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Encyclopedia > Ecosystem
A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem.

An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms (biotic factors) in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x2001, 4710 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x2001, 4710 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... Marine ecosystems are part of the earths aquatic ecosystem. ... Look up biotic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Overview

Arctic tundra on Wrangel Island, Russia.
Arctic tundra on Wrangel Island, Russia.
Flora of Baja California Desert, Cataviña region, Mexico.
Flora of Baja California Desert, Cataviña region, Mexico.

The term ecosystem was coined in 1930 by Roy Clapham, to denote the physical and biological components of an environment considered in relation to each other as a unit. British ecologist Arthur Tansley later refined the term, describing it as the interactive system established between biocoenosis (a group of living creatures) and their biotope (the environment in which they live). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (971x309, 50 KB) Wrangel Island tundra - US NOAA photo [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tundra Wrangel Island ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (971x309, 50 KB) Wrangel Island tundra - US NOAA photo [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tundra Wrangel Island ... This article is about the Russian island. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1680, 1495 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Baja California Ensenada, Baja California Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1680, 1495 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Baja California Ensenada, Baja California Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x531, 450 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Savanna Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x531, 450 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Savanna Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Ngorongoro redirects here. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (657x768, 90 KB) Daintree Rainforest. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (657x768, 90 KB) Daintree Rainforest. ... The Daintree Rainforest The rainforest straddles Cape Tribulation The Daintree Rainforest is a tropical rainforest near Daintree, Queensland, on the coast, north of Cairns in tropical far north of Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arthur Roy Clapham, CBE FRS (24 May 1904 - 18 December 1990), was a British botanist. ... Sir Arthur George Tansley (1871 - 1955) was an English botanist who was a pioneer in the science of plant ecology. ...


Central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms are continually engaged in a set of relationships with every other element constituting the environment in which they exist. The human ecosystem concept is then grounded in the deconstruction of the human/nature dichotomy, and the emergent premise that all species are ecologically integrated with each other, as well as with the abiotic constituents of their biotope. For life on Earth, see Organism. ... A dichotomy is a division into two non-overlapping or mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive parts. ... Biotope is an English loanword derived from the German Biotop, which in turn came from the Greek bios=life or organism and topos=place. (The related word geotope has made its way into the English language by the same route, from the German Geotop.) So a biotope is literally an...


Ecosystems can be bounded and discussed with tremendous variety of scope, and describe any situation where there is relationship between organisms and their environment. A system as small as a household or university, or as large as a nation state, may then be suitably discussed as a human ecosystem. While they may be bounded and individually discussed, (human) ecosystems do not exist independently, but interact in a complex web of human and ecological relationships connecting all (human) ecosystems to make up the biosphere. As virtually no surface of the earth today is free of human contact, all ecosystems can be more accurately considered as human ecosystems. Human ecosystems are complex cybernetic systems that are increasingly being used by ecological anthropologists and other scholars to examine the human-ecological aspects of phenomena such as economics, socio-political organizations, ritual et cetera. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ...


Examples

Examples of ecosystem include:

An estuary mouth and coastal waters, part of an aquatic ecosystem. ... Chaparral is a shrubland plant community found primarily in California, USA, that is shaped by a Mediterranean climate (mild, wet winters and hot dry summers) and wildfire. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... Greater Yellowstone is the last large, nearly intact ecosystem in the northern temperate zone of the Earth and is partly located in Yellowstone National Park. ... Human ecosystems are complex cybernetic systems that are increasingly being used by ecological anthropologists and other scholars to examine the human-ecological aspects of phenomena such as economics, socio-political organizations, ritual et cetera. ... Large marine ecosystems (LMEs) are regions of the worlds oceans, encompassing coastal areas from river basins and estuaries to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and the outer margins of the major ocean current systems. ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... Marine ecosystems are part of the earths aquatic ecosystem. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Savannah redirects here. ... Subsurface Lithoautotrophic Microbial Ecosystems, or SLIMEs, are defined by Edward O. Wilson as unique assemblages of bacteria and fungi that occupy pores in the interlocking mineral grains of igneous rock beneath Earths surface. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... Editing Urban ecosystem----- < more coming soon> Urban ecosytems are the cities, towns and urban strips constructed by humans where a rapidly expanding number of Australias population now reside. ...

