall located on Lothian Road, Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Silhouette of the spire of the building The Hub, at the top of Edinburghs Royal Mile, is the home of the Edinburgh International Festival, and a central source of information on all the Edinburgh Festivals. ... In Great Britain and Ireland, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries, assembly rooms were gathering places for members of the higher social classes open to members of both sexes. ... The Queens Hall was a classical music concert hall in Central London, opened in 1893 but is best known for being where The Promenade Concerts were founded in 1895. ... The Scottish Chamber Orchestra is a professional chamber orchestra based in Edinburgh, United Kingdom. ...


Edinburgh has two repertory cinemas, the Edinburgh Filmhouse, and the Cameo, and the independent Dominion Cinema, as well as the usual range of multiplexes. Repertory or rep, called stock in the U.S., is a term from Western theatre. ... The Cameo is an Edinburgh cinema which started life as the Kings Cinema on 8 January 1914 and is one of the oldest cinemas in Scotland still in use. ... Multiplex may mean: Multiplex (comics), a DC Comics character. ...


Edinburgh has a healthy popular music scene. Occasional large gigs are staged at Murrayfield, The Liquid Room, Meadowbank, and the Edinburgh Corn Exchange. Murrayfield Stadium is a sports stadium in the capital of , Edinburgh, and is the home of Scottish Rugby Union. ... Meadowbank Stadium is a multi-purpose sports facility located in Meadowbank, in the Scottish capital Edinburgh. ...


Edinburgh is also home to a flourishing group of contemporary composers such as Nigel Osborne, Peter Nelson, Lyell Cresswell, Haflidi Hallgrimsson, Edward Harper, Robert Crawford, Robert Dow, and John McLeod[24] whose music is also heard regularly on BBC Radio 3 and throughout the UK.


Edinburgh's underground music scene is also vibrant with many creative bands and solo electronica artists experimenting with new sounds and rhythms such as digitalTRAFFIC (http://www.digitaltraffic.biz).


Visual arts

Edinburgh is home to Scotland's five National Galleries. The national collection is housed in the National Gallery of Scotland, located on the Mound, and now linked to the Royal Scottish Academy, which holds regular major exhibitions of painting. The contemporary collections are shown in the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, and the nearby Dean Gallery. The Scottish National Portrait Gallery focuses on portraits and photography. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4283x1561, 1714 KB) The Mound in Edinburgh with the National Gallery of Scotland and the Royal Scottish Academy Building seen from the south. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4283x1561, 1714 KB) The Mound in Edinburgh with the National Gallery of Scotland and the Royal Scottish Academy Building seen from the south. ... The National Gallery of Scotland viewed from the south in front of the Royal Scottish Academy and Princes Street The National Gallery of Scotland, viewed from the north The Entrance of National Gallery of Scotland Montagne Sainte-Victoire by Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) Mrs Robert Scott Moncrieff by Sir... The National Galleries of Scotland are: The National Gallery of Scotland The Royal Scottish Academy Building The Scottish National Portrait Gallery The Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art The Dean Gallery The Partner Galleries are: Duff House Paxton House See Also The Playfair Project ... The National Gallery of Scotland viewed from the south in front of the Royal Scottish Academy and Princes Street The National Gallery of Scotland, viewed from the north The Entrance of National Gallery of Scotland Montagne Sainte-Victoire by Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) Mrs Robert Scott Moncrieff by Sir... The Royal Scottish Academy is Scotland’s premier organisation promoting contemporary Scottish art. ... The Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art in Edinburgh, holds the national collection of modern art. ... The Dean Gallery is an art gallery in Edinburgh, Scotland, and is part of the National Galleries of Scotland. ... Scottish National Portrait Gallery The Scottish National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery on Queen Street, Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


The council-owned City Arts Centre shows regular art exhibitions. Across the road, The Fruitmarket Gallery offers world class exhibitions of contemporary art, featuring work by British and international artists with both emerging and established international reputations. The Fruitmarket Gallery in Edinburgh [1] brings artists and audiences together through exhibitions, commissions, interpretation, education and publishing. ...

Edinburgh is also home to several of Scotland’s galleries and organisations dedicated to contemporary visual art. Significant strands of this infrastructure include: The Scottish Arts Council, Inverleith House, Edinburgh College of Art, Talbot Rice Gallery (University of Edinburgh), The Travelling Gallery, Edinburgh Printmakers, WASPS, Artlink, Edinburgh Sculpture Workshop, Doggerfisher, Stills, Collective Gallery, Out of the Blue, The Embassy, Magnifitat, Sleeper, Total Kunst, OneZero, Standby, Portfolio Magazine, MAP magazine, Edinburgh's One O'Clock Gun Periodical and Product magazine and the Edinburgh Annuale. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nelsons Monument, Edinburgh Nelsons Monument is a commemorative tower to Admiral Horatio Nelson, situated on top of Calton Hill, Edinburgh. ... The top of Calton Hill with the National Monument and Nelsons Monument View over Edinburgh, with the Dugald Stewart Monument in the foreground Calton Hill is a hill in Edinburgh, Scotland, just to the east of the city centre. ... Scottish Arts Council logo The Scottish Arts Council is a Non-Departmental Public Body sponsored by the Scottish Executive and is the leading national organization for the funding, development and promotion of the arts in Scotland. ... The Edinburgh Annuale[1] is an art festival including Edinburgh galleries and art projects, especially those which promote local activity in the visual arts. ...

Nightlife

A panorama of Edinburgh published by the Illustrated London News in 1868
A panorama of Edinburgh published by the Illustrated London News in 1868

Edinburgh has a large number of pubs, clubs and restaurants. The traditional areas were the Grassmarket, Lothian Road and surrounding streets, Rose Street and its surrounds and the Bridges. In recent years George Street in the New Town has grown in prominence, with a large number of new, upmarket public houses and nightclubs opening, along with a number on the parallel Queen Street. Stockbridge and the waterfront at Leith are also increasingly fashionable areas, with a number of pubs, clubs and restaurants. Download high resolution version (1120x435, 86 KB)A panorama of Edinburgh published by the Illustrated London News in 1868. ... Download high resolution version (1120x435, 86 KB)A panorama of Edinburgh published by the Illustrated London News in 1868. ... The Illustrated London News was a magazine founded by Herbert Ingram and his friend Mark Lemon, the editor of Punch magazine. ... The Grassmarket, with Edinburgh Castle towering above it The Grassmarket is an area of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The A702 is a major road in Scotland, that runs from Edinburgh to St. ... Rose Street is a street in the New Town of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... George Street may refer to: George Edmund Street (1824–1881), British architect. ... See New Town for places with that name. ... Queen Street can refer to: Queen Street in Brisbane, Australia Queen Street in Auckland, New Zealand Queen Street in Ottawa, Canada Queen Street in Toronto, Ontario. ... Stockbridge is the name of a number of places in the United States of America: Stockbridge, Georgia Stockbridge, Massachusetts Stockbridge, Michigan Stockbridge Township, Michigan Stockbridge, New York Stockbridge, Vermont Stockbridge, Wisconsin Stockbridge (town), Wisconsin And in the United Kingdom: Stockbridge, Bradford Stockbridge, Hampshire Stockbridge, Edinburgh This is a disambiguation page... The Water of Leith looking upriver from the docks, with the old buildings along Leith Shore including The Kings Wark and The Old Ship Hotel and Kings Landing. ...


Like many other cities in the UK, Edinburgh has numerous nightclubs that play popular and chart music. The underground nightclub scene playing music such as Techno, House, Electronica and Drum & Bass however has suffered in recent years with the closure of Wilkie House, The Venue, La Belle Angele (burned in a fire) and The Honeycomb (recently reopened as The Hive). Berlin, Cabaret Voltaire, City, Ego, Studio 24, The Hive and The Liquid Room are the main nightclub venues in the city.


A fortnightly publication, The List, is dedicated to life in Edinburgh and around, and contains listings of all Nightclubs, as well as music, theatrical and other events. The List also regularly produces specialist guides such as its Food and Drink guide and its guide to the Edinburgh Festivals. There are also many competing magazines that can be found for free such as Flash Edinburgh, Gig Guide and The Skinny. There is no one Edinburgh Festival but those using the term are usually referring to the collection of various festivals in August and early September of each year in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Edinburgh Zoo

A female Jaguar
A female Jaguar

Edinburgh Zoo is a non-profit zoological park located in Corstorphine. The land lies on the Corstorphine Hill, provides extensive views of the city. Built in 1913, and owned by the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, it receives over 600,000 visitors a year, which makes it Scotland's second most popular paid-for tourist attraction, after Edinburgh Castle.[25] As well as catering to tourists and locals, the Zoo is involved in many scientific pursuits, such as captive breeding of endangered animals, researching into animal behaviour, and active participation in various conservation programs around the world.[26] The Zoo is the only zoo in Britain to house polar bears and koalas, as well as being the first zoo in the world to house and to breed penguins. For other uses, see Jaguar (disambiguation). ... Edinburgh Zoo, formally the Scottish National Zoological Park, is situated in the Corstorphine area of Edinburgh, not far from Murrayfield Stadium. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... Corstorphine is a western suburb of Edinburgh in Scotland. ... Corstorphine Hill is one of the hills of Edinburgh, Scotland, named for nearby Corstorphine. ... Adult and young Oriental Small-clawed Otters at feeding time. ... The castle dominates the Edinburgh skyline as seen here from Princes Street Gardens Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which, from its position atop Castle Rock, dominates the sky-line of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands second most visited tourist attraction, after the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and... Captive breeding is the process of breeding endangered animals by capturing them from their natural environment, breeding them in restricted conditions in zoos and other conservation facilities, and releasing them back to the wild when the population stabilizes and the threat to the animal in the wild is lessened or... Ethology is the scientific study of animal behaviour (particularly of social animals such as primates and canids), and is a branch of zoology. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Koala (disambiguation). ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ...


