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Encyclopedia > Economy of the People's Republic of China
Economy of
the People's Republic of China
Currency yuan (CNY); also referred to as the Renminbi (RMB)
Exchange rate (av) (2007) Rmb:$ USD = 7.60
Rmb:¥ JPY100 = 6.46
Rmb:€ EUR = 10.41
Rmb:£ GBP = 15.22
Fiscal year Calendar year (01 Jan to 31 Dec)
Trade organizations WTO, APEC and others
Statistics
GDP (Nominal) (2007) $3.42 trillion (ranked 4th)
GDP (PPP) (2006) $10.21 trillion (ranked 2nd)
GDP per capita (Nominal) (2006) $2,034 (ranked 107th)
GDP per capita (PPP) (2006) $7,800 (ranked 82nd)
GDP growth rate (2007) 11.4% (official data)
GDP by sector (2006) agriculture (primary) (11.7%)
industry (secondary) (48.9%)
services (tertiary) (39.3%)
note: industry includes construction (5.5%)
GDP by components, % (2006) Private consumption (36.4)
Government consumption (13.7)
Gross fixed investment (40.9)
Exports of goods/services (39.7)
Imports of goods/services (-31.9)
Domestic demand growth (2002-06 av) 9.3%
Interest rates (2007-12-20) One-year benchmark deposit rate: 4.14%
One-year lending rate: 7.47%
Inflation rate (CPI) 4.6%[1] (CPI: 8.7%,[2] Feb 07 - Feb 08)
4.5% (2007 av)
1.7% (2006 av)
Household income or consumption by percentage share (2004) lowest 10%: 1.6%, highest 10%: 34.9%
Population below poverty line (2004) 10%
Gini index (2004) 46.9 (List of countries)
Labor force (2006) 795.3 million
Labor force by occupation (2005) agriculture (45%), industry (24%), services (31%)
Unemployment rate (2006) 4.3% (official); 13% (unofficial)[3]
Industrial production growth rate (2006) 22.9%
Main industries mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
Agricultural products rice, wheat, potatoes, corn (maize), tobacco, soybeans, peanuts (groundnuts), tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Natural resources Coal, iron ore, crude oil, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Investment (gross fixed) (2006) 40.9% of GDP
Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows (2006) 3.1% of GDP
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home (2006) $699.5 billion
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad (2006) $67.4 billion
Market value of publicly traded shares (2006) $2.426 trillion
Commercial bank prime rate (%; year-end) (2007) 6.7%
Debt service ratio, paid (2007) 2.7%
Trade
Current account balance (2007) $262.2 billion (9% of GDP)
(ranked 1st)
Exports (2007) $1,216.1 billion f.o.b.
Principal exports (US $ bn) (2006) Office machines & data processing equipment (134.5), Telecommunications equipment (123.6), Electrical machinery (101.7), Apparel & clothing (95.4), Miscellaneous manufactures (55.5)
Main destinations of exports (2006) US 21%, Hong Kong 16%, Japan 9.5%, South Korea 4.6%, Germany 4.2%, Netherlands 3.2%, UK 2.5%, Singapore 2.4%
Imports (2007) $953.9 billion f.o.b.
Principal imports (US $ bn) (2006) Electrical machinery (174.8), Petroleum & related products (84.1), Professional & scientific instruments (48.6), Metalliferous ores and scrap (44.0), Office machines & data processing equipment (40.7)
Main origins of imports (2006) Japan 14.6%, South Korea 11.3%, Taiwan 10.9%, US 7.5%, Germany 4.8%, Malaysia 3.0%, Australia 2.4%, Thailand 2.3%
Public finances
Public debt (2006) 22.1% of GDP
External debt (2006) $315 billion
Foreign exchange reserves (2007) $1.474 trillion
Foreign exchange reserves excl gold (2007) ?
Revenues (2006) $482.2 billion
Expenditures (2006) $515.8 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA
Budget balance (2006) -7.0% of GDP (deficit)
Corporate income tax rate (2006) 33% (official)
Economic aid recipient (ODA) N/A[4]
Economic aid donor ?
Main source

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars
View This article is about the Chinese currency base unit. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... Averages redirects here. ... USD redirects here. ... Yen redirects here. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... GBP redirects here. ... According to the Gregorian calendar, the calendar year begins on January 1 and ends on December 31. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... APEC may refer to: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Action Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Advanced Placement European Civilization Atlantic Provinces Economic Council This article consisting of a 4-letter acronym or initialism is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Econometrics literally means economic measurement. It is the branch of economics that applies statistical methods to the empirical study of economic theories and relationships. ... GDP redirects here. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... The primary sector of industry generally involves the changing process of natural resources into primary products. ... The secondary sector of industry includes those economic sectors that create a finished, usable product: manufacturing and construction. ... The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ... An interest rate is the price a borrower pays for the use of money he does not own, and the return a lender receives for deferring his consumption, by lending to the borrower. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map of the Gini coefficient This is a list of countries or dependencies by Income inequality metrics, sorted in ascending order according to their Gini coefficient. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... This article is about economics. ... The debt service coverage ratio, or debt service ratio, is the ratio of net operating income to debt payments on a piece of investment real estate. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... Blue = countries in surplus; Red = countries in deficit This is a list of countries and territories by current account balance, in millions of U.S. dollars, equivalence based on The World Factbook ([1]). Most data are 2006 estimates. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Foreign exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) in a strict sense are only the foreign currency deposits held by central banks and monetary authorities. ... // Gold ingots, like these from the Bank of Sweden, form the base of many monetary systems Gold reserves (or gold holdings) are held by central banks as a store of value. ... For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ... In accounting, an expense represents an event in which an asset is used up or a liability is incurred. ... Capital expenditures (CAPEX or capex) are expenditures creating future benefits. ... For the rental car company, see Budget Rent a Car. ... This article is about budget deficits. ... Corporate tax refers to direct taxes charged by various jurisdictions on the profits made by companies or associations. ... Foreign aid, international aid or development assistance is when one country helps another country through some form of donation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Development aid. ... Foreign aid, international aid or development assistance is when one country helps another country through some form of donation. ... USD redirects here. ...

