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Encyclopedia > Ecstasy (drug)
MDMA chemical structure

MDMA Chemical structure of MDMA Selfmade by cacycle File links The following pages link to this file: Ecstasy (drug) Categories: GFDL images ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x753, 128 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ...

1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine

CAS number

42542-10-9
66142-89-0
69610-10-2
81262-70-6 CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ...

Chemical formula C11H15NO2
Molecular weight 193.25 g/mol
SMILES CC(NC)CC1=CC=C(OCO2)C2=C1
Elimination half life The "S" form has a shorter half life (about 4 hours), whereas the "R" form has a much greater half life. (about 14hours)
Legal status Schedule I (USA)
Class A (UK)
Schedule III (Canada)
Delivery 75-120 mg tablets
100 mg sublingual
Recreational uses:
Other putative uses:
Contraindications:
  • Not for use in combination with stimulants (amphetamines, large doses of caffeine, etc).
  • Not for use in combination with diuretics (alcohol).
  • Not for use in individuals with high blood pressure, hypertension, or blood clotting disorders.
  • Not for use in individuals who have displayed allergies to amphetamine drugs.
  • Must never be used in combination with MAOI (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor) drugs.
Side effects:
Endocrine:
Eye:
  • dilated pupils
Psychological:
Skin:
  • sweaty palms
  • heavy sweating
Miscellaneous:
  • restlessness
  • chattering teeth

MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known by the street names ecstasy or XTC (for more names see the full list), is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family, whose primary effect is believed to be the stimulation of secretion as well as inhibition of re-uptake of large amounts of serotonin as well as dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, inducing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. Tactile sensations are enhanced for some users, making general physical contact with others more pleasurable; but, contrary to popular mythology it generally does not have aphrodisiac effects. Its reported ability to facilitate self-examination with reduced fear may prove useful in some therapeutic settings, leading in 2001 to permission from the United States FDA for testing in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder in conjunction with psychotherapy. A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... It has been suggested that Liquid hydrogen be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance transparent (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Half-Life is a science fiction first-person shooter computer game developed by Valve Software and published by Sierra Studios. ... In chemistry, two stereoisomers are said to be enantiomers if they are mirror images of each other. ... In chemistry, two stereoisomers are said to be enantiomers if they are mirror images of each other. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, is the legal foundation of the United States governments fight against the abuse of drugs and other substances. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Look up euphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Relationship counseling may be advertised under several headings: marriage, family, couples, ... . It is usually done by appointment with a face-to-face counsellor. ... Anxiety is a complex combination of emotions that includes fear, apprehension and worry, and is often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, nausea, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to or confrontation with stressful experiences, which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury or a threat to physical integrity and which the person found highly traumatic. ... Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ... In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that increases the risk involved in using a particular drug, carrying out a medical procedure or engaging in a particular activity. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... gonfly]].]] In most vertebrates and some mollusks, the eye works by allowing light to enter it and project onto a light-sensitive panel of cells known as the retina at the rear of the eye, where the light is detected and converted into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... Look up euphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Empathy is ones ability to recognize and understand the emotion of another. ... For alternate meanings see skin (disambiguation). ... A street name is a slang name given to a drug other than its popular or chemical names. ... The terms empathogen and entactogen are different terms used to describe one class of hallucinogens that function as serotonin releasers; most of these are phenethylamines. ... Phenethylamine (β-Phenylethylamine) is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... Dopamine is a chemical naturally produced in the body. ... Norepinephrine (INN) or noradrenaline (BAN) is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... Comparative brain sizes In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Look up euphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tactition is the sense of pressure perception. ... An aphrodisiac is an agent which acts on the mind and causes the arousal of the mood of sexual desire. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful experiences that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... Psychotherapy is a set of techniques intended to improve mental health, emotional or behavioral issues of individuals, family members or a whole familys interactional climate. ...


Acute dehydration is a risk among users who are highly physically active and forget to drink water, as the drug may mask one's normal sense of exhaustion and thirst. Also the opposite, "water intoxication," resulting in acute hyponatremia, has been reported as a consequence of use. Sometimes other potentially toxic chemicals such as PMA or methamphetamine alone or in combination with MDMA are added to ecstasy tablets. Long-term effects in humans are largely unknown and the subject of much controversy - particularly with regard to the risks of severe long-term depression as a result of a reduction in the natural production of serotonin. Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydor in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Drinking is the act of consuming a liquid through the mouth. ... Impact of a drop of water. ... A common glass, half-full with water. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... 8 pills of PMA recovered by the DEA PMA structure PMA (p-methoxyamphetamine) is a synthetic phenethylamine drug, psychostimulant and hallucinogen. ... Methamphetamine (pharmaceutically referred to as methylamphetamine or desoxyephedrine) is a psychostimulant drug used primarily for recreational purposes, but is sometimes prescribed for ADHD and narcolepsy under the brand name Desoxyn. ... Clinical depression is a state of sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ...

Contents


History

A patent for MDMA was originally filed on Christmas Eve 1912 by the German pharmaceutical company Merck, after being first synthesised for them by German chemist Anton Kollisch at Darmstadt earlier that year. The patent was granted exactly two years later, though in 1916, after two more additional years Kollisch died with no idea of the impact his synthesis would have. At the time, MDMA was not known to be a drug in its own right; rather, it was patented as an intermediate chemical used in the synthesis of a styptic (a drug intended to control bleeding from wounds.) Over half a century would pass before the first recorded ingestion of MDMA by humans. December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Merck KGaA is a German based pharmaceutical company. ... Anton Kollisch (?-1916) was the German chemist who, whilst working at Darmstadt for pharmaceutical giant Merck, first synthesised the chemical MDMA that would later come to be known as ecstasy. ... Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland (federal state) of Hessen in Germany. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... A Styptic pencil is a short stick of medication, usually alum, used for staunching blood, especially for cuts caused by shaving. ...


The US Army did, however, carry out lethal dose studies on MDMA and several other compounds in the mid-1950s. It was given the name EA-1475, with the EA standing for Edgewood Arsenal. The results of these studies were not declassified until 1969. A lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation. ... Aberdeen Proving Ground is a United States Army proving ground located in Harford County, Maryland. ...