Ecosystem topics

Classification

Ecosystems have become particularly important politically, since the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) - ratified by more than 175 countries - defines "the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and the maintenance of viable populations of species in natural surroundings" as one of the binding commitments of the ratifying countries. This has created the political necessity to spatially identify ecosystems and somehow distinguish among them. The CBD defines an "ecosystem" as a "dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit". The Convention on Biological Diversity, known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is an international treaty that was adopted in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. ...


With the need of protecting ecosystems, the political need arose to describe and identify them within a reasonable time and cost-effectively. Vreugdenhil et al. argued that this could be achieved most effectively by using a physiognomic-ecological classification system, as ecosystems are easily recognizable in the field as well as on satellite images. They argued that the structure and seasonality of the associated vegetation, complemented with ecological data (such as elevation, humidity, drainage, salinity of water and characteristics of water bodies), are each determining modifiers that separate partially distinct sets of species. This is true not only for plant species, but also for species of animals, fungi and bacteria. The degree of ecosystem distinction is subject to the physiognomic modifiers that can be identified on an image and/or in the field. Where necessary, specific fauna elements can be added, such as periodic concentrations of animals and the distribution of coral reefs. Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ...


Several physiognomic-ecological classification systems are available: Physiognomic-Ecological Classification of Plant Formations of the Earth (a system based on the 1974 work of Mueller-Dombois and Heinz Ellenberg, and developed by UNESCO), and the Land Cover Classification System (LCCS), developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Several aquatic classification systems are available, and an effort is being made by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN) to design a complete ecosystem classification system that will cover both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Heinz Ellenberg (August 1, 1913 in Hamburg-Harburg - May 2, 1997 in Göttingen) was a German biologist, botanist and ecologist. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... FAO redirects here. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN) is a network dedicated to the adoption and promotion of ecoinformatics standards and protocols in all the countries of the Americas, thus facilitating the sound use of biological information for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. ...


Ecosystem services

Ecosystem services are “fundamental life-support services upon which human civilization depends,”i and can be direct or indirect. Example of direct ecosystem services are: pollination, wood, erosion prevention etc. Indirect services could be considered climate moderation, nutrient cycles, detoxifying natural substances and many more. Humankind benefits from a multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by natural ecosystems. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... A cycle by which chemical substance are constantly being recycled through the biosphere from the soil, as plant nutrients, to producers (plants), to consumers (animals), to decomposers in the soil, and then back to the producers. ...


Ecosystem legal rights

The borough of Tamaqua, Pennsylvania passed a law giving ecosystems legal rights. The ordinance establishes that the municipal government or any Tamaqua resident can file a lawsuit on behalf of the local ecosystem.[2] Other townships, such as Rush, followed suit and passed their own laws.[3] Tamaqua is a borough located in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Tamaqua is a borough located in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. ...


This is part of a growing body of legal opinion proposing 'wild law'. Wild law, a term coined by Cormac Cullinan (a lawyer based in South Africa), would cover birds and animals, rivers and deserts.[4] The term ‘wild law’ was first coined by Cormac Cullinan, to refer to human laws that are consistent with Earth jurisprudence. ... The term ‘wild law’ was first coined by Cormac Cullinan, to refer to human laws that are consistent with Earth jurisprudence. ... Cormac Cullinan is a practising environmental attorney and author based in Cape Town, South Africa. ...


Function and biodiversity

From an anthropological point of view many people see ecosystems as production units that of goods and services. Among some of the most common goods produced by ecosystems, is wood by forest ecosystems and grass for cattle by natural grasslands. Meat from wild animals, often referred to as bushmeat in Africa, has proven to be extremely successful under well-controlled management schemes in South Africa and Kenya. Much less successful has been the discovery and commercialisation of substances of wild organism for pharmaceutical purposes. Services derived from ecosystems are referred to as ecosystem services. They may include (1) facilitating the enjoyment of nature, which may generate many forms of income and employment in the tourism sector, often referred to as ecotourims, (2) water retention, thus facilitating a more evenly distributed release of water, (3) soil protection, open-air laboratory for scientific research, etc.