The People's Republic of China has the second largest economy in the world after the US with a GDP of nearly $ 7 trillion (2007) when measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. In November 2007, it became the third largest in the world after the US and Japan with a nominal GDP of US$3.42 trillion (2007) when measured in exchange-rate terms.[5] China has been the fastest-growing major nation for the past quarter of a century with an average annual GDP growth rate above 10%.[6] China's per capita income has grown at an average annual rate of more than 8% over the last three decades drastically reducing poverty, but this rapid growth has been accompanied by rising income inequalities.[7] The country's per capita income is classified as low by world standards, at about $2,000 (nominal, 107th of 179 countries/economies), and $7,800 (PPP, 82nd of 179 countries/economies) in 2006, according to the IMF. ... A Special administrative region (SAR) is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Republic of China (ROC) has a dynamiccapitalist economy with gradually decreasing guidance of investment and foreign trade by the government. ... The economy of the United States has been the worlds largest national economy since the late 1890s;[1] its gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated as $13. ... The international dollar is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power that the U.S. dollar has in the United States at a given point in time. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... USD redirects here. ... In finance, the exchange rate (also known as the foreign-exchange rate, forex rate or FX rate) between two currencies specifies how much one currency is worth in terms of the other. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... IMF redirects here. ...


China's size, the abundance of its resources, and having about 20 percent of the world's population living within its borders, for the last two centuries its role in the world economy will continue to grow. Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... The world economy can be evaluated in various ways, depending on the model used, and this valuation can then be represented in various ways (for example, in 2006 US dollars). ...


Since the late 1970s and early 1980s, the economic reforms initially began with the shift of farming work to a system of household responsibility to start the phase out of collectivized agriculture, and later expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices; fiscal decentralization; increased autonomy for state enterprises that increased the authority of local government officials and plant managers in industry thereby permitting a wide variety of private enterprise in services and light manufacturing; the foundation of a diversified banking system; the development of stock markets; the rapid growth of the non-state sector, and the opening of the economy to increased foreign trade and foreign investment. China has generally implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion, including the sale of equity in China's largest state banks to foreign investors and refinements in foreign exchange and bond markets in mid-2000s. As its role in world trade has steadily grown, its importance to the international economy has also increased apace. China's foreign trade has grown faster than its GDP for the past 25 years.[8] As of 2007, most of china's growth came from the Private Sector instead of exports. Particularly the smaller public sector, which was dominated by about 200 large state enterprises concentrated mostly in utilities, heavy industries, and energy resources.[9] Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Contract responsibility system, or household responsibility system or responsibility system was a practice in the Peoples Republic of China, first adopted in agriculture in 1981 and later extended to other sectors of the economy, by which local managers are held responsible for the profits and losses of the enterprise. ... Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. ... Fiscal policy is the economic term that defines the set of principles and decisions of a government in setting the level of public expenditure and how that expenditure is funded. ... Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of service or action. ... Capitalism generally refers to a combination of economic practices that became institutionalized in Europe between the 16th and 19th centuries, especially involving the right of individuals and groups of individuals acting as legal persons (or corporations) to buy and sell capital goods such as land, labor, and money (see finance... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... International trade is defined as trade between two or more partners from different countries (an exporter and an importer). ... Investment is a term with several closely-related meanings in finance and economics. ... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ... A state bank is a bank that is owned by a state. ... Foreign exchange has several meanings: In telecommunications, Foreign exchange service is a type of network service. ... The bond market, also known as the debit, credit, or fixed income market, is a financial market where participants buy and sell debt securities usually in the form of bonds. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... A government corporation or government-owned corporation is a legal entity created by a government to exercise some of the powers of the government. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ...


China has emphasized raising personal income and consumption and introducing new management systems to help increase productivity. The government has also focused on foreign trade as a major vehicle for economic growth. China's GDP has increased tenfold since 1978, largely due to economic reforms including liberalization of their economy. [10] Some economists believe that Chinese economic growth has been in fact understated during much of the 1990s and early 2000s, failing to fully factor in the growth driven by the private sector and that the extent at which China is dependent on exports is exaggerated.[11] Nevertheless, key bottlenecks continue to constrain growth. Available energy is insufficient to run at fully-installed industrial capacity,[12] the transport system is inadequate to move sufficient quantities of such critical items as coal,[13] and the communications system[14] cannot yet fully meet the needs of an economy of China's size and complexity. Per capita personal income in the United States was $29,469 in the year 2000. ... In economics, consumption refers to the final use of goods and services to provide utility. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... --158. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ... A bottleneck is literally the neck of a glass or pottery bottle. ... A road in Beijing, Chinas capital Transportation in the Peoples Republic of China has experienced major growth and expansion since 1949 and especially since the early 1980s. ... This article is about Communications in mainland China. ...


The two most important sectors of the economy have traditionally been agriculture and industry, which together employ more than 70 percent of the labor force and produce more than 60 percent of GDP. The two sectors have differed in many respects. Technology, labor productivity, and incomes have advanced much more rapidly in industry than in agriculture. Agricultural output has been vulnerable to the effects of weather, while industry has been more directly influenced by the government. The disparities between the two sectors have combined to form an economic-cultural-social gap between the rural and urban areas, which is a major division in Chinese society. China is the world's largest producer of rice and is among the principal sources of wheat, corn (maize), tobacco, soybeans, peanuts (groundnuts), and cotton. The country is one of the world's largest producers of a number of industrial and mineral products, including cotton cloth, tungsten, and antimony, and is an important producer of cotton yarn, coal, crude oil, and a number of other products. Its mineral resources are probably among the richest in the world but are only partially developed. Although China has acquired some highly sophisticated production facilities through trade and also has built a number of advanced engineering plants capable of manufacturing an increasing range of sophisticated equipment, including nuclear weapons and satellites, most of its industrial output still comes from relatively backward and ill-equipped factories. The technological level and quality standards of its industry as a whole are still fairly low.[15] By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... In labor economics Labor Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of the labor force. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... For other uses, see Peanut (disambiguation). ... This article is about peanut, the food. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... This article is about the element. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... This article is about artificial satellites. ...

Contents

History

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... When the Communist Party of China came to power in 1949, its leaders fundamental long-range goals were to transform China into a modern, powerful, socialist nation. ... The five-year plans of China were a series of economic development initiatives. ...