MDMA was legal in the United States until May 31, 1985 [2]. Before then, it was used both as an adjunct to psychotherapy and as a recreational drug. MDMA began to be used therapeutically in the mid 1970s after the chemist Dr. Alexander Shulgin introduced it to psychotherapist Leo Zeff. As Zeff and others spread word about MDMA, it developed a reputation for enhancing communication, reducing psychological defenses, and increasing capacity for introspection. However, no formal measures of these putative effects were made and blinded or placebo-controlled trials were not conducted. A small number of therapists - including George Greer, Joseph Downing, and Philip Wolfson - used it in their practices until it was made illegal. Alexander and Ann Shulgin, in a photo from their book TiHKAL, c. ...


MDMA appeared sporadically as a street drug in the early 1970s, but it came into prominence in the early 1980s in certain trendy yuppie bars in the Dallas area, then in gay dance clubs. From there use spread to rave clubs, and then to mainstream society. During the 1990s, along with the growing popularity of the rave subculture, MDMA use became increasingly widespread among young adults in universities and later in high schools. It rapidly became one of the four most widely used illegal drugs in the US, along with cocaine, heroin and marijuana. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ·· Nickname: Big D Location in the state of Texas Country United States State Texas Counties Dallas, Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall Mayor Laura Miller Area    - City 997. ... For other uses, see Gay (disambiguation). ... A rave (sometimes referred to as a rave party) is an all-night dance event where DJs and other performers play electronic dance music and rave music. ... As understood in sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a distinct set of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the drug cocaine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ...


In the late 1980s and early 1990s, ecstasy was widely used in the United Kingdom and other parts of Europe, becoming an integral element of rave culture. It was also associated with another psychedelic/dancefloor-influenced music scene, Madchester. This article is about a form of party. ... An NME Originals issue covering the Madchester movement. ...


Recreational use

The primary effects of MDMA include feelings of openness, euphoria, empathy, love, and heightened self-awareness. Its initial adoption by the dance club sub-culture is possibly due to the enhancement of the overall social and musical experience. Taking MDMA or ecstasy is commonly referred to as popping, rolling, pilling, boshing, or dropping in the United Kingdom, "pinging" in Australia, "murfing" in Canada or "thizzing" in Northern California. Some term the rushing feeling of the drug as blowing up or coming up. Look up euphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Empathy is ones ability to recognize and understand the emotion of another. ... Love is a condition or phenomenon of emotional primacy, or absolute value. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


MDMA use has increased markedly since the late 1980s, and spread beyond its original sub-cultures to mainstream use. Prices have also fallen since the 1980s. In countries where distribution is more extensive, such as in the Netherlands and other places in Europe, prices can sometimes be as low as €1 per tablet. In countries where distribution is more difficult, such as the US and Australia, prices are accordingly higher at up to US$10-20 and AUD$20-35 respectively per tablet. Prices are also usually higher when the drug is purchased in a club or at a rave.


Supply and administration

Ecstasy commonly appears in a tablet form, usually imprinted with a monogram.
Ecstasy commonly appears in a tablet form, usually imprinted with a monogram.

MDMA is usually ingested in pill form, it does however occasionally come in powder form - (often known in the UK as "Madman"). Pills come in a variety of "brands", usually identified by the icons stamped on the pills. However the brands do not consistently designate the actual active compound within the pill, as it is possible for "copycat" manufacturers to make their own pills which replicate the features of a well-known brand. Ecstacy pills from http://www. ... Ecstacy pills from http://www. ...


Although full and proper characterization of ecstasy pills requires advanced lab techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, it is also possible to use a less accurate presumptive alkaloid test known as the Marquis reagent. Many organizations sell testing kits containing this reagent. DanceSafe is one such company, and it includes an extensive database of photographs of different pills, along with the results of a laboratory analysis of their contents. EcstasyData.org [1] is a non-profit site that tests the purity of street pills and compiles results. PillReports.com allows users to post reports of pills they've purchased and share the experience, pictures, and testing results. Other users can then post what they think about the pill in question or even rate the report on the pill. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a method that combines the features of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. ... Diagram of Ephedrine An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and animals. ... The Marquis reagent is used as a simple spot-test to identify alkaloids. ... DanceSafe is a nonprofit, harm reduction organization, with 28 local chapters in the US and Canada, established for the purpose of reducing the inherent risks associated with recreational drug use. ...


Effects

Pharmacokinetics

MDMA reaches maximal concentrations in the blood between 1.5 and 3 hours after ingestion. It is then slowly metabolized and excreted, with levels decreasing to half their peak concentration over approximately 8 hrs. Metabolites of MDMA that have been identified in humans include 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-methamphetamine (HMMA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA), 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (DHA, also called alpha-methyldopamine), 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylacetone, and N-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine. The contributions of these metabolites to the psychoactive and toxic effects of MDMA are an area of active research.


MDMA is known to be metabolized via three pathways. One such pathway proceeds via N-demethylation; byproducts of which include several active metabolites, including MDA. The metabolism may be primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2D6 (in humans, but CYP2D1 in mice), and CYP3A4. Complex, nonlinear pharmacokinetics arise via autoinhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP2D8, resulting in zeroth order kinetics at higher doses. It is thought that this can result in sustained and higher drug concentrations if the user takes consecutive doses of the drug. 65% of MDMA is excreted unchanged in the urine (additionally 7% is metabolised into MDA) during 24 hours after usage [3]. Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ... Cytochrome P450 2D6 (abbreviated CYP2D6, EC 1. ... Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) (EC 1. ... Cytochrome P450 2D6 (abbreviated CYP2D6, EC 1. ... For a chemical reaction, the rate law or rate equation is an equation which links the reaction rate with concentrations or pressures of reactants. ...


MDMA is a chiral compound and has been almost exclusively administered as a racemate. However, an early uncontrolled report suggests that the S-enantiomer is significantly more potent in humans than the R-enantiomer (Anderson et al. 1978). Studies in humans [4][5] indicate that the disposition of MDMA is stereoselective, with the S-enantiomer having a shorter elimination half-life and greater excretion than the R-enantiomer. For example, Fallon et al. (1999[6]) reported that the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) was two to four times higher for the R-enantiomer than the S-enantiomer after a 40 mg oral dose in human volunteers. Similarly, the plasma half-life of (R)-MDMA was significantly longer than that of the S-enantiomer ((5.8 ± 2.2 hours) vs 3.6 ± 0.9 hours). However, because MDMA has dose dependent kinetics, it is likely that these half lives would be higher at more typical doses (100 mg is sometimes considered a typical dose). Given as the racemate, MDMA has a half-life of around 8 hours.