A greater degree of species diversity or biological diversity - popularly referred to as Biodiversity - of an ecosystem may contribute to greater resilience of an ecosystem, because there are more species present at a location to respond to a factor of change and thus "absorb" or reduce its effects, thus reducing the effect before its structure is fundamentally changed to a different state. This is not universally the case and there is no proven relationship between the species diversity of an ecosystem and its ability to provide goods and services on a sustainable level: Humid tropical forest produce very little goods and direct services and are extremely vulnerable to change, while many temperate forests readily grow back to their previous state of development within a lifetime after felling or a forest fire. Some grasslands have been exploited sustainably for thousands of years (Mongolia, Africa, European peat and mooreland communities). Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


The study of ecosystems

Ecosystem dynamics

Introduction of new elements, whether biotic or abiotic, into an ecosystem tend to have a disruptive effect. In some cases, this can lead to ecological collapse or "trophic cascading" and the death of many species belonging to the ecosystem in question. Under this deterministic vision, the abstract notion of ecological health attempts to measure the robustness and recovery capacity for an ecosystem; i.e. how far the ecosystem is away from its steady state. Look up biotic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Often, however, ecosystems have the ability to rebound from a disruptive agent. The difference between collapse or a gentle rebound is determined by two factors -- the toxicity of the introduced element and the resiliency of the original ecosystem. // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... For other uses, see Resilience. ...


Ecosystems are primarily governed by stochastic (chance) events, the reactions they provoke on non-living materials and the responses by organisms to the conditions surrounding them. Thus, an ecosystem results from the sum of myriad individual responses of organisms to stimuli from non-living and living elements in the environment. The presence or absence of populations merely depends on reproductive and dispersal success, and population levels fluctuate in response to stochastic events. As the number of species in an ecosystem is higher, the number of stimuli is also higher. Since the beginning of life, in this vision, organisms have survived continuous change through natural selection of successful feeding, reproductive and dispersal behavior. Through natural selection the planet's species have continuously adapted to change through variation in their biological composition and distribution. Mathematically it can be demonstrated that greater numbers of different interacting factors tend to dampen fluctuations in each of the individual factors. Given the great diversity among organisms on earth, most of the time, ecosystems only changed very gradually, as some species would disappear while others would move in. Locally, sub-populations continuously go extinct, to be replaced later through dispersal of other sub-populations. Stochastists do recognize that certain intrinsic regulating mechanisms occur in nature. Feedback and response mechanisms at the species level regulate population levels, most notably through territorial behaviour. Andrewatha and Birch (1954) suggest that territorial behaviour tends to keep populations at levels where food supply is not a limiting factor. Hence, stochastists see territorial behaviour as a regulatory mechanism at the species level but not at the ecosystem level. Thus, in their vision, ecosystems are not regulated by feedback and response mechanisms from the (eco)system itself and there is no such thing as a balance of nature.


If ecosystems are indeed governed primarily by stochastic processes, they may be somewhat more resilient to sudden change, as each species would respond individually. In the absence of a balance of nature, the species composition of ecosystems would undergo shifts that would depend on the nature of the change, but entire ecological collapse would probably be less frequently occurring events.


The theoretical ecologist Robert Ulanowicz has used information theory tools to describe the structure of ecosystems, emphasizing mutual information (correlations) in studied systems. Drawing on this methodology, and prior observations of complex ecosystems, Ulanowicz depicts approaches to determining the stress levels on ecosystems, and predicting system reactions to defined types of alteration in their settings (such as increased or reduced energy flow, and eutrophication.[5] See also Relational order theories, as to fundamentals of life organization. Theoretical ecology refers to several intellectual traditions. ... Robert E. Ulanowicz (b. ... Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ...


Ecosystem ecology

Ecosystem ecology is the integrated study of biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework. This science examines how ecosystems work and relates this to their components such as chemicals, bedrock, soil, plants, and animals. Ecosystem ecology examines physical and biological structure and examines how these ecosystem characteristics interact]] Ecosystem ecology is the integrated study of biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework. ... This article is about life in general. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... u fuck in ua ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ...