1949-1980

In 1949, China followed a socialist heavy industry development strategy, or the "Big Push" strategy. Consumption was reduced while rapid industrialization was given high priority. The government took control of a large part of the economy and redirected resources into building new factories. Entire new industries were created. Most important, economic growth was jump-started. Tight control of budget and money supply reduced inflation by the end of 1950. Though most of it was done at the expense of suppressing the private sector of small to big businesses by the Three-anti/five-anti campaigns between 1951 to 1952. The campaigns were notorious for being anti-capitalist, and imposed baseless charges that allowed the government to punish capitalists with severe fines.[16] In the beginning of the Communist party's rule, the leaders of the party had agreed that for a nation such as China, which does not have any heavy industry and minimal secondary production, capitalism is to be utilized to help the building of the "New China" and finally merged into communism.[17] Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... A government budget is a legal document that is often passed by the legislature, and approved by the chief executive. ... In macroeconomics, money supply (monetary aggregates, money stock) is the quantity of currency and money in bank accounts in the hands of the non-bank public available within the economy to purchase goods, services, and securities. ... The “Three Anti Campaign” and “Five Anti Campaign” The suppression of reactionaries and the land reform mainly affected the countryside, while the subsequent “Three Anti Campaign” and “Five Anti Campaign” (also called the Three-striking campaign and Five-striking campaign) could be regarded as the corresponding genocide in cities. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


Throughout the 1950s and 1960s a number of widespread changes occurred in China's economic policies and priorities. During the First Five-Year Plan period (1953-1957), a policy of continued rapid industrial development was furthered, though somewhat at the detriment of other economic sectors. The largest part of the state's investment was directed into the industrial sector, while agriculture, which employed more than 78.6 percent of the labor force, was compelled to depend on its own minimal capital resources for a significant portion of its fund necessities. The highest priority was given to industrial sectors, such as coal, electric power, iron and steel, building materials, basic chemicals, and heavy engineering. By following the Soviet model, the goal was to set up technologically sophisticated, large-scale, capital-intensive plants. Many new factories were built with Soviet technical and financial assistance, as they could not be purely supported by domestic resources.[18] The five-year plans of China were a series of economic development initiatives. ... Invest redirects here. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Fund may refer to Funding, or providing capital. ... Capital intensity is the term in economics for the amount of fixed or real capital present in relation to other factors of production, especially labor. ...


During the first policy plan fast growth in heavy industry was achieved, but a few months after the introduction of the Second Five-Year Plan (1958-1962), which was to be on the same lines as the First, the policy of the Great Leap Forward was announced. In agriculture, this involved the formation of people's communes, the abolition of private plots, and the increasing of output through greater cooperation and physical effort. Construction of large factories was to be continued apace, and in addition to that was the initiative to create a massive auxiliary network of simple, small-scale industries and plants that were built and managed locally. However, the Chinese peasantry was unprepared for this communal system, and a plunge in agricultural output soon followed.[19]. Concurrently, the irregular and haphazard backyard production drive failed to achieve the intended objectives as it turned out enormous quantities of expensively produced, low quality goods, most notably steel produced from low quality iron which can not be used to build. During that time, these failures were exacerbated all the more by the Sino-Soviet split which caused the cancellation of Soviet assistance which had provided technicians and blueprints. In consequence, by late 1960 the country was in the throes of an economic and humanitarian disaster. Mao Zedong self-exiled from politics and was succeeded by Liu Shaoqi, who made a complete about-turn in policy. He criticized the disasters as "30% fault of nature, 70% human error." Private plots were restored, the size of the communes was reduced, and greater independence was given to the production team. There was also a mass transfer of the unemployed from industry to the countryside, and industrial investment was temporarily slashed in order to free resources for farm production.[20] Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers... Peoples communes (人民公社 Pinyin: renmin gongshe), in the Peoples Republic of China, were formerly the highest of three administrative levels in rural areas in the period from 1958 to 1982-85, when they were replaced by townships. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Sino-Soviet relations refers to the relationship between China and the Soviet Union between 1917 to 1991, when the Soviet Union ceased to exist. ... A technician is generally someone in a technological field who has a relatively practical understanding of the general theoretical principles of that field, e. ... For other uses, see Blueprint (disambiguation). ... Mao redirects here. ... An anti-Liu Shaoqi poster, 1968. ... Production teams are the groups of technical staff whom put on the show. ...


This policy, which led to an immediate improvement in the agricultural situation, was maintained until 1963, when it again became possible to redirect some resources to the capital goods industry. As a result, industrial production and construction gathered some momentum, but due effort was taken to try to avoid the earlier mistake of sacrificing food production to iron and steel and similar industries. Then, in 1966 the "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" began, initially as a campaign for Mao to retake power from Liu Shaoqi and to "eliminate the liberal bourgeoisie" from the Party. Unlike the Great Leap Foward, the Cultural Revolution did not have an explicit economic rationale. Nevertheless, industrial production was badly affected by the ensuing confusion and strife, when hundreds of millions of people simply stopped working, while notable politicians, factory owners, and even teachers were victims to the massive "uprisings".[21] Capital goods, in contrast to consumer goods, are goods used in the production of (physical) capital. ... A poster during the Cultural Revolution The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: 无产阶级文化大革命; Traditional Chinese: 無產階級文化大革命; pinyin: wú chǎn jiē jí wén huà dà gé mìng, literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wén huà dà gé mìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or simply 文革 wén gé... Bourgeois redirects here. ...


The Cultural Revolution left some problematic legacies for the economy.[22] In industry, wages had been frozen and bonuses cancelled. This had, when combined with the policies of employing more workers than necessary to absorb unemployment and hiring workers on a permanent basis, essentially eliminated incentives to work hard.[23] In addition, technicians and many managers lost their authority and could not play an effective role in production in the wake of the movement. The entire urban system, moreover, provided less than minimal incentives to achieve efficiency in production.[23] While overall output continued to grow, capital-output ratios declined. In agriculture, per capita output in 1977 was no higher than in 1957. In 1952, gross industrial output of China was estimated at 34,900 million yuan in current prices.[24] GDP per capita grew a paltry 17% in the 1960s, and rose to 70% in the 1970s. A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ... BONUS - It is an incentive for many workers to work extra hours and improve quality, in certain cases quantity, to ensure a maximised wage overall. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... For the game developer, see Incentive Software. ... There are several measures of economic efficiency: Pareto efficiency Kaldor-Hicks efficiency X-efficiency Allocative efficiency For applications of these principles see: Efficient market hypothesis Welfare economics Production theory basics See also Business efficiency Inefficiency ... It has been suggested that Chinese yuan be merged into this article or section. ... Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a calculation method in national accounting (see Measures of national income and output) is defined as the total value of final goods and services produced within a countrys borders in a year, regardless of ownership. ...


1980-1990

See also: Economic reform in the People's Republic of China.