Short-term neurochemical effects

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter believed to play a role in the regulation of mood and pleasure. MDMA causes serotonin vesicles in the neurons to release quantities of serotonin into the synapses. Although popular press accounts focus on the role of serotonin release, the mechanism by which MDMA causes its unusual psychoactivity is largely unknown. In vitro and nonhuman animal studies have established that MDMA also induces dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine release and can act directly on a number of receptors, including α2-adrenergic (adrenaline) and 5HT2A (serotonin) receptors. MDMA promotes the release of several hormones including prolactin and the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, which may be important in its occasional production of water intoxication or hyponatremia. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... Prolactin is a peptide hormone synthesised and secreted by lactotrope cells in the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland). ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is mainly released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ...


Subjective effects

Effects desired by users include:

  • intense euphoria
  • a feeling of connection with other people, especially if they are also using the drug
  • a marked increase in the salience and expression of happiness, love or other positive emotions
  • the feeling that something "tremendously important" or "fundamental and positive" is occurring
  • intense feelings of love, closeness and mutual understanding with others
  • a child-like sense of wonder at the world; a feeling of reclaimed innocence
  • a sense of mental clarity
  • a relieving sense that problems in life are insignificant

MDMA, particularly with larger doses, is sometimes reported to cause visual distortions. In a review of studies in which 1.5 to 1.7 mg/kg oral MDMA was administered in their laboratory to 74 people, Vollenweider et al. reported that scenic hallucinations were reported only once, while simple patterns, distorted objects, and flashes of light were commonly reported [7].


Other short-term effects

Acute physiological effects include:

  • Pupil dilation with attendant photosensitivity and color perception
  • General restlessness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Increased heart rate and blood pressure

Categories: Medicine stubs | Sign (medicine) ...

Acute toxic/dangerous effects

Apart from the dangers from impurities, the primary acute risks of taking MDMA resemble those of other stimulant amphetamines. The majority of fatalities and cases requiring emergency care involve hyperthermic syndromes. MDMA appears to decrease heat loss in the body by causing constriction of blood vessels near the skin. In addition, it may sometimes increase heat production by muscles and the brain. These effects may be amplified in people who become dehydrated and are unable to cool by sweating. MDMA can mask the body's normal thirst and exhaustion responses, particularly if a user is dancing or is otherwise physically active for long periods of time without hydration. Because of these effects, MDMA can temporarily reduce the body's ability to regulate its core temperature, and in high-temperature surroundings (e.g. clubs) combined with physical exertion this may lead to hyperpyrexia if precautions are not taken to remain cool. Sustained hyperpyrexia may lead to rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown), which in turn can cause renal failure and death. In medicine, hyperpyrexia is an excessive and unusual elevation of body temperature above 42 °C, or high fever (also called a hyperthermia). ... In medicine, hyperpyrexia is an excessive and unusual elevation of body temperature above 42 °C, or high fever (also called a hyperthermia). ... Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of skeletal muscle due to injury, either mechanical, physical or chemical. ... Renal failure is the condition where the kidneys fail to function properly. ...


It has been argued that "the seriousness of the effects can be dependent on environmental factors other than the drug concentration," as blood concentrations of the drug spanned a large range in cases of death in MDMA users. This notwithstanding, "most of the cases of serious toxicity or fatality have involved blood levels... up to 40 times higher than the usual recreational range." (Kalant H., 2001) [8]


While dehydration is undesirable, there also have been a number of users suffering from water intoxication and associated hyponatremia (dilution of the blood that can cause swelling of the brain). Although many cases of this clearly involved individuals drinking large amounts of water, there are cases where there is no evidence of excessive water consumption. Their cases may be caused by MDMA inducing release of the antiduretic hormone vasopressin by the pituitary gland. This causes one to retain water to a greater extent. The death of British teen Leah Betts may be the most widely publicised MDMA-related fatality, and resulted from her consuming too much water due to concerns over dehydration. Signs of hyponatremia include confusion, nausea, headache and loss of consciousness. Hyponatremia in MDMA users is a medical emergency and requires prompt treatment. In general, females are at greater risk of developing symptoms and dying from hyponatremia than males. A common glass, half-full with water. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... Edema (BE: oedema, formerly known as dropsy) is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess fluid. ... Comparative brain sizes In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is mainly released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... A photograph of Leah Betts in a coma, used in an anti-drug campaign. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ...


MDMA users have also been recorded to demonstrate bruxism (teeth grinding) and trisma (jaw clenching) as a short-term effect from the drug [9] Many users of MDMA alleviate this by using chewing gum [10], however this can result in temporary mouth ulcers through inadvertent biting of the mouth lining. Temporary jaw ache often results from jaw clenching or excessive chewing. Some users consume supplemental magnesium tablets to relax the jaw muscles and relieve clenching. [11] Bruxism (derived from Greek βρυγμός, masculine noun - grinding [teeth]) is grinding of the teeth. ... ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Chewing gum Chewing gum is a type of confectionery which is designed to be chewed instead of swallowed. ... A mouth ulcer or canker sore is a painful open sore inside the mouth caused by a break in the mucous membrane. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ...


While users sometimes report increased sexual desire, there are many reports of difficulty achieving orgasm and erection. "[MDMA] is a love drug but not a sex drug for most people." (Beck & Rosenbaum, 1994)[12], ,[13]. This is the rationale behind the use of sextasy (combining MDMA with Viagra). Sextasy is a drug mixture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as Ecstasy, and a prescription drug such as sildenafil citrate (Viagra), which is a PDE5 inhibitor used for erectile dysfunction. ... Sildenafil citrate, sold under the names Viagra, Revatio and generically under various other names, is a drug used to treat male erectile dysfunction (impotence) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), developed by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. ...


There are reported allergic reactions, which are extremely rare. Liver damage, which may have an immunological cause, has been seen in a small number of users. Animal studies suggest risk and extent of liver damage is increased by high body temperature. An allergy can refer to several kinds of immune reactions including Type I hypersensitivity in which a persons body is hypersensitised and develops IgE type antibodies to typical proteins. ...


A UK parliamentary committee commissioned report found the use of "Ecstasy" to be less dangerous than tobacco and alcohol in social harms, physical harm and addiction [2]


While most MDMA is taken orally, some users resort to drug injection to achieve a faster, more intense effect. This entails the risks associated with injection of many illicit drugs, including the transmission of blood-borne viruses, bacterial infections, vein damage and increased chance of overdose. Wikipedia:Medical disclaimer Injection of recreational drugs is a method of the drug into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin long enough for the material to be forced into the body. ...