The relationship between systems ecology and ecosystem ecology is complex. Much of systems ecology can be considered a subset of ecosystem ecology. Ecosystem ecology also utilizes methods that have little to do with the holistic approach of systems ecology. However, systems ecology more actively considers external influences such as economics that usually fall outside the bounds of ecosystem ecology. Whereas ecosystem ecology can be defined as the scientific study of ecosystems, systems ecology is more of a particular approach to the study of ecological systems and phenomena that interact with these systems.


Systems ecology

Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field of ecology, taking a holistic approach to the study of ecological systems, especially ecosystems. Systems ecology can be seen as an application of general systems theory to ecology. Central to the systems ecology approach is the idea that an ecosystem is a complex system exhibiting emergent properties. Systems ecology focuses on interactions and transactions within and between biological and ecological systems, and is especially concerned with the way the functioning of ecosystems can be influenced by human interventions. It uses and extends concepts from thermodynamics and develops other macroscopic descriptions of complex systems. Systems Ecology is a transdiscipline which studies ecological systems, or ecosystems. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ... Systems theory or general systems theory or systemics is an interdisciplinary field which studies systems as a whole. ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ...


The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

In 2005, the largest ever assessment[6] of the earth's ecosystems was conducted by a research team of over 1,000 scientists. The findings of the assessment were published in the multi volume Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, which concluded that in the past 50 years humans have altered the earth's ecosystems more than any other time in our history. A conceptual outline for the program The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) is a research program that focuses on ecosystem changes over the course of decades, and projecting those changes into the future. ...


See also

Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ... In ecology, a biogeochemical cycle is a circuit where a nutrient moves back and forth between both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. ... A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Biosphere 2 Biosphere 2 is a 3. ... Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that addresses the dynamic and spatial interdependence between human economies and natural ecosystems. ... Ecological yield is the harvestable growth of an ecosystem. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Ecosystem diversity refers to the diversity of a place at the level of ecosystems. ... Ecosystem ecology is the integrated study of biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework. ... An ecosystem engineer is any organism that modifies its own ecosystem. ... Ecosystem models, or ecological models, are mathematical representations of ecosystems. ... Humankind benefits from a multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by natural ecosystems. ... Ecosystem valuation is the pricing or assessment of economic capital asset value to a living ecosystem. ... An edge effect is the effect of the juxtaposition of contrasting environments on an ecosystem. ... Eugene Pleasants Odum (1913-2002) was an American scientist known for his pioneering work on ecosystem ecology. The average schoolchild of today knows that humans (along with other life forms) depend on adequate conditions of food, water, and shelter from inclement elements, for instance, and also that weather, geological, and... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Landscape ecology is a sub-discipline of ecology and geography that address how spatial variation in the landscape affects ecological processes such as the distribution and flow of energy, materials and individuals in the environment (which, in turn, may influence the distribution of landscape elements themselves such as hedgerows). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

References

  1. ^ Christopherson, Robert W. (1997). Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography, 3rd (in english), Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall Inc.. ISBN 0-13-505314-5. 
  2. ^ Tamaqua Law Recognizes Rights of Nature
  3. ^ Rush Township Strips Sludge Corporation "Rights"
  4. ^ http://www.celdf.org/News/WildLawTheGuardianUnlimited/tabid/398/Default.aspx]
    http://environment.guardian.co.uk/conservation/story/0,,2049023,00.html]
  5. ^ Robert Ulanowicz (1997). Ecology, the Ascendant Perspective. Columbia Univ. Press. ISBN 0-23-110828-1.
  6. ^ http://www.maweb.org