Shopping

Edinburgh has a wide variety of shops, from upmarket department stores to a vast array of charity shops in Stockbridge. Princes Street plays host to an extremely wide range of stores, from pound shops to Jenners. Most of the national-level chain stores such as Boots and New Look are located in the "uptown" district of Princes Street. Multrees Walk makes up the upmarket shopping district in Edinburgh- with Harvey Nichols anchoring the development. Multrees Walk includes brands such as Louis Vuitton, Emporio Armani, Mulberry and Calvin Klein. The street leads on to the St. James' Centre, which caters in discount clothing, homewares and books as well as hosting the Edinburgh branch of the upscale department store chain, John Lewis. Stockbridge is the name of a number of places in the United States of America: Stockbridge, Georgia Stockbridge, Massachusetts Stockbridge, Michigan Stockbridge Township, Michigan Stockbridge, New York Stockbridge, Vermont Stockbridge, Wisconsin Stockbridge (town), Wisconsin And in the United Kingdom: Stockbridge, Bradford Stockbridge, Hampshire Stockbridge, Edinburgh This is a disambiguation page... Jenners - viewed from the Scott Monument The Royal Warrant outside Jenners Jenners Department Store is one of Britains oldest department stores, long family-run but recently brought under the ownership of House of Fraser. ... Boots is the dominant pharmacist chain in the United Kingdom, with outlets in most high streets throughout the country. ... For other uses, see New Look (disambiguation). ... Multrees Walk is an upscale pedestrian shopping area in central Edinburgh, off the east side of St Andrew Square. ... Harvey Nichols at the corner of Knightsbridge and Sloane Street in London A Harvey Nichols advertisement encourages women to buy an expensive pair of shoes that they are unable to afford and eat beans on toast every day until the next time they are paid A branch store in Central... Multrees Walk is an upscale pedestrian shopping area in central Edinburgh, off the east side of St Andrew Square. ... Louis vuitton was a great man he was born on fh 12 3845. ... A shop in Central, Hong Kong Emporio Armani is a Giorgio Armani brand. ... For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... This article is about the corporation Calvin Klein Inc. ... John Lewis can refer to the following people: John L. Lewis (mayor of New Orleans) (1800–1886), mayor of New Orleans 1854–1856 John F. Lewis (1818–1895), United States Senator from Virginia John Lewis (1848–1972), English football player, administrator and referee John Lewis (department store founder) (died 1928...


Sport

Football

Edinburgh has two professional football clubs: Hibernian and Heart of Midlothian. They are known locally as Hibs and Hearts. Both teams currently play in the Scottish Premier League: Hibernian at Easter Road Stadium, which straddles the former boundary between Edinburgh and Leith and Hearts at Tynecastle Stadium in Gorgie. Soccer redirects here. ... This article is about the Scottish football club. ... Heart of Midlothian F.C. (most commonly referred to as Hearts) are a professional football club and are a football team in Edinburgh, Scotland who play in the Scottish Premier League. ... The Scottish Premier League, currently known as the Clydesdale Bank Premier League for sponsorship reasons and often known as the Scottish Premier League, Premier League or SPL is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top level of the Scottish football league system — above the Scottish Football... Easter Road is the football ground of Hibernian Football Club in Leith, Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Water of Leith looking upriver from the docks, with the old buildings along Leith Shore including The Kings Wark and The Old Ship Hotel and Kings Landing. ... Tynecastle Stadium is a football stadium situated in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Gorgie is an area of west Edinburgh, located near Murrayfield. ...


Edinburgh was also home to senior sides St Bernard's, Ferranti Thistle F.C. and most recently, Meadowbank Thistle until 1995, when the club moved to Livingston, shedding their old name and becoming Livingston F.C.. The Scottish national team has played some friendly matches at Easter Road and Tynecastle. St Bernards F.C. was a Scottish Association Football club from 1878 to 1943. ... Ferranti Thistle was a Scottish football club, formed in 1943. ... Meadowbank Thistle were a Scottish football club who were created at the start of the 1974–75 season after a previous club, Ferranti Thistle, relocated to the Meadowbank Stadium in Edinburgh and joined the Football League. ... , Livingston is the fourth post-war new town to be built in Scotland, designated in 1962. ... Original Livingston FC club badge. ... First international Scotland 0–0 England  (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win Scotland 11–0 Ireland  (Glasgow, Scotland; 23 February 1901) Biggest defeat  Uruguay 7–0 Scotland (Basel, Switzerland; 19 June 1954) World Cup Appearances 8 (First in 1954) Best result Round 1, all European Championship Appearances 2 (First... A friendly match is generally a match where there is no competitive value of any kind, and most times quality of play is valued over the result. ... Easter Road is the home ground of Scottish football club Hibernian. ... Tynecastle is a football stadium situated in the Scottish capital. ...


Non-league sides include Spartans and Edinburgh City, who play in the East of Scotland League along with Civil Service Strollers F.C., Lothian Thistle F.C., Edinburgh University A.F.C., Edinburgh Athletic F.C., Tynecastle F.C., Craigroyston F.C. and Heriot-Watt University F.C.. There is one team who plays in the Scottish Junior Football Association, East Region: Edinburgh United F.C.. The Spartans Football Club are a Scottish football (soccer) club from Edinburgh. ... Edinburgh City Football Club is an amateur Scottish football team who play in the East of Scotland Football League. ... The East of Scotland Football League (EoSFL) is a league of football (soccer) teams from South-East Scotland formed in 1927. ... Civil Service Strollers Football Club is a football team from Edinburgh, Scotland currently playing in the East of Scotland Football League. ... Lothian Thistle F.C. is a football club currently playing in the East of Scotland Football League. ... Edinburgh University AFC are a football club representing the University of Edinburgh. ... Edinburgh Athletic F.C. is a amateur Scottish football team currently playing in the East of Scotland League. ... Tynecastle F.C. is a newly-formed team playing in the East of Scotland Football League. ... Craigroyston F.C. is a senior football club currently playing in the East of Scotland Football League. ... Heriot-Watt University F.C. is a football club currently playing in the East of Scotland Football League. ... The Scottish Junior Football Association, East Region league setup is a football competition comprising 63 clubs spread across three tiers of leagues: a Super League, a Premier League below, and three regional divisions: North, Central and South. ... Edinburgh United Football Club are a football (soccer) club from Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Other sports

The Scotland national rugby union team plays at Murrayfield Stadium, which is owned by the Scottish Rugby Union and is also used as a venue for other events, including music concerts. Edinburgh's professional rugby team, Edinburgh Rugby, play in the Celtic League at Murrayfield. It is the largest capacity stadium in Scotland. Raeburn Place is notable for holding the first rugby international game between Scotland and England. First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4 - 1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  Scotland 100 - 8 Japan  (13 November 2004) Worst defeat  Scotland 10 - 68 South Africa  (6 December 1997) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Semi-finals, 1991 The Scotland national rugby union... Murrayfield Stadium is a sports stadium in the capital of , Edinburgh, and is the home of Scottish Rugby Union. ... Logo of Scottish Rugby Union The Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) is the governing body of rugby union in Scotland. ... Edinburgh Rugby are one of three professional rugby union teams in Scotland, The Borders and Glasgow Rugby being the other two. ... The Celtic League, currently known as the Magners League for sponsorship reasons, is an annual rugby union competition involving regional sides from Ireland, Scotland and Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... The first international rugby union game was played at Raeburn Place, Edinburgh on March 27, 1871 between England and Scotland. ...


The Scottish cricket team, who represent Scotland at cricket internationally and in the C&G Trophy, play their home matches at The Grange in Stockbridge. Cricket Scotland The Scottish cricket team represents Scotland at the game of cricket. ... This article is about the sport. ... The C&G Trophy is a knock-out one day cricket competition in the United Kingdom. ... The Grange Club is a cricket and sports club in the Stockbridge district of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Stockbridge is pictuesque area of Edinburgh located towards the north of the city and bordering on the New Town. ...