Addiction and Tolerance

The potential of MDMA to produce addiction (dependence) is controversial. Some studies indicate that many users may be addicted. For example, Cottler et al (2001)[14] interviewed 52 users and found that 43% met standard criteria for dependence. However, some of these people may have been inappropriately diagnosed with dependence because they reported tolerance or after effects from MDMA. Tolerance and after effects ('withdrawal' effects) are symptoms of dependence for many drugs, but seem to occur in some MDMA users who are actually not dependent. For example, studies in Switzerland in which MDMA was given to people who had never used it before documented after effects [15]. When people are classified as addicted to MDMA, it is not clear if that indicates a difficulty in quitting the drug. In a prospective study in Germany, many who were initially categorized as addicted, spontaneously 'improved' without any treatment for the alleged addiction [16]. Given these complexities in classifying MDMA users as addicted, conclusions about the addictive potential of MDMA are difficult.


Long-term adverse effects

Long-term effects are still unknown and heavily debated among scientists. There are several reports of Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder being induced by MDMA. In some cases, the disorder appears to be permanent. The disorder seems to occur in only a small fraction of a percentage of users, and its mechanism of causation is unknown. Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a long-term condition caused by taking hallucinogens. ...


Some experiments indicate that use at very high doses may lead to the synaptic terminals of serotonin neurons being damaged. The precise mechanism of this action is unknown, but recent evidence (Jones 2004; Miller 1997; Monks et al. 2004) suggests that the metabolic breakdown of MDMA includes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), chemicals known to cause oxidative cell damage when taken up into the releasing synapse. Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος (metabolismos)) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms anggjgjhnd cell (b). ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include oxygen ions, free radicals and peroxides both inorganic and organic. ...


This effect has been demonstrated experimentally in the brains of rats, where the serotonin terminals of animals who are given extremely high doses of MDMA over a prolonged period of time (usually ten to one hundred times greater than a typical human dose) become withered and useless, although this isn't certain[3][4]. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that the administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ("SSRIs", which bind to the serotonin cell's reuptake transporters and thus block ROS from entering the serotonin cells) along with or immediately following MDMA seems to block neuron damage in rats given MDMA. Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants for treating depression, anxiety disorders and some personality disorders. ...


The mechanism proposed as a large part of this neurotoxicity and its functional consequences appear to involve the induction of oxidative stress. This stress results from an increase in free radicals and a decrease in antioxidants in the brain. (Shankaran, 2001) Oxidation is part of the normal metabolic processes of the body. As the cell goes about its life, by-products called oxidative radicals are formed, also called free radicals. These molecules have an unpaired electron that makes them highly reactive. They pull strongly on the electrons of neighboring molecules and destabilize the electrical balance of those molecules, sometimes causing those molecules to fall apart. This can become a chain reaction. For other uses, see radical. ...


In normal functioning, there are antioxidants in the system that act as free radical scavengers. These are molecules with an extra electron that they are willing to give up to the free radicals, making both the free radical and the antioxidant more stable. MDMA rapidly increases the levels of free-radicals in the system and overwhelms the reserves of scavengers. The radicals then damage cell walls, reduce the flexibility of blood vessels, destroy enzymes, and cause other molecular damage in the neurological pathways. (Erowid, 2001) It has been shown that MDMA-neurotoxic effects are increased by a hyperthermic environment and decreased by a hypothermic one. (Yeh, 1997)


Studies have suggested that the neurotoxic molecules are not hydroxyl free radicals, but superoxide free radicals. When rats are injected with salicylate, a molecule that scavenges hydroxyl free radicals, the neurotoxic effects of MDMA are not attenuated, but actually potentiated. Further evidence of this superoxide theory comes from the observation that CuZn-superoxide dismutase transgenic mice (mice with excess human antioxidant enzyme) demonstrate neuroprotective mechanisms that protect the mice from MDMA-induced depletion of 5-HT (serotonin) and 5-HIAA and lethal effects. (Baggott, 2001 and Yeh, 1997)


Studies giving animal species injections have shown that ascorbic acid, alpha lipoic acid, l-cysteine, and some other radical scavengers are effective in reducing oxidative stress caused by MDMA. (Erowid, 2001) A combination of antioxidants, including Vitamin A, C, and E are recommended; taking multivitamins including selenium, riboflavin, zinc, cartenoids, etc. should help reduce oxidative damage. Many of these vitamins, though, are water soluble, and are quickly excreted from the body. The typical MDMA user is psychoactive for 4-6 hours and may not have an appetite from the time of taking until the following sleep cycle or many hours later. These vitamins flush through the system in 3-4 hours. Damage occurs in the absence of these antioxidants.


A study conducted by Bryan Yamamoto of Boston University also showed that MDMA damages the blood-brain barrier. He gave the drug to rats and then injected a dye into their blood that is normally too large to cross the blood-brain barrier, yet the drug easily reached the brain. Even though the rats were given no subsequent doses of ecstasy, newly injected dye could still penetrate the brain 10 weeks later. This disfunction of the blood-brain barrier exposes the brain to toxins and pathogens. Although Yamamoto does not know exactly how long the drug's effect lasts in humans, it is estimated that 10 weeks in a rat's life corresponds to five to seven human years (Vollmer 2006).13


There are some fallacies in applying these animal studies to human use. Firstly, it is difficult to equate rat doses to human doses, rats metabolise MDMA twice as fast humans and often larger doses or multiple doses are administered to simulate human plasma levels. The doses given in experiments are far greater than typical human use of 100-300 mg in order to notice the problems caused so that we may say that if this happens at large doses, then a lesser form should happen at low doses. There could be a threshold of nothing happening or a threshold of the worst problems at low doses.


Secondly, the doses of antioxidants given to these animals are much higher than humans would ever take both in its vehicle (injected vs. oral) and in its dosage. Essentially both the neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects are exaggerated, but it is not possible to say if this scales down the same way.


Some MDMA users administer an SSRI while, or shortly after taking MDMA, in an attempt to prevent possible neurotoxicity. These SSRIs are typically antidepressants such as fluoxetine or sertraline. However, administration of SSRIs before using MDMA is known to block the euphoric high from the drug, due to the regulation of serotonin. This blocking effect can last several weeks, depending on the half-life of the SSRI. The same effects are seen with recent cocaine use, which itself is an SSRI. Neurotoxicity occurs when the exposure to natural or manmade toxic substances (neurotoxicants) alters the normal activity of the nervous system. ... An antidepressant is a medication designed to treat or alleviate the symptoms of clinical depression. ... Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an antidepressant drug used medically in the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and panic disorder. ... For other uses, see Lustral (disambiguation). ...


