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Encyclopedia > Edict of Fontainebleau

The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, best known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1598, which had granted to the Huguenots the right to worship their religion without persecution from the state. Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... An edict is an announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism. ... Sun King redirects here. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ...

Contents

Effects of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

By this edict, the "Sun King" revoked the Edict of Nantes (1598) and ordered the destruction of Huguenot churches, as well as the closing of Protestant schools. This policy officialized the persecution already enforced since the dragonnades created in 1681 by the king in order to intimidate Huguenots into converting to Catholicism. As a result of the persecution by the dragons soldiers and the subsequent Edict of Fontainebleau, a large number of Protestants — estimates range from 200,000 to 500,000 — left France over the next two decades, seeking asylum in England, the United Provinces, Denmark, the Habsburg's Holy Roman Empire and North America.[1] On January 17th 1686, Louis XIV himself claimed that out of a Huguenot population of 800,000 to 900,000, only 1,000 to 1,500 had remained in France. The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant French Calvinists (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The culture of France is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Schoolsystem in France The French educational system is highly centralised, organised, and ramified. ... A policy, commonly called in French dragonnades, was instituted by Louis XIV in order to intimidate Huguenot families to reconvert to Roman Catholicism. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ... A refugee is a person seeking asylum in a foreign country in order to escape persecution, war, terrorism, extreme poverty, famines, and natural disaster. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ...


As a result, Louis XIV's pious second wife Mme de Maintenon was a strong advocate of Protestant persecution and urged Louis to revoke Henri IV's edict; her confessor and spiritual advisor, François de la Chaise must be held largely responsible. Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon Françoise dAubigné, marquise de Maintenon (November 27, 1635 - April 15, 1719), the second wife of Louis XIV, was born in a prison at Niort. ... François de La Chaise (August 25, 1624 - January 20, 1709), father confessor of King Louis XIV of France, was born at the château of Aix (Aix-la-Fayette, Puy-de-Dôme), being the son of Georges dAix, seigneur de La Chaise, and of Renée de...


The revocation of the Edict of Nantes created a state of affairs in France similar to that of virtually every other European country of the period, where only the majority state religion was tolerated. The experiment of religious toleration in Europe was effectively ended for the time being. In practice, the revocation caused France to suffer a kind of early brain drain, as it lost a large number of skilled craftsmen, including key designers such as Daniel Marot. Upon leaving France, Huguenots took with them knowledge of important techniques and styles — which had a significant effect on the quality of the silk, plate glass, silversmithing (see: Huguenot silver), and cabinet making industries of those regions to which they relocated. Some rulers, such as Frederick Wilhelm of Brandenburg, who issued the Edict of Potsdam, encouraged the Protestants to seek refuge in their nations. A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained and talented individuals (human capital) to other nations or jurisdictions, due to conflicts, lack of opportunity, or health hazards where they are living. ... A skill is an ability, usually learned, to perform actions. ... Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with ones own hands and skill. ... Daniel Marot (1661-1752) was a French Protestant, an architect, furniture designer and engraver at the forefront of the classicizing Late Baroque Louis XIV style. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... The materials definition of a glass is a uniform amorphous solid material, usually produced when a suitably viscous molten material cools very rapidly, thereby not giving enough time for a regular crystal lattice to form. ... Band made of Silver. ... Cabinet making is the practice of utilizing many woodworking skills to create cabinets, shelving and furniture. ... Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg. ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... Upon learning of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685), Fredrich Wilhelm, the elector of Brandenburg, issued a proclamation giving French Huguenots safe passage to Berlin, offered them tax-free status for ten years, and allowed them to hold French-language services. ...


French Revolution and the Huguenots' descendants

The December 15, 1790 Law stated that : 'All persons born in a foreign country and descending in any degree of a French man or woman expatriated for religious reason are declared French nationals (naturels français) and will benefit to rights attached to that quality if they come back to France, establish their domicile there and take the civic oath.' [citation needed]


Article 4 of the June 26, 1889 Nationality Law stated that: 'Descendants of families proscribed by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes will continue to benefit from the December 15, 1790 Law, but on the condition that a nominal decree should be issued for every petitioner. That decree will only produce its effects for the future.' [citation needed]


Huguenots' descendants lost the right to French citizenship in 1945 (by force of the ordonnance du 19 octobre 1945, revoking the 1889 Nationality Law [citation needed].


References

  1. ^ Spielvogel, Western Civilization — Volume II: Since 1500 (5th Edition, 2003) p.410

// Summary Jackson J. Spielvogel is an associate professor emeritus at Pennsylvania State University. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Edict of Nantes (129 words)
In 1598 the Edict of Nantes granted French Protestants, the so-called "Huguenots," the freedom to practice their religion publicly.
As a result of this the Huguenots were again subjected to military attack and persecution.
The terms of the Edict of Nantes were narrowed in 1629 and it was altogether revoked by the terms of the Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685.
Centuries (409 words)
In the 17th century, protestants living under the legislation prescribed by the Edict of Nantes contributed greatly to their times as academics and theologians.
And in 1685, with the revocation of the edict of Nantes, Protestantism was outlawed in France.
Repression was to diminish towards the end of the century and Protestants, recognised by the Edict of Tolerance, were to play an important role during the period of the revolution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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