The Edinburgh Capitals are the latest of a succession of ice hockey clubs to represent the Scottish capital. Previously Edinburgh was represented by the Murrayfield Racers and the Edinburgh Racers. The club play their home games at the Murrayfield Ice Rink and are the sole Scottish representative in the Elite Ice Hockey League. The Edinburgh Capitals are a Scottish Ice Hockey club based in the capital Edinburgh. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... League: British League Premier Founded: 1952 Home Ice: Murrayfield Ice Rink Capacity: 3800 Ice Size: 200ft x 97ft City: Edinburgh, United Kingdom Colours: Red, White, and Blue Head Coach: unknown Ownership: unknown The Murrayfield Racers were an Edinburgh based Ice Hockey team, founded in 1952 (as the Murrayfield Royals) changing... The Murrayfield Ice Rink is a 3,800-seat multi-purpose arena in the Murrayfield area of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Elite Ice Hockey League (also known for sponsorship reasons as the bmibaby Elite League) is a professional ice hockey league in the United Kingdom. ...

The Edinburgh Diamond Devils is a baseball club claiming its first Scottish Championship in 1991 as the "Reivers." 1992 saw the team repeat as national champions, becoming the first team to do so in league history and saw the start of the club's first youth team, the Blue Jays. The name of the club was changed in 1999. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (720x788, 248 KB)This is an image I took myself using an Olympus C8080W digital camera. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (720x788, 248 KB)This is an image I took myself using an Olympus C8080W digital camera. ... For other uses of Heart of Midlothian, see Heart of Midlothian (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The term Blue Jay can refer to: Blue Jay, a species of bird. ...


Edinburgh has also hosted various national and international sports events including the World Student Games, the 1970 British Commonwealth Games, the 1986 Commonwealth Games and the inaugural 2000 Commonwealth Youth Games. For the Games in 1970 the city built major Olympic standard venues and facilities including the Royal Commonwealth Pool and the Meadowbank Stadium. The Universiade is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation (FISU). ... The 1970 British Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh Scotland. ... Participating countries The 1986 Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh, Scotland for the second time. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The Royal Commonwealth Pool is the swimming pool that held the swimming events of the 1970 and 1986 Commonwealth Games when they were held in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Meadowbank Stadium is a multi-purpose sports facility located in Meadowbank, in the Scottish capital Edinburgh. ...


In American football, the Scottish Claymores played WLAF/NFL Europe games at Murrayfield, including their World Bowl 96 victory. From 1995 to 1997 they played all their games there, from 1998 to 2000 they split their home matches between Murrayfield and Glasgow's Hampden Park, then moved to Glasgow full-time, with one final Murrayfield appearance in 2002. The city's most successful non-professional team are the Edinburgh Wolves who currently play at Meadowbank Stadium. United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Year Founded 1995 Year Retired 2004 City Glasgow and Edinburgh, Scotland Team Colors Navy Blue, Royal Blue, Silver, and White Franchise W-L-T Record Regular Season: 43-57-0 Postseason: 1-1 Championships World Bowls (1) World Bowl IV (1996) The Scottish Claymores (Scotland in box scores) were an... NFL Europe was originally founded in the spring of 1991 as the World League of American Football. ... The NFL Europe League is an American football league which operates in Europe. ... World Bowl 96 (or World Bowl IV), the championship game of American footballs WLAF, took place at Murrayfield Stadium in Edinburgh, Scotland on June 23, 1996. ... The Edinburgh Wolves are an American Football team based in the Scottish capital. ...


The Edinburgh Marathon has been held in the city since 1999 with more than 13,000 taking part annually. The Edinburgh Marathon is a marathon race that has been held each year in Edinburgh, Scotland since 2003, usually in June. ...


Edinburgh has a speedway team, the Edinburgh Monarchs, which currently is based at the Lothian Arena in Armadale, West Lothian. They have operated there since 1997. Speedway was introduced to Edinburgh at the Marine Gardens Stadium in Seafield Road and it operated 1928–31 and 1938–39. The Edinburgh team of 1930 operated in the Northern League. In 1948 speedway returned to the city at Old Meadowbank. The Monarchs operated there 1948–54 as members of the National League Division Two. Training events were staged at Old Meadowbank occasionally from 1957–59. Two Students Charities events were staged one in 1959 and the other in 1960. Between 1960–67 the Monarchs were members of the Provincial League and from 1965 members of the British League. Following a 10-year gap the Monarchs returned to Powderhall Stadium and raced there 1977–95. A training track operated at the Gyle in the late 1960s. Between 1949 and 1951 Edinburgh was the home track of Australian rider Jack Young who won the World Championship in 1951. Armadale is a town within the district of West Lothian in central Scotland. ...


The Honourable Society of Edinburgh Boaters, Scotland's only punting society, used to ply the waters of the Union Canal from a base at Hermiston House. The Society staged several regattas and engaged in the annual Scottish Boat Race against Cambridge University Dampers Club with mixed success. Punting while dressed for Cambridge graduation This article concentrates on the history and development of punts and punting in England, for other usages see the disambiguation pages at punt and punter. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Edinburgh

Edinburgh has the strongest economy of any city in the UK outside London.[citation needed] The strength of Edinburgh's economy is reflected by its GDP per capita, which was measured at £27,600 (€40,700, $55,000) in 2004. The economy of Edinburgh and its hinterland has recently been announced as one of the fastest growing city regions in Europe.[27] Education and health, finance and business services, retailing and tourism are the largest employers.[28] The economy of Edinburgh is largely based around the services sector — centred around banking, financial services, higher education, and tourism. Unemployment in Edinburgh is low at 2.2%, which has been consistently below the Scottish average.[29] Offices in the new financial district to the west of Edinburgh city centre. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The term city region has been in use since about 1950 by urbanists, economists and urban planners to mean not just the administrative area of a recognisable city or conurbation but also its hinterland that will often be far bigger. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... The ruins of Melrose Abbey, Scottish Borders Scotland is a well-developed tourist destination, with tourism generally being responsible for sustaining 200,000 jobs mainly in the service sector, with tourist spending averaging at £4bn per year [1]. Tourists from the United Kingdom make up the bulk of visitors to... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... This article is about the country. ...

The remains of Holyrood Abbey
The remains of Holyrood Abbey

Banking has been a part of the economic life of Edinburgh for over 300 years with the invention of capitalism in the city, with the establishment of the Bank of Scotland by an act of the original Parliament of Scotland in 1695. Their headquarters are on the Mound, overlooking Princes Street. Today, together with the burgeoning financial services industry, with particular strengths in insurance and investment underpinned by the presence of Edinburgh based firms such as Scottish Widows and Standard Life, Edinburgh has emerged as Europe’s sixth largest financial centre.[30] The Royal Bank of Scotland, which is the fifth largest in the world by market capitalisation, opened their new global headquarters at Gogarburn in the west of the city in October 2005; their registered office remains in St. Andrew Square. Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 479 KB)abbey ruin next to the Palace of Holyroodhouse, 2004-11. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 479 KB)abbey ruin next to the Palace of Holyroodhouse, 2004-11. ... Image:Holrodab. ... Bank of Scotland plc is a commercial and clearing bank, based in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is one of the largest New York based life insurance companies Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Invest redirects here. ... Scottish Widows is an investment company located in Edinburgh, Scotland, now a subsidiary of the Lloyds TSB Group. ... Standard Life (LSE: SLET) is a major employer in Edinburgh, with 8,500 UK employees [2] and over 12,000 worldwide. ... The Royal Bank of Scotland Plc (Scottish Gaelic: [1]) is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, which together with NatWest, provides branch banking facilities in the United Kingdom. ... Market capitalization, or market cap, is a measurement of corporate or economic size equal to the stock price times the number of shares outstanding of a public company. ... The Gogarburn site was bought by RBS in June 2001. ... The Registered Office is generally the location of a company, an association or any other legal entity, where it conducts its business. ...


Manufacturing has never had as strong presence in Edinburgh compared with Glasgow; however brewing, publishing, and nowadays electronics have maintained a foothold in the city. Whilst brewing has been in decline in recent years, with the closure of the McEwan's Brewery in 2005, Caledonian Brewery remains as the largest, with Scottish and Newcastle retaining their headquarters in the city. For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about beer. ... For other uses, see Publishing (disambiguation). ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... McEwans Brewery is a former brewery in Edinburgh. ... Caledonian Brewery Caledonian Brewery is a British brewery founded in 1869 in the Slateford area of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Scottish & Newcastle is one of the worlds leading brewers, and the largest British brewing company (unless London-based SABMiller, which does very little business in the UK, is counted as British). ...


Tourism is an important economic mainstay in the city. As a World Heritage Site, tourists come to visit such historical sites as Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse and the Georgian New Town. This is augmented in August of each year with the presence of the Edinburgh Festivals, which bring in large numbers of visitors, generating in excess of £100m for the Edinburgh economy.[31] Tourist redirects here. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The castle dominates the Edinburgh skyline as seen here from Princes Street Gardens Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which, from its position atop Castle Rock, dominates the sky-line of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands second most visited tourist attraction, after the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and... Holyrood Palace The Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly known as Holyrood Palace, originally founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland since the 15th century. ... The Edinburgh New Town is a neo-classical masterpiece. ... There is no one Edinburgh Festival but those using the term are usually referring to the collection of various festivals in August and early September of each year in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


As the centre of Scotland’s devolved government, as well as its legal system, the public sector plays a central role in the economy of Edinburgh with many departments of the Scottish Government located in the city. Other major employers include NHS Scotland and local government administration. Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... The logo of the Governemnt, incorporating the Saltire. ... The logo of NHS Scotland NHSScotland is the official corporate style of the National Health Service operations in Scotland. ... The local government of Scotland is organised into 32 unitary authorities covering the mainland and islands of Scotland. ...