However, MDMA use in conjunction with a different class of antidepressants, namely Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, is strongly contra-indicated due to danger of serotonin syndrome and the possibility of life-threatening hypertension. The safety of this practice has not been systematically evaluated. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ... Serotonin syndrome, also hyperserotonemia and serotonergic syndrome, is a hyperserotonergic state, that is an excess of 5-HT (serotonin) in the central nervous system. ...


Many users also attempt to replenish the deficit of serotonin which follows the use of MDMA [5] by administering 5-HTP, in an attempt to alleviate to a degree the depression and overall mental unsettlement in the days following MDMA usage [6] (including the immediate "come-down" and what is known as "suicide Tuesday"). The serotonin precursor 5-HTP, which is commercially available as a dietary supplement, reportedly supplies the user with more of the raw materials to synthesize the neurotransmitter, reducing the negative psychological effects of depleted serotonin. Pre-loading with 5-HTP has not been shown to increase the subjective effects of MDMA. Anecdotal reports seem to indicate this is largely placebo with some users reporting a moderate muting of the MDMA effect when 5-HTP is consumed within 24 hours prior to MDMA use.[7] Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... 5-HTP (5-Hydroxy-tryptophan) is decarboxylated to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. ... Suicide Tuesday (or Tuesday blues, Ecstasy Tuesday) is a slang term for the depressive period following the use of Ecstasy. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... 5-HTP (5-Hydroxy-tryptophan) is decarboxylated to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. ... Chemical structure of D-Aspartic Acid, a common Amino Acid neurotransmitter. ...


Because the neurotoxicity of MDMA is believed by some to be highly dependent on its metabolic disposition (Jones 2004; de la Torre & Farré 2004), it is unclear how to generalize to humans from experiments in rats and monkeys.


Considerable research has been done into possible cognitive-behavioral deficits among ecstasy users but data have been largely inconclusive. At least two meta-analyses of these studies have been completed (Morgan 2000; Sumnall & Cole 2005). Morgan's analysis of 17 studies showed that ecstasy users had a slight tendency to be more impulsive and depressed than controls. Sumnall and Cole's analysis showed a slight increase in the prevalence of depressive symptoms in ecstasy users over controls. Of course, in retrospective studies like these we are always faced with a chicken-or-egg question: did these impulsive and depressed people use ecstasy to self-medicate or did otherwise normal people become depressed and impulsive after using ecstasy? This question has not been answered. A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ...


Although some experimental evidence exists indicating that long-term ecstasy users experience memory difficulties [citation needed], a large study in 2002 (Strote et al.) showed that ecstasy users in 4-year colleges have GPAs which do not differ significantly from those of non-users. The initials GPA can refer, among other things, to Grade Point Average; see Grade (education) Guinness Peat Aviation General Practice Australia, a private, independent medical accreditation society Greyhound Pets of America This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


MDMA and Parkinson's

Research at the University of Manchester indicates that MDMA dramatically reduces tremors in patients receiving L-DOPA treatment for Parkinson's disease. The University of Manchester in Manchester, England, was formed by the merger of the Victoria University of Manchester (commonly known as the University of Manchester before the merger) and UMIST (University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology) on 1 October 2004. ... Dopamine is a chemical naturally produced in the body. ...


In a now-retracted study, a research team led by Dr. George A. Ricaurte at Johns Hopkins University implicated MDMA as a cause of Parkinson's-like brain abnormalities in monkeys, suggesting that a single use of MDMA caused permanent and serious brain damage. These claims were hotly disputed by physicians, therapists, and other experts in the field, including a team of scientists at New York University. Criticisms of the study included its use of injection rather than oral administration; that this type and scale of damage (>20% mortality) would translate to hundreds of thousands or millions of deaths which had not materialized in the real world amidst extremely broad global MDMA usage; and, perhaps most important, that other research teams could not duplicate the study's findings. This article concerns problems with a paper, Severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a common recreational dose regimen of MDMA (ecstasy) that appeared in the leading journal Science, treated as a case study in scientific method. ... Dr. George A. Ricaurte is a neurology researcher who works at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in the Department of Neurology. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... New York University (NYU) is a major research university in New York City. ...


On September 6, 2003, Dr. George A. Ricaurte and his team announced that they were retracting all results of their commonly cited and controversial study. The researchers said that the labels on the drugs had been somehow switched, and they had inadvertently injected their experimental monkeys and baboons with extremely high doses of methamphetamine instead of MDMA. The chemical supplier, Research Triangle Institute, has publicly claimed that the proper drug was supplied, and Ricaurte has yet to pursue them for their alleged error. September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Methamphetamine (pharmaceutically referred to as methylamphetamine or desoxyephedrine) is a psychostimulant drug used primarily for recreational purposes, but is sometimes prescribed for ADHD and narcolepsy under the brand name Desoxyn. ... The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is a non-profit research organization based in the Research Triangle Park (RTP) of North Carolina. ...


Ricaurte had also come under fire for supplying PET scans to the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy that were used in anti-drug literature (Plain Brain/Brain After Ecstasy) that seemed to suggest MDMA created holes in human brains, an implication that critics called misleading. Ricaurte later asked the Agency to change the literature, citing the "poor quality" of the images. These images are still circulating in educational systems across the U.S., however, and the myth that ecstasy users develop "holes in their brains" remains quite popular and government funded.


Legal issues

Use, supply and trafficking of ecstasy are currently illegal in most countries. In the United States, MDMA was legal and unregulated until May 31st 1985, at which time it was added to DEA Schedule I, for drugs deemed to have no medical uses and a high potential for abuse. During DEA hearings to criminalize MDMA, most experts recommended DEA Schedule III prescription status for the drug, due to its beneficial usage in psychotherapy. The judge overseeing the hearings, Francis Young, also made this recommendation. Nonetheless, the DEA classified it as Schedule I[8]. 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 USC 13). ... DEA is an abbreviation of the following, among others: Dance Educators of America Drug Enforcement Administration (USA) TheDEA.org, a harm reduction web site. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 USC 13). ... Francis L. Young served as Chief Administrative Law Judge for the Drug Enforcement Administration during the late 1980s. ...


That same year, the World Health Organization's Expert Committee on Drug Dependence recommended that MDMA be placed in Schedule I of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Unlike the Controlled Substances Act, the Convention has a provision (in Article 7(a)) that allows use of Schedule I drugs for "scientific and very limited medical purposes". The Committee's report stated[17]: Flag of World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 USC 13). ...