Since 1979, China began to make major reforms to its economy. The Chinese leadership adopted a pragmatic perspective on many political and socioeconomic problems, and sharply reduced the role of ideology in economic policy. Political and social stability, economic productivity, and public and consumer welfare were considered paramount and indivisible. In these years, the government emphasized raising personal income and consumption and introducing new management systems to help increase productivity. The government also had focused on foreign trade as a major vehicle for economic growth. In the 1980s, China tried to combine central planning with market-oriented reforms to increase productivity, living standards, and technological quality without exacerbating inflation, unemployment, and budget deficits. Reforms began in the agricultural, industrial, fiscal, financial, banking, price setting, and labor systems.[25] Chinese Economic Reform (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refers to the program of economic changes called Socialism with Chinese characteristics in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) that were started in 1978 by pragmatists within the Communist Party of China (CPC) led by Deng Xiaoping and are ongoing... Chinese Economic Reform (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refers to the program of economic changes called Socialism with Chinese characteristics in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) that were started in 1978 by pragmatists within the Communist Party of China (CPC) led by Deng Xiaoping and are ongoing... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Not to be confused with Political economy. ... Social welfare can be taken to mean the welfare or well-being of a society. ... Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to simultaneously determine the allocational efficiency of a macroeconomy and the income distribution consequences associated with it. ... Per capita personal income in the United States was $29,469 in the year 2000. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with consumption (economics). ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... International trade is defined as trade between two or more partners from different countries (an exporter and an importer). ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services are planned ahead of time, usually in a centralized fashion, though some proposed systems favour decentralized planning. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ... The Standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ...


Rural and agricultural reforms began with major price increases for agricultural products in 1979.[26] In 1981 the authorities began to dismantle the collectively farmed land, and it was with the introduction of the household responsibility system that these fields were contracted out to private families to work, which provided peasants greater decision-making in agricultural activities. During this time, the size of private plots (land actually owned by individuals) was increased, and most restrictions on selling agricultural products in free markets were lifted.[27] Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. ... Chinese Economic Reform (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Găigé kāifàng) refers to the program of economic changes called Socialism with Chinese characteristics in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) that were started in 1978 by pragmatists within the Communist Party of China (CPC) led by... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...


China's people's communes were largely eliminated by 1984 after more than 25 years in existence. Also by that time, much longer-term contracts for land were encouraged (generally 15 years or more), and the concentration of land through subleasing of parcels was made legal. In 1985 the government announced that it would dismantle the system of planned procurements with state-allocated production quotas in agriculture. Peasants who had stopped working the land were encouraged to find private employment in the countryside or in small towns. However, they did not obtain permission to move to major cities at that time.[28] Peoples communes (人民公社 Pinyin: renmin gongshe), in the Peoples Republic of China, were formerly the highest of three administrative levels in rural areas in the period from 1958 to 1982-85, when they were replaced by townships. ... A sublease is when the lessee in a lease assigns the lease to a third party, thereby making the old lessee the sublessor, and the new lessee the sublessee, or subtenant. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ...


With production being introduced in the agricultural sector, private ownership of production assets became legal, although many major non-agricultural and industrial facilities were still state-owned and centrally planned. The government also encouraged non-agricultural activities, such as village enterprises in rural areas, and promoted more self-management for state-owned enterprises, increased competition in the marketplace, and facilitated direct contact between Chinese and foreign trading enterprises. China also relied more upon foreign financing and imports. Restraints on foreign trade were relaxed and joint ventures encouraged.[29] This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... A government corporation or government-owned corporation is a legal entity created by a government to exercise some of the powers of the government. ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ... Finance addresses the ways in which individuals, business entities and other organizations allocate and use monetary resources over time. ... International trade is defined as trade between two or more partners from different countries (an exporter and an importer). ... A joint venture (often abbreviated JV) is an entity formed between two or more parties to undertake economic activity together. ...

"What is socialism and what is Marxism? We were not quite clear about this in the past. Marxism attaches utmost importance to developing the productive forces. We have said that socialism is the primary stage of communism and that at the advanced stage the principle of from each according to his ability and to each according to his needs will be applied. This calls for highly developed productive forces and an overwhelming abundance of material wealth. Therefore, the fundamental task for the socialist stage is to develop the productive forces. The superiority of the socialist system is demonstrated, in the final analysis, by faster and greater development of those forces than under the capitalist system. As they develop, the people's material and cultural life will constantly improve. One of our shortcomings after the founding of the People's Republic was that we didn't pay enough attention to developing the productive forces. Socialism means eliminating poverty. Pauperism is not socialism, still less communism."
— Chinese paramount leader Deng Xiaoping on June 30, 1984[30]

Urban economic reform was aimed at integrating China more fully with the international economy. The development of the private sector was allowed and it was permitted to compete with state firms in a number of service sectors, and increasingly in infrastructure operations, such as construction.[31] Authorities rationalized the pricing structure and transferred investment somewhat away from the metallurgical and machine-building industries and toward light and high-technology industries, while an emphasis on resolving the energy, transportation, and communications bottlenecks was retained. Individuals were allocated state jobs for which they had specialized training, skills, or talents, and material incentives for individual effort and a consumer ethos were created in order to encourage people to work harder and be more productive. Resource allocation by state planning was reduced and enterprises were made ultimately responsible for their own profits and losses.[32] Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Economic integration is a term used to describe how different aspects between economies are integrated. ... The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... High tech refers to high technology, technology that is at the cutting-edge and the most advanced currently available. ... All text and figures relate to mainland China only, unless stated. ... A bottleneck is literally the neck of a glass or pottery bottle. ... Look up expert in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the game developer, see Incentive Software. ... In strategic planning, a resource-allocation decision is a plan for using available resources, for example human resources, especially in the near term, to achieve goals for the future. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up loss in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Central government (mandatory) planning was reduced and the profit remission system was replaced with contracting and tax-based systems.[33] The reduction in the scope of mandatory planning was based on the assumption that market forces can more efficiently allocate many resources. This assumption, in turn, requires a rational pricing system that takes into account any and all extant technologies and scarcities. Because extensive subsidies were built into the economic system, however, price reform became an extremely sensitive issue. The fear of inflation also served as a constraint on price reform. Nevertheless, the fact that products produced in excess of amounts targeted in the plan could be sold, in most cases, at essentially free market prices had created a two-tiered price system that was designed to gradually wean the economy from the administratively fixed prices of an earlier era. In strategic planning, a resource-allocation decision is a plan for using available resources, for example human resources, especially in the near term, to achieve goals for the future. ... Technology (Gr. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...


Several measures were taken to improve the incentives for enterprise managers so as to increase the efficiency of their firms. Enterprises were allowed to keep a substantial share of increases in production, so managers could be rewarded.[34] This combined with the permission for enterprises to buy and sell surplus goods on essentially a free market basis meant that the prices thus obtained were often far higher than for goods produced to meet plan quotas.[34] Managerial authority within firms was strengthened, and bonuses were restored and allowed to grow to significant proportions.[34] Managers also were given greater authority to hire, transfer, suspend, lay off, recall, promote, discharge, assign, reward or discipline workers.[35] The state plan also diverted some resources into the light industrial sector, for example, it gave some light industrial enterprises that produced high-quality goods priority in energy consumption.[34] A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Energy consumption is a measure of the rate of energy use such as fuels or electricity. ...