Edinburgh has seventy post offices, one in St. Mary's Street (in the Old Town close to Waverley Station) is "central", in that it is the only one within the EH1 1 postcode zone, but the Royal Mail sorting office at 10 Brunswick Road has the latest collection. Edinburgh's General Post Office building, in Waterloo Place, no longer houses a post office, which has been moved into the nearby St. James' Centre. The façades of the Waterloo Place building still stand, but the interior has been removed and replaced with offices. UK and Australian postal codes are known as postcodes. ... The term General Post Office is or has been used by a number of postal and telecommunications governmental administrations worldwide, including: United Kingdom until 1969, see Post Office UK. After 1981 see Royal Mail for a continuing history of the British Post Office. ...


Government and politics

Coat of arms of Edinburgh

As capital of Scotland, Edinburgh is host to the national unicameral legislature, the Scottish Parliament. The Scottish Parliament Building, in the Holyrood area of Edinburgh, opened in September 2004. Politics in the City of Edinburgh (Mòr-bhaile Dhùn Èideann in Gaelic) council area are discernable in election results for three assemblies: the City of Ediburgh Council; the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood); and the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Westminster). ... Image File history File links Edinburgh-coa. ... Image File history File links Edinburgh-coa. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The new Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood designed by the Catalan architect Enric Miralles and opened in October 2004. ... Holyrood is an area in Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. ...


The devolved Scottish Government has offices at St Andrew's House on Calton Hill in the city centre, and Victoria Quay in Leith. Bute House on Charlotte Square is the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland. Devolution or home rule is the granting of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... The logo of the Governemnt, incorporating the Saltire. ... Southern aspect of St Andrews House on Calton Hill. ... The top of Calton Hill with the National Monument and Nelsons Monument View over Edinburgh, with the Dugald Stewart Monument in the foreground Calton Hill is a hill in Edinburgh, Scotland, just to the east of the city centre. ... The Water of Leith looking upriver from the docks, with the old buildings along Leith Shore including The Kings Wark and The Old Ship Hotel and Kings Landing. ... Bute House is the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland, who is the head of the Scottish Executive, the countrys devolved government created in 1999. ... Bute House in Charlotte Square, official residence of the First Minister of Scotland Charlotte Square is a street in Edinburgh, Scotland part of the New Town, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... The First Minister of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ; Scots: ) is, in practice, the political leader of Scotland, as head of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the Scottish Parliament. ...


The city has hosted a number of international events, such as Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting and the Council of Europe. The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a biennial meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden...


Apart from elections to the Scottish Parliament, politics in Edinburgh are evident in elections to the City of Edinburgh Council and the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. For elections to the European Parliament, Edinburgh is within the Scotland constituency. City of Edinburgh (Mòr-bhaile Dhùn Èideann in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ... The House of Commons is a component of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also includes the Sovereign and the House of Lords. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Scotland constitutes a single constituency of the European Parliament. ...


Local government

see also List of Lord Provosts of Edinburgh

Edinburgh constitutes one of the 32 council areas of Scotland and, as such, is represented by the City of Edinburgh Council, a local authority composed of 58 elected councillors, each representing a multi-member electoral ward in the city. The council is led by the Lord Provost. The Lord Provost of Edinburgh is the convener of the City of Edinburgh local authority. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bute House is the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland, who is the head of the Scottish Executive, the countrys devolved government created in 1999. ... Bute House in Charlotte Square, official residence of the First Minister of Scotland Charlotte Square is a street in Edinburgh, Scotland part of the New Town, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... The First Minister of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ; Scots: ) is, in practice, the political leader of Scotland, as head of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the Scottish Parliament. ... The council areas of Scotland form the local government areas of Scotland, all of them unitary authorities. ... City of Edinburgh (Mòr-bhaile Dhùn Èideann in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ... A councillor is a member of a council (such as a city council), particularly in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and other parts of the Commonwealth. ... A ward in the United Kingdom is an electoral district represented by one or more councillors. ... A Lord Provost is the Scottish equivalent of a Lord Mayor. ...


The Liberal Democrats and Scottish National Party jointly run the council in a coalition. The Lord Provost of Edinburgh, George Grubb (who replaced Lesley Hinds on May 16, 2007), and the Leader of the Council, Jenny Dawe, are both Liberal Democrat Party members. The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left, Social democratic political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... The Lord Provost of Edinburgh is the convener of the City of Edinburgh local authority. ... The subject of this article may not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Lesley Hinds, born in Dundee, is the current (2006) Lord Provost of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Elections to the council are held on a four year cycle, the last on 3 May 2007. Councillors are elected from multi-member wards, each electing three or four councillors by the single transferable vote system, to produce a form of proportional representation. is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


Boundaries date from 2007. The Scottish local elections, 2007 were held on 3 May 2007, the same day as Scottish Parliament elections and local elections in parts of England. ...


Scottish Parliament

The new Scottish Parliament Building opened in October 2004.
The new Scottish Parliament Building opened in October 2004.

In elections to the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood), the city area is divided between six of the nine constituencies in the Lothians electoral region. Each constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and the region elects seven additional MSPs, to produce a form of proportional representation. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1202 KB) Summary Own photo, taken 29 April 2006 (see filename of course) from halfway up Salisbury Crags, just below the Radical Road. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1202 KB) Summary Own photo, taken 29 April 2006 (see filename of course) from halfway up Salisbury Crags, just below the Radical Road. ... The new Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood designed by the Catalan architect Enric Miralles and opened in October 2004. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The new Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood designed by the Catalan architect Enric Miralles and opened in October 2004. ... In the United Kingdom each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one or more members to a parliament or assembly. ... The Lothians is one of the eight electoral regions of the Scottish Parliament which were created in 1999. ... The Scottish Parliament (Holyrood) has 73 constituencies, each electing one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and eight additional member regions, each electing seven additional member MSPs. ... Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) (Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPA) in Gaelic) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... The Additional Member System (AMS) is a branch of voting systems in which some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


Five of the six Edinburgh constituencies, Edinburgh North and Leith, Edinburgh Central, Edinburgh Pentlands, Edinburgh South and Edinburgh West, are entirely within the city area. Musselburgh, in East Lothian, is included in the sixth, Edinburgh East and Musselburgh. Edinburgh North and Leith is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament. ... Edinburgh Central is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood). ... Edinburgh Pentlands is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood). ... Edinburgh South is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament. ... Edinburgh West is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament. ... Showing the Brunton Hall, from the west of the town Musselburgh is a town in East Lothian, Scotland, on the coast of the Firth of Forth, six miles east of Edinburgh city centre. ... East Lothian (Lodainn an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a lieutenancy Area. ... Edinburgh East and Musselburgh is a constituency represented in the Scottish Parliament. ...


Boundaries date from 1999, and the creation of the Scottish Parliament itself. The Scottish Parliament election, 1999 was the first general election of the Scottish Parliament, with voting taking place on May 6th, 1999. ...


Parliament of the United Kingdom

In elections to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Westminster), the city area is divided between five first past the post constituencies, all entirely within the city area, and each electing one Member of Parliament (MP): Edinburgh South, Edinburgh West, Edinburgh South West, Edinburgh North and Leith, and Edinburgh East. The House of Commons is a component of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also includes the Sovereign and the House of Lords. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament. ... Edinburgh South is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, first used in the general election of 1885. ... Edinburgh West has been a constituency of the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1885. ... Edinburgh South West is a constituency to be represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Edinburgh North and Leith is a constituency of the House of Commons of the UK Parliament. ... Edinburgh East is a constituency to be represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament. ...

Princes Street, one of the main thoroughfares in the City of Edinburgh.
Princes Street, one of the main thoroughfares in the City of Edinburgh.

Boundaries date from 2005. Princes Street. ... Princes Street. ... Princes Street, as viewed facing west from the Scott Monument Princes Street and the Castle at twilight Princes Street is the main shopping street in Edinburgh city centre, although it was originally designed to be a residential street. ... City of Edinburgh (Mòr-bhaile Dhùn Èideann in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ... The United Kingdom general election of 2005 was held on Thursday, 5 May 2005. ...


Twin and Partner cities

Edinburgh is twinned[32] with several cities across the world: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...


Twin cities

Partner cities View of Aalborg railroad station from J.F. Kennedys Square, 2004 Aalborg (help· info) is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in North Jutland County on the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark. ... Dunedin (ÅŒtepoti in Maori) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Otago. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... This article is about the French city. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Xian redirects here. ...

Friendship link For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ...

The Iwashimizu Hachimangu, a Shinto shrine in Yawata. ...