The Expert Committee held extensive discussions concerning therapeutic usefulness of 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine. While the Expert Committee found the reports intriguing, it felt that the studies lacked the appropriate methodological design necessary to ascertain the reliability of the observations. There was, however, sufficient interest expressed to recommend that investigations be encouraged to follow up these preliminary findings. To that end, the Expert Committee urged countries to use the provisions of article 7 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances to facilitate research on this interesting substance.

In the United Kingdom, MDMA is Schedule I/Class A, making it illegal to sell, buy, or possess without a license. Penalties include a maximum of seven years and/or unlimited fine for possession; life and/or unlimited fine for production or trafficking. A mandatory seven year sentence is now the penalty for a third conviction for trafficking.


Medical use and clinical studies

In 2001, the FDA granted permission for experimental administration of MDMA to patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. This research is being sponsored by the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS). For further information on this, see MAPS's MDMA Research Information and the recent article from MSNBC/Newsweek. This research in patients builds on studies in which MDMA was given to healthy volunteers. The first of these healthy volunteer studies was conducted by Dr. Charles Grob, with other studies done by Dr. Franz Vollenweider in Switzerland, Drs. John Mendelson and Reese Jones at the University of California San Francisco, and Drs. Magi Faree and Rafael de la Torre in Spain. 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful experiences that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a non-profit organization that aims to assist scientists to design, fund, obtain approval for and report on studies into the risks and benefits of MDMA, psychedelic drugs and marijuana. ...


Safety and contraindications

The illegality of this drug in many countries makes exact study of its effects difficult. Some of the effects ascribed to ecstasy, which may or may not be conclusive, are the following:

  • Because of its illegality, the dose and purity of an ecstasy pill varies dramatically. The dose may be stronger than is advertised, may be adulterated, or might not even contain MDMA.
  • Ecstasy affects the regulation of the body's internal systems. Continuous dancing without sufficient breaks or drinks can lead to dangerous overheating and dehydration. Drinking too much water without consuming a corresponding amount of salt can lead to hyponatremia or Water intoxication.
  • The use of ecstasy can exacerbate depression [citation needed] and may produce temporary depression as an after-effect for some users [citation needed]. Some individuals also might experience wild or unexpected mood swings the first couple of days following the use of MDMA. [citation needed]
  • The use of ecstasy can be very dangerous when combined with other drugs (particularly monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and antiretroviral drugs, in particular Ritonavir). Combining MDMA with MAOIs can precipitate a hypertensive crisis and can result in a near-fatal repercussion.
  • In some cases, pills marketed as ecstasy do not contain only MDMA, but instead are substituted with various substances like ketamine, methamphetamine and caffeine. Some users purchase testing kits to verify that pills are actually MDMA. Organizations such as DanceSafe provide testing kits [18].
  • Long-term after-effects are greatly exacerbated by high doses and frequent use.
  • A small percentage of users may be highly sensitive to MDMA; this may make first-time use especially hazardous. This includes but is not limited to people with congenital heart defects. Some scientists have suggested that a small percentage of people lack the proper enzymes to break down the drug. One enzyme involved in MDMA's breakdown is CYP2D6, which is deficient or totally absent [citation needed] in 5-10% of the caucasian population and those of African descent and 1-2% of Asians.[19]. However, there is no clear evidence linking lack of this enzyme to problems in users and the connection remains theoretical.

Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydor in ancient Greek) from an object. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... A common glass, half-full with water. ... Clinical depression is a state of sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ... For the collaborative acoustic project, see Katamine. ... Methamphetamine (pharmaceutically referred to as methylamphetamine or desoxyephedrine) is a psychostimulant drug used primarily for recreational purposes, but is sometimes prescribed for ADHD and narcolepsy under the brand name Desoxyn. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... DanceSafe is a nonprofit, harm reduction organization, with 28 local chapters in the US and Canada, established for the purpose of reducing the inherent risks associated with recreational drug use. ... Congenital heart disease is heart disease in the newborn, and includes congenital heart defects, congenital arrythmias, and cardiomyopathies. ... Cytochrome P450 2D6 (abbreviated CYP2D6, EC 1. ...

See also

Sextasy is a drug mixture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as Ecstasy, and a prescription drug such as sildenafil citrate (Viagra), which is a PDE5 inhibitor used for erectile dysfunction. ... The terms empathogen and entactogen are different terms used to describe one class of hallucinogens that function as serotonin releasers; most of these are phenethylamines. ... Amphetamine (alpha-methyl-phenethylamine), also known as speed, is a synthetic stimulant used to suppress the appetite, control weight, and treat disorders including narcolepsy and Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... Phenethylamine (β-Phenylethylamine) is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Psychedelic psychotherapy refers to psychotherapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... The RAVE Act (an acronym for Reducing Americans Vulnerability to Ecstasy) was a bill (S.2633) proposed, but not passed, during the 107th US Congress [1]. It was later passed (S.226) as the Illicit Drug Anti-Proliferation Act during the 108th US Congress, mostly unchanged and backed by the... This article concerns problems with a paper, Severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a common recreational dose regimen of MDMA (ecstasy) that appeared in the leading journal Science, treated as a case study in scientific method. ... A photograph of Leah Betts in a coma, used in an anti-drug campaign. ... Anna Wood, a Sydney, Australia schoolgirl, died at the age of 15 on October 24, 1995 after taking half of an ecstasy tablet at a dance party the previous night. ... Wikipedia:Medical disclaimer Injection of recreational drugs is a method of the drug into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin long enough for the material to be forced into the body. ...

External links

Media

The title screen to Peter Jennings - Ecstasy Rising
The title screen to Peter Jennings - Ecstasy Rising
The title screen to The "X" Files - A Dateline Special
Enlarge
The title screen to The "X" Files - A Dateline Special

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 68 KB) Summary screenshot of the title screen to the Peter Jennings ABC News Primetime Special: Peter Jennings - Ecstasy Rising. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 68 KB) Summary screenshot of the title screen to the Peter Jennings ABC News Primetime Special: Peter Jennings - Ecstasy Rising. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dateline_-_The_X_Files. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dateline_-_The_X_Files. ... This article is about the American news organization. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (117th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest and oldest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wired is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wired is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... interview An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked to obtain information from the interviewee. ... New York University (NYU) is a major research university in New York City. ... The Washington Post is the largest and oldest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A CBS News Special Report ident card CBS News is the news division of American television and radio network CBS. Its current president is Sean McManus who is also head of CBS Sports. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Academic

The Alcohol and Drugs History Society is a scholarly organization whose members study the history of a variety of illegal, regulated, and unregulated drugs such as opium, alcohol, and coffee. ...