During the 1980s, these reforms led to average annual rates of growth of 10% in agricultural and industrial output. The variety of light industrial and consumer goods increased. Industry posted major gains especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and across the strait from Taiwan, where foreign investment helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. Rural per capita real income doubled. China became self-sufficient in grain production; rural industries accounted for 23% of agricultural output, helping absorb surplus labor in the countryside. Efforts to create a freer labor market were also part of the overall stress on achieving greater efficiency. As with price reform, tampering with a system that kept many citizens living more comfortably and securely than would an economically more rational system risked serious repercussions in relations with the public. Changes had proceeded slowly in this sensitive area.[36] Real income is the income of individuals or nations after adjusting for inflation. ... Grain redirects here. ... Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market for labour. ...


A decision was made in 1978 to permit foreign direct investment in several small "special economic zones" along the coast.[37] The country lacked the legal infrastructure and knowledge of international practices to make this prospect attractive for many foreign businesses, however.[37] In the early 1980s steps were taken to expand the number of areas that could accept foreign investment with a minimum of red tape, and related efforts were made to develop the legal and other infrastructures necessary to make this work well.[38] This additional effort resulted in making 14 coastal cities and three coastal regions "open areas" for foreign investment. All of these places provide favored tax treatment and other advantages for foreign investment. Laws on contracts, patents, and other matters of concern to foreign businesses were also passed in an effort to attract international capital to spur China's development.[39] The largely bureaucratic nature of China's economy, however, posed a number of inherent problems for foreign firms that wanted to operate in the Chinese environment, and China gradually had to add more incentives to attract foreign capital.[40] This article is about economics. ... Special Economic Zones of the Peoples Republic of China are Special Economic Zones (SEZs) located in mainland China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Red tape (or sometimes paperwork) is a derisive term for excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making. ... Taxes redirects here. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... In sociological theories, bureaucracy is an organizational structure characterized by regularized procedure, division of responsibility, hierarchy, and impersonal relationships. ... For the game developer, see Incentive Software. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ...


The common threads of these reforms were the search for efficiency and an assumption that management of the economy by large governmental bureaucracies was unlikely to produce that result.[31] The changes in China's economic thinking and strategy since 1978 were so great — with the potential repercussions for important vested interests so strong — that actual practice had inevitably lagged considerably behind declaratory policy.[41] Notable during this period were the swings in economic policy between an emphasis on market-oriented reforms and a return to at least partial reliance on centralized planning. Indeed, by the end of 1989 China's economic policy had again begun to place greater emphasis on centralized planning and on large state-run enterprises, signifying a marked slowdown of the reforms.[41] The leadership often experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism (lassitude, political corruption, disrespect of personal property) and of capitalism (windfall gains, a huge and widening gap between rich and poor, stepped-up inflation). The government thus periodically backtracked, re-tightening central controls at intervals. By the late 1980s, the economy became overheated with increasing rates of inflation. At the end of 1988, in reaction to a surge of inflation caused by accelerated price reforms, the leadership introduced an austerity program.[42] That same year, the 22 point regulation was also set by the PRC to encourage Taiwanese investments on mainland soil.[43] For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ... Personal property is a type of property. ... Austerity is a term from economics that describes a policy where nations reduce living standards, curtail development projects, and generally shift the revenue stream out of the physical economy, in order to satisfy the demands of creditors. ...


1990-2000

China's nominal GDP trend from 1952 to 2005.

China's economy regained momentum in the early 1990s. During a Chinese New Year visit to southern China in early 1992, China's paramount leader at the time Deng Xiaoping made a series of political pronouncements designed to give new impetus to and reinvigorate the process of economic reform. The 14th National Communist Party Congress later in the year backed up Deng's renewed push for market reforms, stating that China's key task in the 1990s was to create a "socialist market economy". Continuity in the political system but bolder reform in the economic system were announced as the hallmarks of the 10-year development plan for the 1990s. Image File history File links Prc1952-2005gdp. ... Image File history File links Prc1952-2005gdp. ... GDP redirects here. ... For other traditions of celebrating lunar new year, see Lunar New Year. ... Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a party congress that is held about once every five years. ... Market socialism is an attempt by a Soviet-style economy to introduce market elements into its economic system to improve economic growth. ...


During 1993, output and prices were accelerating, investment outside the state budget was soaring, and economic expansion was fueled by the introduction of more than 2,000 special economic zones (SEZs) and the influx of foreign capital that the SEZs facilitated. The government approved additional long-term reforms aimed at giving still more play to market-oriented institutions and at strengthening central control over the financial system; state enterprises would continue to dominate many key industries in what was now termed a "socialist market economy". Fearing hyperinflation, the authorities called in speculative loans, raised interest rates, and reevaluated investment projects. The growth rate was thus tempered, and the inflation rate dropped from over 17% in 1995 to 8% in early 1996. Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chinas financial system is highly regulated and relatively underdeveloped, but has recently begun to expand rapidly as monetary policy becomes integral to its overall economic policy. ... An interest rate is the price a borrower pays for the use of money he does not own, and the return a lender receives for deferring his consumption, by lending to the borrower. ...


In 1996, the Chinese economy continued to grow at a rapid pace, at about 9.5%, accompanied by low inflation. The economy slowed for the next 3 years, influenced in part by the Asian Financial Crisis, with official growth of 8.9% in 1997, 7.8% in 1998 and 7.1% for 1999. From 1995-1999, inflation dropped sharply, reflecting tighter monetary policies and stronger measures to control food prices. The year 2000 showed a modest reversal of this trend. Gross domestic product in 2000 grew officially at 8.0% that year, and had quadrupled since 1978. In 1999, with its 1.25 billion people but a GDP of just $3,800 per capita (PPP), China became the second largest economy in the world after the US. The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Monetary policy is the process by which the government, central bank...


The Asian financial crisis affected China at the margin, mainly through decreased foreign direct investment and a sharp drop in the growth of its exports. However, China had huge reserves, a currency that was not freely convertible, and capital inflows that consisted overwhelmingly of long-term investment. For these reasons it remained largely insulated from the regional crisis and its commitment not to devalue had been a major stabilizing factor for the region. However, China faced slowing growth and rising unemployment based on internal problems, including a financial system burdened by huge amounts of bad loans, and massive layoffs stemming from aggressive efforts to reform state-owned enterprises (SOEs). This article is about economics. ... Layoff is the termination of employment of an employee or (more commonly) a group of employees for business reasons, such as the decision that certain positions are no longer necessary. ... A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is an enterprise, often a corporation, owned by a government. ...