Transport

The Forth Bridge at night
The Forth Bridge at night

Edinburgh is a major transport hub in east central Scotland, with arterial road and rail routes that connect the city to the rest of Scotland and with England. It is connected to the north of Scotland by the famous feats of engineering, the Forth Bridge and the Forth Road Bridge. Buses on Princes Street, one of the main thoroughfares in the city of Edinburgh. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 310 KB) Summary Taken by Gregory Kullberg on March 10, 2003 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 310 KB) Summary Taken by Gregory Kullberg on March 10, 2003 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... For the nearby road bridge, see Forth Road Bridge. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the nearby road bridge, see Forth Road Bridge. ... The Forth Road Bridge is a suspension bridge in east central Scotland. ...


Buses

Most public transport trips in Edinburgh are taken by bus, with Lothian Buses and First Bus operating an extensive system connecting most parts of the city, suburbs and surrounding city region. Autobus redirects here. ... Lothian Buses Plc is the largest provider of bus services in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... First Group PLC (LSE: FGP) is a British transport company operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland and North America, with headquarters in Aberdeen, Scotland. ... The term city region has been in use since about 1950 by urbanists, economists and urban planners to mean not just the administrative area of a recognisable city or conurbation but also its hinterland that will often be far bigger. ...


Trams

Following a vote in the Scottish Parliament in June 2007,[33] preliminary construction work (such as the diversion of utilities) has now started on the Edinburgh Tram Network, a light rapid transit tram line to connect Edinburgh Airport and Granton via the city centre and Leith Walk. Another loop may connect the city centre and the northern waterfront areas of Leith and Granton – areas which are undergoing major regeneration and redevelopment. Despite the reservations of First Minister Alex Salmond and the SNP minority Government, the project was voted through by the other parties in the Parliament. For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Although there currently is no tram network in Edinburgh, like many other cities in the UK, Edinburgh had a tram network in the first half of the 20th century, running as far as Leith and Musselburgh. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Edinburgh Airport (IATA: EDI, ICAO: EGPH) is located in Edinburgh, Scotland, and was the busiest airport in Scotland in 2007, handling 9,037,200 passengers. ... The Water of Leith looking upriver from the docks, with the old buildings along Leith Shore including The Kings Wark and The Old Ship Hotel and Kings Landing. ... Granton is an area in the north of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond, known as Alex Salmond (born December 31, 1954, Linlithgow), is a Scottish politician, and the current First Minister of Scotland, heading a minority government. ...

Edinburgh Airport Control Tower
Edinburgh Airport Control Tower

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 84 KB) The new control tower at Edinburgh Airport - more images. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 84 KB) The new control tower at Edinburgh Airport - more images. ... Edinburgh Airport (IATA: EDI, ICAO: EGPH) is located in Edinburgh, Scotland, and was the busiest airport in Scotland in 2007, handling 9,037,200 passengers. ...

Rail

Edinburgh Waverley is the main railway station for the city. It is on the East Coast Main Line and is a through-station as well as a terminus for many services to and from London Kings Cross operated by NXEC and to London Euston operated by Virgin Trains and First ScotRail, as well as services from within Scotland operated by First ScotRail. Haymarket Station is a smaller station located to the west of the city centre. The rail network in the city has expanded in recent years with the opening of Crossrail, from Newcraighall and Musselburgh in the east, to Curriehill, Edinburgh Park and Dalmeny in the west. The network is set to expand further with a new parkway station being constructed at Gogar for Edinburgh Airport and the electrification of the Haymarket - Edinburgh Park/Airport section in connection with the Airdrie - Bathgate Rail Link. Edinburgh and the East of Scotland's rail network are controlled from Edinburgh Signalling Centre, which with 240 route miles (470 track miles) has the largest control area in Europe. This will increase on completion of the Bathgate - Airdrie and Edinburgh - Galashiels rail lines which will also be controlled from Edinburgh. Waverley railway station- the principal mainline station in Edinburgh viewed from Edinburgh Castle. ... The East Coast Main Line viaduct at Durham. ... ... National Express East Coast is the name under which the new train operating company NXEC Trains Ltd has stated it will operate the InterCity East Coast rail franchise, which includes services in England and Scotland. ... Facade of Euston Station, London Euston Arch: the original Euston Station, as enlarged, ca 1851 Euston station concourse Euston station (also known as London Euston), is a large railway station in Central London. ... Virgin Trains is a train operating company in the United Kingdom, which currently provides services from London Euston to the North West, West Midlands and Scotland on the West Coast Main Line. ... First ScotRail is the brand under which FirstGroup PLC runs its railway franchise to operate all domestic passenger services within Scotland, as well as the cross-border Caledonian Sleeper service to London. ... For other uses, see Haymarket station. ... Newcraighall is a suburb of Edinburgh, located in the southeast of the Scottish capital. ... Showing the Brunton Hall, from the west of the town Musselburgh is a town in East Lothian, Scotland, on the coast of the Firth of Forth, six miles east of Edinburgh city centre. ... Curriehill is a suburb of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. ... BT building, designed by Bennetts Associates architects Edinburgh Park is a business park located in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Dalmeny Kirk Dalmeny is a village and parish in Scotland. ... Edinburgh Airport (IATA: EDI, ICAO: EGPH) is located in Edinburgh, Scotland, and was the busiest airport in Scotland in 2007, handling 9,037,200 passengers. ...

Waverley (viewed from the Scott Monument), is located in the ravine between the Old and New Town on the drained Nor Loch.
Waverley (viewed from the Scott Monument), is located in the ravine between the Old and New Town on the drained Nor Loch.

A view of the Scottish capital Edinburgh, from the Scott Monument looking southeast. ... A view of the Scottish capital Edinburgh, from the Scott Monument looking southeast. ... Waverley railway station- the principal mainline station in Edinburgh viewed from Edinburgh Castle. ... Scott Monument (alternate view) The Scott Monument is a victorian gothic monument to Scottish author Sir Walter Scott. ... Edinburgh Castle with the Nor Loch in foreground, around 1780 by Alexander Nasmyth The Nor Loch, sometimes referred to in English as the North Loch, was a body of water formerly in Edinburgh, in the area now occupied by Princes Street Gardens, which lies between the Royal Mile and Princes...

Airport

Edinburgh is served by Edinburgh Airport (EDI), located about 8 miles (13 km) to the west of the city, with scheduled connections to many cities in Europe and an expanding international long-haul route network, including daily flights to New York (JFK and Newark) and summer services to Toronto. Construction of an underground rail link to the airport had been due to commence in 2007 and be operational by 2009, however the project was amended by the SNP government in September 2007,[34] in favour of a surface interchange at a new station at Gogar to the proposed Edinburgh Tram Network. Edinburgh Airport (IATA: EDI, ICAO: EGPH) is located in Edinburgh, Scotland, and was the busiest airport in Scotland in 2007, handling 9,037,200 passengers. ... Edinburgh Airport railway station will be opened in 2010 to serve Edinburgh Airport, Scotland. ... Although there currently is no tram network in Edinburgh, like many other cities in the UK, Edinburgh had a tram network in the first half of the 20th century, running as far as Leith and Musselburgh. ...


Cycling

Attempts to make Edinburgh more "cycle friendly" have been made, particularly by Spokes, the Lothian Cycle Campaign. Some cyclists remain unconvinced that the promise of a "Model Cycle-Friendly City"[35] has been achieved. A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface. ...


World-record holder

In April 2008 Mark Beaumont, from New Town, Edinburgh, broke the world record for the fastest circumnavigation of the globe by bicycle, completing his ride in only 194 days and 17 hours.[36][37] BBC Scotland produced a four part documentary titled "The Man Who Cycled The World".[38] The Edinburgh New Town is a neo-classical masterpiece. ...


Thefts

Cycle thefts are common in the city, with an average of five bikes being stolen every day.[39] Ian Maxwell, a member of Spokes Lothian Cycle Campaign, said: "We've seen a massive increase in cycling in Edinburgh over the last ten years and, unfortunately, with that trend comes an inevitable rise in thefts. Overall, though, with tens of thousands of cyclists, the numbers are still relatively low. The figures underline the problem of lack of secure parking facilities for bikes. They can be difficult to find. Cyclists need to take the appropriate precautions. These are opportunist thieves who move quickly and disappear on their newly acquired getaway vehicle."[39] A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface. ...


Safety

Lothians roads are the most dangerous in Scotland for cyclists, with 165 cyclists a year being hospitalised.[40] One common complaint is that cycle lanes are often placed inside bus lanes on some of the major roads in central Edinburgh, such as Princes Street and Lothian Road.[41] This irritates bus drivers, who are limited by the slow speed of cyclists, and therefore feel compelled to perform unsafe vehicle manoeuvres like tailgating only inches behind cyclists, and overtaking when the outer lane is occupied so the bus cannot actually move around the cyclist safely, thus squeezing the cyclist between the bus and pavement.[41] It is also common for cars and other vehicles to be parked in cycle lanes, forcing cyclists to weave in and out of lanes of traffic, to the irritation of other drivers. Princes Street, as viewed facing west from the Scott Monument Princes Street and the Castle at twilight Princes Street is the main shopping street in Edinburgh city centre, although it was originally designed to be a residential street. ... The A702 is a major road in Scotland, that runs from Edinburgh to St. ... For socializing before a sporting event, see Tailgate party. ...