General

Bruce Eisner Bruce Jay Ehrlich (better known by his writing name Bruce Eisner) (born Brooklyn, New York, February 26, 1948) is an American writer, psychologist, and counterculture spokesman best known for his book Ecstasy: The MDMA Story. ...

Chemical

  • Link page to external chemical sources.

References

  1. ^ The Ecstasy Testing Program
  2. ^ Science and Technology Committee Report (page 176), 2006). [1]
  3. ^ Baumann MH, Wang X, Rothman RB. (2006). "3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) neurotoxicity in rats: a reappraisal of past and present findings.". Psychopharmacology.
  4. ^ Saunders, Nicholas (1995). Interviews with two foremost researchers into neurotoxicity who hold opposing views.
  5. ^ Schwartz, Richard H and Miller, Norman S (1997). "MDMA (Ecstasy) and the Rave: A Review".
  6. ^ Bluelight 5-HTP FAQ
  7. ^ MDMA and 5-HTP information and advice
  8. ^ MAPS. Documents from the DEA Scheduling Hearing of MDMA, 1984-1988.
  • Baggott, Matthew, and John Mendelson. “MDMA Neurotoxicity”. Ecstasy: The Complete Guide. Ed. Julie Holland. Spring 2001 from www.erowid.com.
  • de la Torre, Rafael et al. (2000), Non-linear pharmacokinetics of MDMA (`ecstasy') in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2000; 49(2):104-9
  • de la Torre, Rafael & Farré, Magí (2004). Neurotoxicity of MDMA (ecstasy): the limitations of scaling from animals to humans. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 25, 505-508.
  • Erowid, Earth. “Do Antioxidants Protect Against MDMA Hangover, Tolerance, and Neurotoxicity?” Erowid Extracts. Dec 2001; 2:6-11.
  • Jennings, Peter. Ecstasy Rising, ABC television documentary. 2004-01-04.
  • Jones, Douglas C. et al. (2004). Thioether Metabolites of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Inhibit Human Serotonin Transporter (hSERT) Function and Simultaneously Stimulate Dopamine Uptake into hSERT-Expressing SK-N-MC Cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 311, 298-306.
  • Kalant H. (2001) The pharmacology and toxicology of "ecstasy" (MDMA) and related drugs. CMAJ. Oct 2;165(7):917-28. Review. PMID 11599334 Full Text
  • Miller, R.T. et al. (1997). 2,5-Bis-(glutathione-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine, a putative metabolite of (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, decreases brain serotonin concentrations. Eur J Pharmaco. 323(2-3), 173-80. Abstract retrieved Apr 17, 2005, from PubMed.
  • Monks, T.J. et al. (2004). The role of metabolism in 3,4-(+)-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-(+)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) toxicity. Ther Drug Monit 26(2), 132-136.
  • Morgan, Michael John (2000). Ecstasy (MDMA): a review of its possible persistent psychological effects. Psychopharmacology 152, 230-248.
  • Shankaran, Mahalakshmi, Bryan K. Yamamoto, and Gary A. Gudelsky. “Ascorbic Acid Prevents 3,4,-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)- Induced Hydroxyl Radical Formation and the Behavioral and Neurochemical Consequences of the Depletion of Brain 5-HT”. Synapse. 2001; 40:55-64.
  • Strote, Jared et al. (2002). Increasing MDMA use among college students: results of a national survey. Journal of Adolescent Health 30, 64-72.
  • Sumnall, Harry R. & Cole, Jon C. (2005). Self-reported depressive symptomatology in community samples of polysubstance misusers who report Ecstasy use: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychopharmacology 19(1), 84-92.
  • Vollmer, Grit. "Crossing the Barrier". Scientific American Mind. June/July 2006, 34-39.
  • Yeh, S. Y. “Effects of Salicylate on 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats”. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 1997; Vol. 58, No. 3: 701-708.
Empathogen-entactogens - edit

α-ET | Bk-MBDB | Bk-MDEA | Bk-MDMA | MBDB | MDEA | MDA | MDMA | MMDA This article is about the American network, for the Australian network, see Australian Broadcasting Corporation The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is a television and radio network in the United States. ... Front page of Guardian Unlimited from August 16, 2005 Guardian Unlimited is a British website owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... The Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ) is a general medical journal that is published bimonthly in Canada by the Canadian Medical Association (CMA). ... The terms empathogen and entactogen are different terms used to describe one class of hallucinogens that function as serotonin releasers; most of these are phenethylamines. ... Alpha-ethyltryptamine - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... bk-MBDB is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Koeppe, Ludwig and Zeile and mentioned in their 1967 paper. ... Ethylone. ... Methylone is a designer drug that is an analog of MDMA (Ecstasy). ... An uncommon hallucinogenic phenethylamine, which is closely chemically related to MDMA. It was first synthesized by David E. Nichols, a leading Parmacologist and Chemist. ... MDEA MDEA can also be Methyl Diethanol Amine, a chemical compound used in gas treating MDEA (also MDE), which stands for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and Empathogen-Entactogen of the phenethylamine family. ... 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, or MDA, is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and Empathogen/Entactogen of the phenethylamine family. ... The first prepared and first described positional isomer of methoxymethylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine was the 3,4,5-substituted compound MMDA (51, 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine, 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine). ...