Despite China's impressive economic development during the past two decades, reforming the state sector and modernizing the banking system remained major hurdles. Over half of China's state-owned enterprises were inefficient and reporting losses. During the 15th National Communist Party Congress that met in September 1997, President Jiang Zemin announced plans to sell, merge, or close the vast majority of SOEs in his call for increased "non-public ownership" (feigongyou or privatization in euphemistic terms). The 9th National People's Congress endorsed the plans at its March 1998 session. In 2000, China claimed success in its three year effort to make the majority of large state owned enterprises (SOEs) profitable. Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a party congress that is held about once every five years. ... Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


2000-present

Following the Chinese Communist Party's Third Plenum, held in October 2003, Chinese legislators unveiled several proposed amendments to the state constitution. One of the most significant was a proposal to provide protection for private property rights. Legislators also indicated there would be a new emphasis on certain aspects of overall government economic policy, including efforts to reduce unemployment (now in the 8-10% range in urban areas), to rebalance income distribution between urban and rural regions, and to maintain economic growth while protecting the environment and improving social equity. The National People's Congress approved the amendments when it met in March 2004. The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Xiànfǎ) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Not to be confused with Political economy. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... This graphic shows the distribution of gross annual household income. ... Environmental movement is a term often used for any social or political movement directed towards the preservation, restoration, or enhancement of the natural environment. ... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ...


The Fifth Plenum in October 2005 approved the 11th Five-Year Economic Program (2006-2010) aimed at building a "harmonious society" through more balanced wealth distribution and improved education, medical care, and social security. On March 2006, the National People's Congress approved the 11th Five-Year Program. The plan called for a relatively conservative 45% increase in GDP and a 20% reduction in energy intensity (energy consumption per unit of GDP) by 2010. Harmonius Society (和谐社会) is a concept raised by the Chinese government (Hu-Wen Administration) during the 10th Annual meeting of the Chinese National Peoples Congress in March of 2005. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Energy intensity is a measure of the energy efficiency of a nations economy. ...


China's economy grew at an average rate of 10% per year during the period 1990-2004, the highest growth rate in the world. China's GDP grew 10.0% in 2003, and even faster, 10.1%, in 2004, and 9.9% in 2005 despite attempts by the government to cool the economy. China's total trade in 2006 surpassed $1.76 trillion, making China the world's third-largest trading nation after the U.S. and Germany. Such high growth is necessary if China is to generate the 15 million jobs needed annually — roughly the size of Ecuador or Cambodia — to employ new entrants into the job market.


Nevertheless, serious imbalances exist behind the spectacular trade performance, high investment flows, and high GDP growth. High numbers of non-performing loans weigh down the state-run banking system. Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are still a drag on growth, despite announced efforts to reform, sell, merge, or close the vast majority of SOEs. A non-performing loan is a loan that is in default or close to being in default. ...


Social and economic indicators have improved since reforms were launched, but rising inequality is evident between the more highly developed coastal provinces and the less developed, poorer inland regions. According to World Bank estimates, around 300 million people in China in 2007 — mostly in rural areas of the lagging inland provinces — still live in poverty, on consumption of less than $1 a day (roughly the size of the United States population).[44] About 47% of the Chinese population lives under $2 a day.[45] The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living. ...


Government role

See also: Government of the People's Republic of China.

Since 1949 the government, under China's socialist political and economic system, has been responsible for planning and managing the national economy.[46] In the early 1950s, the foreign trade system was monopolized by the state. Nearly all the domestic enterprises were state-owned and the government had set the prices for key commodities, controlled the level and general distribution of investment funds, determined output targets for major enterprises and branches, allocated energy resources, set wage levels and employment targets, operated the wholesale and retail networks, and steered the financial policy and banking system. In the countryside from the mid-1950s, the government established cropping patterns, set the level of prices, and fixed output targets for all major crops. State power within the government of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is divided among three bodies: the Communist Party of China, the state, and the Peoples Liberation Army, (PLA). ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... This article is about the economic term. ... Public ownership (also called government ownership or state ownership) is government ownership of any asset, industry, or corporation at any level, national, regional or local (municipal). ... In economics and business, the price is the assigned numerical monetary value of a good, service or asset. ... The word commodity has a different meaning in business than in Marxian political economy. ... Institutional fund management is fund management conducted by large financial firms such as banks, insurance companies and major investment organisations (e. ... A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ... This article is about work. ... Wholesaling consists of the sale of goods/merchandise to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... Look up crop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Since 1978 when economic reforms were instituted, the government role in the economy has lessened to a great degree. Industrial output by state enterprises slowly declined, although a few strategic industries have today remained predominantly state-owned. While the role of the government in managing the economy has been reduced and the role of both private enterprise and market forces increased, the government maintains a major role in the urban economy. With its policies on such issues as agricultural procurement the government also retains a major influence on rural sector performance. The State Constitution of 1982 specified that the state is to guide the country's economic development by making broad decisions on economic priorities and policies, and that the State Council, which exercises executive control, was to direct its subordinate bodies in preparing and implementing the national economic plan and the state budget. A major portion of the government system (bureaucracy) is devoted to managing the economy in a top-down chain of command with all but a few of the more than 100 ministries, commissions, administrations, bureaus, academies, and corporations under the State Council are concerned with economic matters. Capitalism generally refers to a combination of economic practices that became institutionalized in Europe between the 16th and 19th centuries, especially involving the right of individuals and groups of individuals acting as legal persons (or corporations) to buy and sell capital goods such as land, labor, and money (see finance... The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Xiànfǎ) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn), which is largely synonymous with the Central Peoples Government (中央人民政府), is the chief administrative authority of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services are planned ahead of time, usually in a centralized fashion, though some proposed systems favour decentralized planning. ... Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... Top-down and Bottom-up are approaches to the software development process, and by extension to other procedures, mostly involving software. ... IS the order you go to see people in. ...