Several cyclists have been killed in Edinburgh. In September 2004, a 28 year old man was killed by the driver of a Vauxhall Vectra at the junction of Marchmont Road and Melville Drive.[42] In April 2008, a male cyclist was killed in a collision with a truck on the junction between West Richmond Street and Nicolson Street.[43][44] The deceased was identified as Dr Iain Wilson, 35 years old, and an award winning neuroscientist who worked at the University of Edinburgh.[45][46] A female student cyclist was killed in a collision with a bus on Marchmont Road in the late 90s. Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Disputes

Pedicabs are a common form of transport for weekend revellers, with the number operating in Edinburgh growing from only 2 in 2000 to 60 by 2008.[47] This has led to a growing number of complaints from taxi cab drivers, who resent the competition. In one dispute, a pedicab cyclist was reported to have been attacked by a group of three taxi drivers, who kicked and headbutted him.[47] In other cases, taxi drivers have thrown cigarette butts at pedicab cyclists, and in one case, threatened a cyclist with a Taser stun gun (possession of such a device is illegal in Scotland).[47] A velotaxi, also known as a pedicab, cycle rickshaw or trishaw (from tricycle rickshaw), is a human-powered vehicle for hire, usually with one or two seats for carrying passengers in addition to the driver. ... Summary An electroshock gun or stun gun, is a weapon used for subduing a person by administering an electric shock. ...


Cycling in certain public parks, like walkways across the Meadows, is currently illegal.[48] Under the Land Reform Act of 2003, park paths may be opened up to cyclists, but concerns have been expressed that cyclists may run pedestrians over. Peng Lee Yap, chairman of Friends of the Meadows, said "While this is clearly a difficult issue, it was felt that the positive way forward is the approach of Spokes to improve cyclists' behaviour."[48] In late 2007 Spokes Lothian group launched their "Bike Polite" campaign to encourage cyclists to be more considerate.[49] View across the Meadows towards Salisbury Crags (left) and Arthurs Seat The Meadows is a large public park in Edinburgh, Scotland, just to the south of the city centre. ...


Park and Ride

A new park and ride site was opened on February 3, 2008 at Sheriffhall, in addition to facilities at Ingliston, Riccarton, Fife and Newcraighall.
For all other park and ride information visit: The National Park and Ride Directory a park-and-ride bus in Oxford Park and ride terminals are public transport stations that allow commuters to drive short distances in their personal automobiles to catch a ride on a bus or railroad system (usually classified as light rail or the heavier commuter rail). ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Ingliston is an area to the west of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. ... Riccarton is an area in Edinburghs Green Belt, in Scotland. ... This article is about the area in Scotland. ... Newcraighall is a suburb of Edinburgh, located in the southeast of the Scottish capital. ...


Congestion

Traffic congestion, especially at peak times, is viewed as a problem. The rise in car use in the city caused commuting trips to grow by 72% in Edinburgh between 1981 and 2001.[50] Various initiatives have been put in place to combat this, with "Greenways", dedicated bus lanes on primary routes into the city centre with strict traffic regulations, have been initiated in recent years. Improvements to the bus network have included guided busways in the west of the city and major improvements to bus services, such as clearer ticketing arrangements and better provision of bus stops. In 2005 Edinburgh Council's proposed congestion charging scheme was overwhelmingly rejected in a referendum. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A bus lane in Mannheim, Germany A bus lane in Athens, Greece. ... Adelaide O-Bahn The guide wheel of a guided bus in Mannheim, Germany A Fastway bus in the guided bus lane on Southgate Avenue, Crawley Guided buses are buses steered for part or all of their route by external means, usually on a dedicated track. ...

Panoramic view of the Forth Road Bridge (left) and Forth Bridge (right) overlooking the Firth of Forth towards North Queensferry (Fife) from South Queensferry.
Panoramic view of the Forth Road Bridge (left) and Forth Bridge (right) overlooking the Firth of Forth towards North Queensferry (Fife) from South Queensferry.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (13750x1915, 3636 KB) Panorama of rail and road bridges crossing the Firth of Forth, taken from Queensferry near Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (13750x1915, 3636 KB) Panorama of rail and road bridges crossing the Firth of Forth, taken from Queensferry near Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Forth Road Bridge is a suspension bridge in east central Scotland. ... For the nearby road bridge, see Forth Road Bridge. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... North Queensferry is a town in Fife, Scotland, on the Firth of Forth, between the Forth Bridge and the Forth Road Bridge. ... This article is about the area in Scotland. ... South Queensferry seen from the Forth Road Bridge. ...

Education

Universities and colleges

The University of Edinburgh was founded by Royal Charter in 1583,[51] and is the fourth oldest university in Scotland, after St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen. The Old College on South Bridge opened in the 1820s. As the institution continued to expand, new buildings were constructed around George Square, where the heart of the university remains, and the King's Buildings campus in southern Edinburgh. A third campus at Little France was established in 2002. Development of the University's estate continues on all three campuses in the 21st century. Download high resolution version (533x800, 191 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (533x800, 191 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... The east facade of the University of Edinburgh facing onto South Bridge / Nicholson Street, as built in 1827. ... The University of Edinburgh School of Law, founded 1707, is a school within the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, dedicated to research and teaching in law. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... List of universities in Scotland is a list of universities in Scotland. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... The University of Aberdeen was founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland. ... The east facade of the University of Edinburgh facing onto South Bridge / Nicholson Street, as built in 1827. ... The Kings Buildings are the southernmost campus of the University of Edinburgh, and contains most of the Science and Engineering schools, excepting only part of the School of Informatics, which is at the central George Square campus. ... Little France is a suburb of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. ...


The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh were established by Royal Charter, in 1506 and 1681 respectively. The Trustees Drawing Academy of Edinburgh was established in 1760,[52] an institution that became the Edinburgh College of Art in 1907. The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, a centre of excellence for surgical education and research traces its origins to 1505 when the Barber Surgeons of Edinburgh was formally incorporated as a Craft Guild of Edinburgh, and granted a royal charter in 1506 by King James IV of Scotland. ... The Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (RCPE) was established in the 17th century. ... Edinburgh College of Art is an art school in Edinburgh, Scotland, providing tertiary education. ...


In the 1960s Heriot-Watt University and Napier Technical College were established. Heriot-Watt traces its origins to 1821, when a school for technical education of the working classes was opened. Heriot-Watt continues to have a strong reputation in engineering, and is based at Riccarton, in the west of the city. The entrance to main reception at the Edinburgh campus. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Riccarton is an area in Edinburghs Green Belt, in Scotland. ...


Napier College, renamed Napier Polytechnic in 1986, gained university status in 1992. Napier University has several campuses in the south and west of the city, including the former Craiglockhart Hydropathic (of Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen fame) and Merchiston Tower (the family home of John Napier). The University contains several specialised research centres (including the Centre for Timber Engineering, the International Teledemocracy Centre and a large business school. In 2005 the University secured Skillset Screen Academy status for its film courses and now operates (in conjunction with Edinburgh College of Art) the Screen Academy Scotland, one of six accredited centres in the UK.[53] Napier University is a university in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Craiglockhart Hydropathic, now known as Craiglockhart Campus, is located in Craiglockhart, Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Siegfried Loraine Sassoon, CBE MC (8 September 1886 – 1 September 1967) was an English poet and author. ... Wilfred Edward Salter Owen MC (March 18, 1893 – November 4, 1918) was a British poet and soldier, regarded by many as the leading poet of the First World War. ... Merchiston Tower as it appeared in 1829, showing the addition to the front made by the Merchiston Castle School, which occupied it at that time. ... For other people with the same name, see John Napier (disambiguation). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The International Teledemocracy Centre (ITC) is based at Napier University, Edinburgh, Scotland. ... A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in Business Administration. ... The Screen Academy Scotland is a collaboration between Napier University and Edinburgh College of Art. ...


Queen Margaret University was founded in 1875 as a women's college, and today specialises in healthcare, theatre, media, hospitality and business. Queen Margaret University (formerly Queen Margaret University College) is a university in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Other colleges offering further education in Edinburgh include Telford College, opened in 1968, and Stevenson College, opened in 1970. Basil Paterson College offers courses in languages and teaching. The Scottish Agricultural College also has a campus in south Edinburgh. Edinburghs Telford College, named after Thomas Telford, the great Scottish civil engineer, was established in 1968. ... Stevenson College, Edinburgh is the fifth largest college in Scotland. ... Media:Example. ...