Amphetamines (N06BA) - edit

{01-Amphetamine/dl-Amphetamine} {02-Dextroamphetamine} {03-Methamphetamine} Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Amphetamine (alpha-methyl-phenethylamine), also known as speed, is a synthetic stimulant used to suppress the appetite, control weight, and treat disorders including narcolepsy and Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... Benzedrine is the trade name of the racemic variant of amphetamine (dl-amphetamine). ... Dextroamphetamine (also known as dextroamphetamine sulfate, dexamphetamine sulphate, d-amphetamine, dexamphetamine, Dexedrine, Dextrostat, Dexampex, Ferndex, Oxydess II, Robese, Spancap #1, and, informally, Dex), a stereoisomer of amphetamine, is a potent central nervous system stimulant that induces the release of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine into nerve synapses in certain areas... Methamphetamine (pharmaceutically referred to as methylamphetamine or desoxyephedrine) is a psychostimulant drug used primarily for recreational purposes, but is sometimes prescribed for ADHD and narcolepsy under the brand name Desoxyn. ...


no ATC code: {4-FMP} {4-MTA} {Benzphetamine} {MDMA} {MDA} {MDEA} {Paramethoxyamphetamine} The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... 4-FMP molecular structure 4-FMP, also known by its full chemical name 4-fluoroamphetamine, or 4-Fluoro-alpha-Methyl-Phenethylamine, is a central nervous system stimulant. ... 4-methylthioamphetamine Known as 4MT, 4-MTA, Flatliners, 1-(4-methylthiophenyl)-2-aminopropane. ... USA by Pharmacia. ... MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known by the street names ecstasy or XTC (for more names see the full list), is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family, whose primary effect is believed to be the stimulation of secretion as well as inhibition of re-uptake of large amounts... 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, or MDA, is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and Empathogen/Entactogen of the phenethylamine family. ... MDEA MDEA can also be Methyl Diethanol Amine, a chemical compound used in gas treating MDEA (also MDE), which stands for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and Empathogen-Entactogen of the phenethylamine family. ... PMA (p-methoxyamphetamine) is a dangerous synthetic drug, psycho stimulant and hallucinogen. ...


Psychedelic phenethylamines edit

2C-B, 2C-B-FLY, 2C-C, 2C-D, 2C-E, 2C-G, 2C-I, 2C-N, 2C-O, 2C-O-4, 2C-P, 2C-T, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-4, 2C-T-7, 2C-T-8, 2C-T-9, 2C-T-21, 2C-TFM, 3C-E, 3C-P, Br-DFLY, DESOXY, DOB, DOC, DOET, DOI, DOM, DON, Escaline, Isoproscaline, Lophophine, MDA, MMDA, Macromerine, Mescaline, Proscaline, TMA The psychedelic (from the Greek words for mind, ψυχη psyche, and manifest, δηλειν delein) drugs are classified as those whose primary action is that of enhancing or amplifying the thought processes of the brain. ... Phenethylamine (β-Phenylethylamine) is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... 2C-B is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin in 1974, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-B-FLY is a psychedelic phenethylamine first synthesized by Aaron P. Monte, and sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-C is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-D is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-E (2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine) is a psychedelic drug and phenethylamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... Chemical structure of 2C-G 2C-G is a psychedelic phenethylamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-I is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and phenethylamine that was developed and popularized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 2C-N is a psychedelic entheogen first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 2C-O (or β-2,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a positional isomer of mescaline and was first synthesized by Jansen in 1931. ... 2C-O-4 (or 4-(i)-propoxy-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine) is a positional isomer of isoproscaline and was probably first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 2C-P is an entheogenic phenethylamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. ... Chemical structure of 2C-T - CAS number 61638-09-3 2C-T (or 4-methylthio-2,5-DMPEA) is a psychedelic and hallucinogenic drug, used by some as an entheogen. ... 2C-T-2 is a psychedelic phenethylamine presumably first synthesized in 1981 by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-T-4 or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(i)-propylthiophenethylamine is a psychedelic phenethylamine presumably first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-T-7 is a psychedelic phenethylamine and is sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-T-8 is a psychedelic phenethylamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-T-9 is a relatively unexciting psychedelic phenethylamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-T-21 is a psychedelic phenethylamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-TFM is a psychedelic phenethylamine that may have first been synthesized by Daniel Trachsel. ... 3C-E is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine class of compounds. ... 3C-P is a psychedelic phenethylamine, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... Bromo-DragonFLY, also known as ABDF, is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug somewhat related to the phenethylamine family. ... 4-desoxymescaline, or DESOXY, is a psychedelic phenethylamine and analogue with four times the potency of mescaline. ... DOB (or Bromo-DMA) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine class of compounds, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... DOC (or 4-Chloro-2,5-DMA) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine family. ... DOET, HECATE, or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine is an analogue of DOM, and is the three-carbon chain homologue to 2C-E. It produces hallucinogenic, psychedelic, and entheogenic effects. ... DOI or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine family. ... DOM (or STP, allegedly standing for Serenity, Tranquillity and Peace) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine class of compounds, sometimes used as an entheogen . ... DON 2,5-dimethoxy-4-nitroamphetamine is an analogue of DOM and DOB. It is also closely related to 2C-N, and produces hallucinogenic, psychedelic, and entheogenic effects. ... Escaline is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine class of compounds. ... Isoproscaline (or 4-(i)-propyl-3,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine) is an analogue of mescaline. ... Lophophine, homomyristicylamine, (or 3-methoxy-4,5-methylendioxyphenethylamine) is an homologue of MMDA. It is also related to mescaline and Alexander Shulgin suggests it could be a natural component in the peyote cactus because it is the only logical chemical intermediate for the biosynthesis of several of tetrahydroisoquinolines known to... 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, or MDA, is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and Empathogen/Entactogen of the phenethylamine family. ... The first prepared and first described positional isomer of methoxymethylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine was the 3,4,5-substituted compound MMDA (51, 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine, 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine). ... Macromerine is a psychedelic, hallucinogenic and entheogenic of the phenethylamine family. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a hallucinogenic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... Proscaline (or 4-propoxy-3,5-DMPEA) is a psychedelic and hallucinogenic drug, used by some as an entheogen. ... TMAs, also known as trimethoxyamphetamines, are a family of isomeric psychedelic hallucinogenic drugs. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5502 words)
At the time, MDMA was not known to be a drug in its own right; rather, it was patented as an intermediate chemical used in the synthesis of a styptic (a drug intended to control bleeding from wounds.) Over half a century would pass before the first recorded ingestion of MDMA by humans.
MDMA appeared sporadically as a street drug in the early 1970s, but it came into prominence in the early 1980s in certain trendy yuppie bars in the Dallas area, then in gay dance clubs.
He gave the drug to rats and then injected a dye into their blood that is normally too large to cross the blood-brain barrier, yet the drug easily reached the brain.
InfoFacts - MDMA (Ecstasy) (1031 words)
MDMA (3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic, psychoactive drug chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline.
MDMA is an illegal drug that acts as both a stimulant and psychedelic, producing an energizing effect, as well as distortions in time and perception and enhanced enjoyment from tactile experiences.
Ecstasy use dropped significantly among persons 18 to 25—from 14.8 percent in 2003 to 13.8 percent in 2004 for lifetime use, and from 3.7 percent to 3.1 percent for past year use.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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