Each significant economic sector is supervised and controlled by one or more of these organizations, which includes the People's Bank of China, National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Finance, and the ministries of agriculture; coal industry; commerce; communications; education; light industry; metallurgical industry; petroleum industry; railways; textile industry; and water resources and electric power. Several aspects of the economy are administered by specialized departments under the State Council, including the National Bureau of Statistics, Civil Aviation Administration of China, and the tourism bureau. Each of the economic organizations under the State Council directs the units under its jurisdiction through subordinate offices at the provincial and local levels. The Peoples Bank of China (PBC) (Simplified Chinese: 中国人民银行; Traditional Chinese: 中國人民銀行; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Yínháng ) (not to be confused with the Bank of China or the Central Bank of China) is the central bank of the Peoples Republic of China with the power to... The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) is a powerful macroeconomic management agency under the Chinese State Council, which has broad administrative and planning control over the Chinese economy. ... The Ministry of Finance of the Peoples Republic of China (simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the national executive agency of the Central Peoples Government which administers macroeconomic policies and the national annual budget. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... The oil industry is a type of industry which brings petroleum to a financial market. ... End of the single track, unelectrified line at Bad Radkersburg, Styria, Austria, quite close to the Slovenian border. ... The Textile industry (also known in the United Kingdom and Australia as the Rag Trade) is a term used for industries primarily concerned with the design or manufacture of clothing as well as the distribution and use of textiles . ... Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... Category: ... Known by the acronym CAAC, with the official name of General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (中国民用航空总局, pinyin Zhongguo Renyong Hangkong Zongju). ...


The whole policy-making process involves extensive consultation and negotiation.[47] Economic policies and decisions adopted by the National People's Congress and the State Council are to be passed on to the economic organizations under the State Council, which incorporates them into the plans for the various sectors of the economy. Economic plans and policies are implemented by a variety of direct and indirect control mechanisms. Direct control is exercised by designating specific physical output quotas and supply allocations for some goods and services. Indirect instruments — also called "economic levers" — operate by affecting market incentives. These included levying taxes, setting prices for products and supplies, allocating investment funds, monitoring and controlling financial transactions by the banking system, and controlling the allocation of key resources, such as skilled labor, electric power, transportation, steel, and chemicals (including fertilizers). The main advantage of including a project in an annual plan is that the raw materials, labor, financial resources, and markets are guaranteed by directives that have the weight of the law behind them. In reality, however, a great deal of economic activity goes on outside the scope of the detailed plan, and the tendency has been for the plan to become narrower rather than broader in scope. A major objective of the reform program was to reduce the use of direct controls and to increase the role of indirect economic levers. Major state-owned enterprises still receive detailed plans specifying physical quantities of key inputs and products from their ministries. These corporations, however, have been increasingly affected by prices and allocations that were determined through market interaction and only indirectly influenced by the central plan. The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the game developer, see Incentive Software. ... -1... Institutional fund management is fund management conducted by large financial firms such as banks, insurance companies and major investment organisations (e. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is an enterprise, often a corporation, owned by a government. ...


Total economic enterprise in China is apportioned along lines of directive planning (mandatory), indicative planning (indirect implementation of central directives), and those left to market forces. In the early 1980s during the initial reforms enterprises began to have increasing discretion over the quantities of inputs purchased, the sources of inputs, the variety of products manufactured, and the production process. Operational supervision over economic projects has devolved primarily to provincial, municipal, and county governments. The majority of state-owned industrial enterprises, which were managed at the provincial level or below, were partially regulated by a combination of specific allocations and indirect controls, but they also produced goods outside the plan for sale in the market. Important, scarce resources — for example, engineers or finished steel — may have been assigned to this kind of unit in exact numbers. Less critical assignments of personnel and materials would have been authorized in a general way by the plan, but with procurement arrangements left up to the enterprise management. A province, in the context of China, is a translation of Sheng (Chinese: 省 ShÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Look up Procurement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In addition, enterprises themselves are gaining increased independence in a range of activity. While strategically important industry and services and most of large-scale construction have remained under directive planning, the market economy has gained rapidly in scale every year as it subsumes more and more sectors.[48] Overall, the Chinese industrial system contains a complex mixture of relationships. The State Council generally administers relatively strict control over resources deemed to be of vital concern for the performance and health of the entire economy. Less vital aspects of the economy have been transferred to lower levels for detailed decisions and management. Furthermore, the need to coordinate entities that are in different organizational hierarchies generally causes a great deal of informal bargaining and consensus building.[48] A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ...


Consumer spending has been subject to a limited degree of direct government influence but is primarily determined by the basic market forces of income levels and commodity prices. Before the reform period, key goods were rationed when they were in short supply, but by the mid-1980s availability had increased to the point that rationing was discontinued for everything except grain, which could also be purchased in the free markets. Collectively owned units and the agricultural sector were regulated primarily by indirect instruments. Each collective unit was "responsible for its own profit and loss," and the prices of its inputs and products provided the major production incentives. Consumer demand or consumption is also known as personal consumption expenditure. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...


Vast changes were made in relaxing the state control of the agricultural sector from the late 1970s. The structural mechanisms for implementing state objectives — the people's communes and their subordinate teams and brigades — have been either entirely eliminated or greatly diminished.[49] Farm incentives have been boosted both by price increases for state-purchased agricultural products, and it was permitted to sell excess production on a free market. There was more room in the choice of what crops to grow, and peasants are allowed to contract for land that they will work, rather than simply working most of the land collectively. The system of procurement quotas (fixed in the form of contracts) has been being phased out, although the state can still buy farm products and control surpluses in order to affect market conditions.[50] Peoples communes (人民公社 Pinyin: renmin gongshe), in the Peoples Republic of China, were formerly the highest of three administrative levels in rural areas in the period from 1958 to 1982-85, when they were replaced by townships. ... For the game developer, see Incentive Software. ...


Foreign trade is supervised by the Ministry of Commerce, customs, and the Bank of China, the foreign exchange arm of the Chinese banking system, which controls access to the foreign currency required for imports. Ever since restrictions on foreign trade were reduced, there have been broad opportunities for individual enterprises to engage in exchanges with foreign firms without much intervention from official agencies. International trade is defined as trade between two or more partners from different countries (an exporter and an importer). ... The Ministry of Commerce of the Peoples Republic of China (MOFCOM) is one of the ministries of the State Council of China. ... Bank of China Limited (BOC) SEHK: 3988 (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; often abbreviated as 中行) is one of the big four state-owned commercial banks of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chinas financial system is highly regulated and relatively underdeveloped, but has recently begun to expand rapidly as monetary policy becomes integral to its overall economic policy. ...


Although the government still dominates the economy in parts, the extent of its control has been limited by the sheer volume of economic activity. Furthermore, the concept of government supervision of the economy had changed from one of direct state control to one of indirect guidance of a more dynamic economy.