Schools

List of Edinburgh Schools

Edinburgh schools include Donaldson's College and the Royal Blind School, Scotland’s national residential and day schools for deaf and blind students, both of which serve Scotland and the north east of England. The Royal High School is considered to be the oldest school in Scotland. List of schools in Edinburgh is a list of schools in the City of Edinburgh council area of Scotland. ... The imposing buildings of Donaldsons College Donaldsons College, in Edinburgh, Scotland on West Coates, is a school dedicated to the teaching to the deaf and students suffering from other language impairments. ... The Royal High School (RHS) of Edinburgh can trace its roots back to 1128, and is one of the oldest schools in Scotland. ...


Edinburgh also has several independent schools including: Stewart's Melville College, The Mary Erskine School, George Heriot's School, Merchiston Castle School, George Watson's College, St George's School For Girls Loretto School, Edinburgh Academy, and Fettes College. // Front of David Rhinds building of 1848 With the exception of the sixth form (which is co-educational) Stewarts Melville College (Stew Mel or SMC) is an all-boys private school with a roll of over 700 pupils. ... The Mary Erskine School (MES), formerly Edinburgh Ladies College, and popularly known simply as Mary Erskines or MES for short, is an all girls independent secondary school in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... George Heriots School is an independent primary and secondary school on Lauriston Place in Edinburgh, Scotland, with around 1600 pupils. ... This page is about the School. ... George Watsons College is a leading co-educational independent day school in Scotland, situated on Colinton Road, in the Merchiston area of Scotlands capital city Edinburgh. ... Loretto School is an independent school in Scotland, founded in Musselburgh in 1827. ... The Edinburgh Academy is an independent school. ... Fettes College is an independent boarding and day school in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Hospitals

List of hospitals in Edinburgh

Hospitals in Edinburgh include the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, which includes Edinburgh University Medical School, and the Western General Hospital, which includes a large cancer treatment centre. There is one private hospital, Murrayfield Hospital, owned by Spire Healthcare. The Royal Infirmary is the main Accident & Emergency hospital not just for Edinburgh but also Midlothian and East Lothian, and is the headquarters of NHS Lothian, making it a centric focus for Edinburgh and its hinterland. The Royal Edinburgh Hospital specialises in mental health, it is situated in Morningside. The Royal Hospital for Sick Children is located in Sciennes Road; it is popularly known as the 'Sick Kids'. Image File history File links Palmhouse. ... Image File history File links Palmhouse. ... The Palm House in the Royal Botanic Gardens The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is both a scientific institution and a tourist attraction. ... The following is a partial list of currently operating hospitals in Scotland. ... The Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, also known as the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh is the oldest voluntary hospital in Scotland. ... The Western General is one of the main teaching hospitals affiliated to the University of Edinburgh Medical School. ... The Royal Edinburgh Hospital is a mental health hospital in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Religious communities

The three spires of St Mary's Cathedral
The three spires of St Mary's Cathedral

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 131 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source Originally from en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 131 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source Originally from en. ... St Marys Cathedral is a cathedral of the Scottish Episcopal Church in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...

Christianity

The Church of Scotland claims the largest membership of any religious denomination in Edinburgh. Its most important and historical church is St Giles' Cathedral; others include Greyfriars Kirk, Barclay Church, Canongate Kirk and St Andrew's and St George's Church. In the south east of the city is the 12th century Duddingston Kirk. The Church of Scotland Offices are located in Edinburgh, as is the Assembly Hall and New College on The Mound. The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... St Giles Cathedral A prominent feature of the Edinburgh skyline, St Giles Cathedral decorates the midpoint of the Royal Mile with its rounded hollow-crown tower. ... Greyfriars Kirk, today Greyfriars Tolbooth & Highland Kirk, is a parish church of the Church of Scotland in central Edinburgh. ... Barclay Church Barclay Church (not to be confused with Dalmuir Barclay Church) is a parish church of the Church of Scotland in the Presbytery of Edinburgh. ... The Kirk of the Canongate - or Canongate Kirk - serves the Parish of Canongate in Edinburghs Old Town, in Scotland. ... St Andrews and St Georges Church serves Edinburghs New Town, in Scotland. ... Duddingston Kirk is a Parish Church in the Church of Scotland, located adjacent to Holyrood Park in Duddingston Village, on the east side of the City of Edinburgh. ... The Church of Scotland offices are located in the centre of Edinburgh (in the New Town) at 121 George Street, Edinburgh, EH2 4YN. These imposing buildings are popularly known in Church circles as one-two-one. They were designed in a Scandinavian-influenced style by the architect Sydney Mitchell and... The Assembly Hall is located between the Lawnmarket and the Mound in Edinburgh. ... New College, Edinburgh was founded in 1846 as a college of the Free Church of Scotland, later of the United Free Church of Scotland, and currently the School of Divinity of the University of Edinburgh and a Divinity college of the Church of Scotland. ...


The Roman Catholic Church also has a sizeable presence in the city. Its notable structures include St Mary's Cathedral at the top of Leith Walk, the Sacred Heart of Jesus, St Patrick's, St. Columba's, St. Peter's and Star of the Sea. The Catholic community in Edinburgh is part of the Archdiocese of St Andrews and Edinburgh, which is led by Keith Cardinal O'Brien, considered to be the leader of the Catholic Church in Scotland. Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Cathedral Church of Saint Mary in Edinburgh is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh External links St. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland. ...


The Free Church of Scotland (Reformed and Presbyterian) has congregations on the Royal Mile and Crosscauseway; its offices and training college are located on the Mound. The Scottish Episcopal Church is part of the Anglican Communion. Its centre is the resplendent St Mary's Cathedral, Palmerston Place in the west end. This article concerns the Free Church of Scotland 1843-1900, for the Free Church of Scotland existing from 1900 to the present day see Free Church of Scotland (post 1900). ... Logo of the Scottish Episcopal Church with the motto: Evangelical truth and Apostolic order. ... St Marys Cathedral is a cathedral of the Scottish Episcopal Church in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...

In addition, there are a number of independent churches situated throughout the city; these churches tend to have a high percentage of student congregants and include Destiny Church, Charlotte Chapel, Carrubbers Christian Centre and Bellevue Chapel. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... St. ... Carrubbers Christian Centre Carrubbers Christian Centre is a church on the Royal Mile in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Carrubbers Close Mission was founded in 1858 and its members originally met in a former Atheist Meeting House in Carrubbers Close. ... Bellevue Chapel is a church in Rodney Street in central Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Bellevue Chapel was founded in 1880. ...


Other faiths

Edinburgh Central Mosque - Edinburgh's main mosque and Islamic Centre is located on Potterow on the city's southside, near Bristo Square. It was opened in the late 1990s and the construction was largely financed by a gift from King Fahd of Saudi Arabia.[54] The first recorded presence of a Jewish community in Edinburgh dates back to the late 17th century.[citation needed] Edinburgh's Orthodox synagogue is located in Salisbury Road, which was opened in 1932 and can accommodate a congregation of 2000. A Liberal congregation also meets in the city. The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... King Fahd of Saudi Arabia King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz (born in Riyadh in 1923) is the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, a leading Rabbinical authority for Orthodox Jewry of the second half of the twentieth century. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ...


Notable residents

Many famous people in the past and present have been born in Edinburgh, resident in the city, or connected to it in some way. Famous authors of the city include Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes, Ian Rankin, author of the Inspector Rebus series of crime thrillers, J. K. Rowling, the author of Harry Potter, who wrote her first book in an Edinburgh coffee shop (Nicolson's Cafe[55][56] as well as the Elephant's House) and Adam Smith, economist, born in Kirkcaldy, and author of The Wealth of Nations. This list contains famous or notable people (or groups) who have either been born or based in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... This article is about Arthur Conan Doyles fictional detective. ... Ian Rankin OBE, DL. (born April 28, 1960, in Cardenden, Fife, Scotland, UK) is one of the best-selling crime writers in the United Kingdom. ... Detective Inspector John Rebus is the protagonist in the Inspector Rebus series of detective novels by the Scottish writer Ian Rankin, six of which have so far been televised as Rebus. ... Joanne Jo Murray, née Rowling OBE[1] (born 31 July 1965),[2] who writes under the pen name J. K. Rowling,[3] is a British writer and author of the Harry Potter fantasy series. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... , Kirkcaldy (IPA pronunciation: ) is the largest town in Fife, Scotland. ... Adam Smiths first title page An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith, published on March 9, 1776, during the Scottish Enlightenment. ...