Further reading

  • Andrewartha, H.G., and L.C. Birch. 1954. The distribution and abundance of animals. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Boer, P.J. den, and J. Reddingius. 1996. Regulation and stabilization paradigms in population ecology. Population and Community Biology Series 16. Chapman and Hall, New York. 397 pg.
  • Ecological Society of America, Ecosytem Services, Ecological Society of America. 25 May 2007
  • Ehrlich, Paul; Walker, Brian “Rivets and Redundancy”.BioScience.vol.48.no.5. May 1998. pp. 387. American Institute of Biological Sciences.
  • Grime, J.P. "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function: The Debate Deepens." Science Vol. 277. no. 533029 Aug 1997 pp. 1260 - 1261. 25 May 2007
  • Groom , Martha J., and Gary K. Meffe. Principles of Conservation Biology. 3. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc, 2006.
  • Lawton, John H., What Do Species Do in Ecosystems?], Oikos, December, 1994. vol.71,no.3.
  • Lindeman, R.L. 1942. The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology 23: 399-418.
  • Ranganathan, J & Irwin, F. (2007, May 7). Restoring Nature's Capital: An Action Agenda to Sustain Ecosystem Services
  • Patten, B.C. 1959. An Introduction to the Cybernetics of the Ecosystem: The Trophic-Dynamic Aspect. Ecology 40, no. 2.: 221-231.
  • Tansley, A.G. 1935. The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16: 284-307.
  • Tansley, A.G. 1939. The British Islands and their Vegetation. Volume 1 of 2. University Press, Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 484 pg.
  • Vreugdenhil, D., Terborgh, J., Cleef, A.M., Sinitsyn, M., Boere, G.C., Archaga, V.L., Prins, H.H.T., 2003, Comprehensive Protected Areas System Composition and Monitoring, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 106 pg.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Ecosystems
This article is about the physical universe. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Geological time put in a diagram called a geological clock, showing the relative lengths of the eons of the Earths history. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Geological time scale. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about life in general. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... For the definition, see Life. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... The evolutionary history of life and the origin of life are fields of ongoing geological and biological research. ... For other uses, see Wilderness (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Systems science is the science of complex systems. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... An example of a system: The nervous system. ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... Complex adaptive systems are special cases of complex systems. ... A conceptual system is a system that is comprised of non-physical objects, i. ... Cultural system refers to the functional interaction between the different elements of culture in a particular manner. ... The Lorenz attractor is an example of a non-linear dynamical system. ... An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... In logic and mathematics, a formal system consists of two components, a formal language plus a set of inference rules or transformation rules. ... GPS redirects here. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Information systems. ... World distribution of major legal traditions The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law and religious law. ... A system of measurement is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured and were historically important, regulated and defined because of trade and internal commerce. ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ... A multi-agent system (MAS) is a system composed of several software agents, collectively capable of reaching goals that are difficult to achieve by an individual agent or monolithic system. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... In mathematics, a nonlinear system is one whose behavior cant be expressed as a sum of the behaviors of its parts (or of their multiples. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A physical system is a system that is comprised of matter and energy. ... A political system is a system of politics and government. ... The human eye is the first element of a sensory system: in this case, vision, for the visual system. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... Complex systems have a number of properties, some of which are listed below. ... For control theory in psychology and sociology, see control theory (sociology). ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Holism in science, or Holistic science, is an approach to research that emphasizes the study of complex systems. ... Sociotechnical systems theory is theory about the social aspects of people and society and technical aspects of machines and technology. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... System dynamics is an approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time. ... Systems Ecology is a transdiscipline which studies ecological systems, or ecosystems. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... Systems science is the science of complex systems. ... Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ... Russell Lincoln Ackoff (born 12 February 1919) is a Professor Emeritus of the Wharton School in operations research and systems theory. ... William Ross Ashby (September 6, 1903, London, England - November 15, 1972) was a British psychiatrist and a pioneer in the study of complex systems. ... Gregory Bateson (9 May 1904–4 July 1980) was a British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. ... Anthony Stafford Beer (September 25, 1926 - August 23, 2002) was a theorist in operational research and management cybernetics. ... Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria - June 12, 1972, New York, USA) was a biologist who was a founder of general systems theory--which he literally translated from the mathematization of Nicolai Hartmanns Ontology as stated by himself in his seminal work-- .An Austrian citizen, he... Kenneth E. Boulding Kenneth Ewart Boulding (January 18, 1910 - March 18, 1993) was an economist, educator, peace activist, poet, religious mystic, devoted Quaker, systems scientist, and interdisciplinary philosopher. ... British academic Peter Checkland is the developer of soft-systems methodology (SSM) in the field of systems thinking. ... Charles West Churchman (born August 29, 1913 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, died March 21, 2004 Bolinas, California) was an American philospher in the field of management science, operations research and systems theory. ... He is a twat He was born in Vienna and died in Pescadero, California. ... Charles François is a Belgian citizen, born 1922 and retired from the Belgian Foreign Service since 1987. ... Jay Wright Forrester (born 14 July 1918 Climax, Nebraska) is an American pioneer of computer engineering. ... Ralph Waldo Gerard (7 October 1900, Harvey, Illinois - 17 February 1974) was an American neurophysiologist and behavioral scientist known for his wide-ranging work on the nervous system, nerve metabolism, psychopharmacology, and biological bases of schizophrenia [1]. // Gerard was born in Harvey, Illinois at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Debora Hammond down the Green River in Canyonlands National Park Debora Hammond is an American systems theorist, working as an Associate Professor professor Interdisciplinary Studies of the Hutchins School of Liberal Studies at the Sonoma State University. ... George Jiri Klir (1932 Prague, Czechoslovakia) is an Czech-American computer scientist and professor of systems sciences at the Center for Intelligent Systems at the Binghamton University in New York. ... Niklas Luhmann (December 8, 1927 - November 6, 1998) was a German sociologist, administration expert, and social systems theorist, as well as one the most prominent modern day thinkers in the sociological systems theory. ... Humberto Maturana (born September 14, 1928 in Santiago) is a Chilean biologist whose work crosses over into philosophy and cognitive science. ... Donella Dana Meadows (March 13, 1941 Elgin, Illinois, USA - February 20, 2001, New Hampshire) was a pioneering environmental scientist, a teacher and writer. ... Mihajlo D. Mesarovic (1928) is a Yugoslavian scientist, who was professor of Systems Engineering and Mathematics at Case Western Reserve University. ... Howard Thomas Odum (1924-2002), commonly known as H.T. Odum or Tom Odum, was an eminent American ecosystem ecologist and a professor at the University of Florida. ... Talcott Parsons Talcott Edgar Frederick Parsons (December 13, 1902–May 8, 1979) was for many years the best-known sociologist in the United States, and indeed one of the best-known in the world. ... Ilya Prigogine (January 25, 1917 – May 28, 2003) was a Belgian physicist and chemist noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. ... Anatol Rapoport (born May 22, 1911) is a Russian-born American Jewish, mathematical psychologist. ... Francisco Varela (Santiago, September 7, 1946 – May 28, 2001, Paris) was a Chilean biologist and philosopher who, together with his teacher Humberto Maturana, is best known for introducing the concept of autopoiesis to biology. ... JOHN N. WARFIELD The career of John Warfield has been described as passing through four phases: Phase 1: Electrical engineering faculty member: 1948-1965 Phase 2: Starting a systems science research career path: 1966-1980 Phase 3: Accruing evidence and developing components of systems science: 1980-2000 Phase 4: Aggregating... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ecosystem Services: A Prime from the Ecological Society of America (ESA) (1942 words)
Ecosystem Services are the processes by which the environment produces resources that we often take for granted such as clean water, timber, and habitat for fisheries, and pollination of native and agricultural plants.
An ecosystem is a community of animals and plants interacting with one another and with their physical environment.
Ecosystem services are so fundamental to life that they are easy to take for granted and so large in scale that it is hard to imagine that human activities could destroy them.
nsf.gov - Funding - Ecosystem Science - US National Science Foundation (NSF) (660 words)
The Ecosystem Science Cluster supports research that advances our understanding of: 1) material and energy transformations within and among ecosystems, 2) the composition and structure of ecological systems, 3) ecosystem dynamics and trajectories of ecosystem development through time, and 4) linkages among ecosystems at different spatial and temporal scales.
Research on natural, managed and disturbed ecosystems is supported, including terrestrial, freshwater, wetland, coastal (including salt marsh and mangrove), and human-dominated environments.
Projects that are potentially transformative -- that is, those that may change the conceptual basis of ecosystem science and have broad implications for future research -- are given particular priority.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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