Edinburgh has been home to the actor Sir Sean Connery, famed as the first cinematic James Bond;[57] Ronnie Corbett, a comedian and actor, best known as one of The Two Ronnies;[58] and Dylan Moran, the Irish comedian. Famous city artists include the portrait painters Sir Henry Raeburn, Sir David Wilkie and Allan Ramsay. Historians such as Douglas Johnson and Arthur Marwick had roots here. Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born August 25, 1930) is an Academy Award-, Golden Globe-, and BAFTA Award-winning Scottish actor and producer who is perhaps best known as the first actor to portray James Bond in cinema, starring in seven Bond films. ... This article is about the spy series. ... Ronnie Corbett in Extras Ronald Balfour Corbett, OBE (born 4 December 1930 in Edinburgh, commonly credited as Ronnie Corbett) is a British comedian and actor, best known as one of The Two Ronnies. ... The Two Ronnies was a British sketch show that aired on BBC One from 1971 to 1987. ... Dylan Moran (born November 3, 1971) is a BAFTA and Perrier Award-winning Irish comedian, actor and writer. ... Sir Henry Raeburn (March 4, 1756 - July 8, 1823) was a Scottish portrait-painter. ... Sir David Wilkie (November 18, 1785 - June 1, 1841) was a Scottish painter. ... Portrait of David Hume by Allan Ramsay, 1766. ... Douglas Johnson (1925-2005), British Historian Johnson was born in Edinburgh in 1925. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The city has produced or been home to musicians that have been extremely successful in modern times, particularly Ian Anderson, frontman of the band Jethro Tull; Wattie Buchan, lead singer and founding member of punk band The Exploited; Shirley Manson, lead singer for the band Garbage; The Proclaimers, a musical ensemble of two brothers; the Bay City Rollers; Boards of Canada and Idlewild. This article is about the lead singer of Jethro Tull. ... For the 18th-century agriculturist after whom the band was named, see Jethro Tull (agriculturist). ... Walter Wattie Buchan (b. ... The Exploited is a punk rock band from the second wave of UK punk, formed in late 1979 or early 1980. ... Shirley Ann Manson[1][2] (born August 26, 1966) is a Scottish musician and the lead vocalist of the band Garbage. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Proclaimers are a Irish band composed of identical twins Charlie and Craig Reid. ... The Bay City Rollers were a Scottish Pop/rock band of the 1970s. ... Boards of Canada is a Scottish electronic music duo consisting of brothers Michael Sandison (born 10 June 1969) and Marcus Eoin Sandison (born 21 September 1970). ... Idlewild are a Scottish rock band formed in the Winter of 1995, by vocalist Roddy Woomble, guitarist Rod Jones, drummer Colin Newton, and bassist Phil Scanlon. ...


Edinburgh is the hometown of the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Tony Blair, who was born in the city and attended Fettes College;[59] Robin Harper the co-convener of the Scottish Green Party; and John Witherspoon, the only clergyman to sign the United States Declaration of Independence, and later president of Princeton University.[60] The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Fettes College is an independent boarding and day school in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Robin Harper is a Member of the Scottish Parliament, representing the Scottish Green Party for the Lothians. ... The Scottish Green Party (Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the Green party of Scotland, and a full member of the European Federation of Green Parties. ... John Witherspoon Dr. John Witherspoon (February 5, 1723 – November 15, 1794), was a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Jersey. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...


Scotland has a rich history of science and Edinburgh has its fair share of famous names. James Clerk Maxwell, the founder of the modern theory of electromagnetism, was born here and educated at the Edinburgh Academy, as was the telephone pioneer Alexander Graham Bell.[61] Other names connected to the city include Max Born, physicist and Nobel laureate; Charles Darwin, the biologist who discovered natural selection; David Hume a philosopher, economist and historian; James Hutton, regarded as the "Father of Geology"; John Napier inventor of logarithms;[62] and Ian Wilmut the geneticist involved in the cloning of Dolly the sheep just outside Edinburgh. James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... This box:      Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... The Edinburgh Academy is an independent school. ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone. ... Max Born (December 11, 1882 – January 5, 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... James Hutton, painted by Abner Lowe. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other people with the same name, see John Napier (disambiguation). ... -1... Ian Wilmut (born July 7, 1944) is an English embryologist and is currently one of the leaders of the Queens Medical Research Institute at the University of Edinburgh. ... Dolly and her first-born lamb, Bonnie Dolly (July 5, 1996 – February 14, 2003), a female sheep or ewe, was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell. ...


Sister cities

Edinburgh has several sister cities: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the French city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Dunedin (ÅŒtepoti in Maori) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Otago. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_California. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... This article is about the U.S state. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Xian redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... View of Aalborg railroad station from J.F. Kennedys Square, 2004 Aalborg (help· info) is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in North Jutland County on the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Ordu is a port city in Turkey. ...

See also

Edinburgh is divided into areas that generally encompass a park (or green), a high street (i. ... Dean Cemetery is a cemetery in Dean Village in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Duke of Edinburgh is a dukedom associated with Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Offices in the new financial district to the west of Edinburgh city centre. ... Edinburgh Zoo, formally the Scottish National Zoological Park, is situated in the Corstorphine area of Edinburgh, not far from Murrayfield Stadium. ... now. ... For the US radio show on NPR, see Fresh Air // Fresh Air (Edinburgh) Fresh Air is the student and alternative radio station serving Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Lothian and Borders Police is the police force for the Scottish council areas of the City of Edinburgh, East Lothian, Midlothian, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. ... Based in Edinburgh, the National Archives of Scotland (NAS) claims to have one of the most varied collection of archives in the British Isles. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... The Palm House in the Royal Botanic Gardens The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is both a scientific institution and a tourist attraction. ... This article is intended to show a timeline of the history of Edinburgh, Scotland up to the present day. ... Buses on Princes Street, one of the main thoroughfares in the city of Edinburgh. ...

References

  1. ^ Edinburgh Facts. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
  2. ^ Conservation in Edinburgh. The City of Edinburgh Council. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  3. ^ Overseas Visitors to the UK - Top Towns Visited 2005. VisitBritain. Retrieved on 2007-01-28.
  4. ^ a b Gardens of the 'Gododdin' Craig Cessford Garden History, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Summer, 1994), pp. 114-115 doi:10.2307/1587005
  5. ^ Scottish Vernacular Dictionary
  6. ^ [1][2]
  7. ^ Stoppard, Tom. Jumpers, Grove Press, 1972, p. 69.
  8. ^ ORBIS LATINUS: Letter A
  9. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Latin_place_names_in_the_British_Isles
  10. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vivas_Schola_Regia
  11. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_High_School_(Edinburgh)
  12. ^ Pharmaceutical Latin Abbreviations
  13. ^ The Cambridge Companion to Ben Jonson, retrieved 17 April 2007
  14. ^ Marmion A Tale of Flodden Field by Walter Scott, retrieved 17 April 2007
  15. ^ Donald Campbell (2003). Edinburgh: A cultural and literary history. Oxford: Signal Books. ISBN 1-902669-73-8. 
  16. ^ The Story of Leith XXXIII. How Leith was Governed
  17. ^ Mid Year Population Estimates, 2006. General Register Office for Scotland, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
  18. ^ City Comparisons Table. Edinburgh City Council. Retrieved on 2007-01-28.
  19. ^ Napier University Edinburgh. Graduate Prospects. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  20. ^ A Vision for Capital Growth. City of Edinburgh Council (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  21. ^ Excavations within Edinburgh Castle by Stephen T. Driscoll & Peter Yeoman, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Monograph Series no.12 1997
  22. ^ Stuart Piggott (1982). Scotland before History. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-85224-470-3. 
  23. ^ Holyrood Park Geology. Department of Geography, University of Edinburgh. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  24. ^ John McLeod: Composer
  25. ^ Zoo Beginnings. Edinburgh Zoo website. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  26. ^ Animals & Conservation. Edinburgh Zoo website. Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
  27. ^ Aura Sabadus. "Edinburgh's business focus proves a world beater for economic growth", The Scotsman, 2006-05-26. Retrieved on 2007-04-21. 
  28. ^ Edinburgh City of Learning. Learning Towns and Cities. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  29. ^ Industry/employment profile. Scottish Enterprise. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  30. ^ Information for Journalists. Edinburgh Brand. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  31. ^ 2004 Festival Economic Impact Study results. Edinburgh Festival Fringe (2005-10-14). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  32. ^ Twin and Partner Cities. City of Edinburgh Council. Retrieved on 2008-03-21.
  33. ^ BBC NEWS | Scotland | Edinburgh and East | Climbdown after transport defeat
  34. ^ "It's £30m down the drain", The Scotsman. Retrieved on 2007-10-02. 
  35. ^ CyclingEdinburgh.info. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
  36. ^ "Made it! Scots cyclist Mark Beaumont sets round-the-world record", The Scotsman, 2008-02-15. 
  37. ^ "Round-the-world cyclist plans new challenge... without the bike", The Scotsman, 2008-02-21. 
  38. ^ "Pedalling Around; the site that followed Mark Beaumont on his race around the world", BBC Scotland. 
  39. ^ a b Alen McEwen. "Warning for Edinburgh cyclists as gangs steal five bikes a day", The Scotsman, 2008-04-14. 
  40. ^ "Six cyclists suffer head injuries each month in Lothians", The Scotsman, 2008-04-18. 
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  51. ^ University of Edinburgh Historical Tour. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  52. ^ Trustees Academy School of Art, Edinburgh. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  53. ^ Skillset Screen Academy Network. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  54. ^ Financing the project. Edinburgh Islamic Centre. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland is an archaeological learned society formed for the purpose of studying the history of Scotland. ... Stuart Piggott (1910-1996) CBE, was a British archaeologist most well known for his work on prehistoric Wessex. ... Edinburgh University Press is a publisher that is part of the University of Edinburgh. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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