Regional economies

China's underdeveloped transportation system — combined with important differences in the availability of natural and human resources and in industrial infrastructure — has produced significant variations in the regional economies of China. A road in Beijing, Chinas capital Transportation in the Peoples Republic of China has experienced major growth and expansion since 1949 and especially since the early 1980s. ... Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... This article is about human resources as it applies to business, labor, and economies. ...


Economic development has generally been more rapid in coastal provinces than in the interior, and there are large disparities in per capita income between regions. The three wealthiest regions are along the southeast coast, centred on the Pearl River Delta; along the east coast, centred on the Lower Yangtze River; and near the Bohai Gulf, in the Beijing-Tianjin-Liaoning region. It is the rapid development of these areas that is expected to have the most significant effect on the Asian regional economy as a whole, and Chinese government policy is designed to remove the obstacles to accelerated growth in these wealthier regions. Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of Pearl River Delta (details) The Pearl River Delta Region (PRD) in China occupies the low-lying areas alongside the Pearl River estuary where the Pearl river flows into the South China Sea. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... Bo Hai (Chinese: 渤海; pinyin: B hăi; Wade-Giles: Po-hai lit. ... Peking redirects here. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

See also: List of administrative regions by GDP, List of administrative regions by GDP per capita, and List of cities by GDP per capita.

This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of Mainland China (including all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities) in order of their total gross domestic product in 2003. ... This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), including all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, in order of their total gross domestic product per capita in 2004. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Development

See also: List of administrative divisions by Human Development Index (HDI).

herro, did you know aryn and shawna Mao suck at life China, economically extremely backward before 1949, has become one of the world's major economic powers with the greatest potential. In the 22 years following reform and opening-up in 1979 in particular, China's economy developed at an unprecedented rate, and that momentum has been held steady into the 21st century. In 2004, China further strengthened and improved its macro control, and the economy entered its best ever development period of recent years. The gross domestic product (GDP) for 2004 amounted to 13,687.59 billion yuan, 9.5 percent higher than the previous year. This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), including all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, in order of their Human Development Index (HDI). ...


China adopts the "five-year-plan" strategy for economic development. The 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) is the currently being implemented. The five-year plans of China were a series of economic development initiatives. ... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ...


Three-Step Development Strategy

China's overall economic construction objectives were clearly stated in the Three Step Development Strategy set out in 1987: Step One--to double the 1980 GNP and ensure that the people have enough food and clothing -- was attained by the end of the 1980s; Step Two--to quadruple the 1980 GNP by the end of the 20th century --was achieved in 1995 ahead of schedule; Step Three--to increase per-capita GNP to the level of the medium-developed countries by 2050--at which point, the Chinese people will be fairly well-off and modernization will be basically realized.


Regional development

The wealthy east coast
"Rise of Central China"
"Revitalize Northeast China"
"China Western Development"

These strategies are aimed at the relatively poorer regions in China in an attempt to prevent widening inequalities: Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Revitalize The Old Northeast Industrial Bases (Chinese: 振兴东北老工业基地; Pinyin: Zhènxīng Dōngběi Lǎo Gōngyè Jīdì), also Revitalize Northeast China or Northeast China Revitalization, is a policy adopted by the Peoples Republic of China to rejuvenate the old industrial bases in the northeastern regions. ... China Western Development (西部大开发 Pinyin: Xībù Dàkāifā), also Chinas Western Development or Western China Development, is a policy adopted by the Peoples Republic of China to boost its underdeveloped western regions. ...

  • Great Western Development, designed to improve the economic situation of the western provinces through capital investment and development of natural resources.
  • Revitalize Northeast China, to rejuvenate the industrial bases in the northeastern China. It covers 3 provinces: Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning.
  • Rise of Central China Plan, to accelerate the development of its central regions. It covers 6 provinces: Shanxi, Henan, Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, and Jiangxi.
  • Third Front, focused on the southwestern provinces.

Foreign investment abroad: Revitalize The Old Northeast Industrial Bases (Chinese: 振兴东北老工业基地; Pinyin: Zhènxīng Dōngběi Lǎo Gōngyè Jīdì), also Revitalize Northeast China or Northeast China Revitalization, is a policy adopted by the Peoples Republic of China to rejuvenate the old industrial bases in the northeastern regions. ... The Third Front is a massive Chinese development of industry in its south-western interior, where it would be strategically secure in the event of a war. ...

  • Go Global, to encourage its enterprises to invest overseas.

Go Global is Chinas current strategy to encourage its enterprises to invest overseas. ...

Key national projects

The "West-to-East Electricity Transmission," the "West-to-East Gas Transmission," and the "South-North Water Transfer Project" are the government's three key strategic projects, aimed at realigning overall economic development and achieving rational distribution of national resources across China. The "West-to-East Electricity Transmission" project is in full swing, involving hydropower and coal resources in western China and the construction of new power transmission channels to deliver electricity to the east. The southern power grid line, transmitting three million kW from Guizhou to Guangdong, was completed in September 2004. The "West-to-East Gas Transmission" project includes a 4,000 km trunk pipeline running through 10 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities, conveying natural gas to cities in northern and eastern China. This was finished in October 2004 and has a design capacity of 12 billion cu m per year. Construction of the "South-to-North Water Diversion" project was officially launched on 27 December 2002 and completion of Phase I is scheduled for 2010; this will relieve serious water shortfall in northern China and realize a rational distribution of the water resources of the Yangtze, Yellow, Huaihe, and Haihe river valleys. The South-North Water Transfer Project (Chinese:南水北调工程) is a proposed scheme by the Peoples Republic of China to divert water from the Yangtze River to the Yellow River. ... (Simplified Chinese: 贵州; Traditional Chinese: 貴州; pinyin: Gùizhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuei-chou; also spelled Kweichow) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ...


Hong Kong and Macau

In accordance with the One Country, Two Systems policy, the economies of the former European colonies, Hong Kong and Macao, are separate from the rest of the PRC, and each other. Both Hong Kong and Macau are free to conduct and engage in economic negotiations with foreign countries, as well as participating as full members in various international economic organizations such as the World Customs Organization, the World Trade Organization and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, often under the names "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao, China". Portuguese name Portuguese: Um país, dois sistemas One country, two systems is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping during the early 1980s, then Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China. ... The Economy of Hong Kong is widely believed, and some argue incorrectly, to be the most economically free in the world. ... The economy of Macau is based largely on tourism (including gambling) and textile and fireworks manufacturing. ... Portuguese name Portuguese: Um país, dois sistemas One country, two systems is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping during the early 1980s, then Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China. ... The World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization that helps Members (currently Customs administrations from 169 countries) communicate and co-operate on customs issues. ... WTO redirects here. ... APEC redirects here. ...

See also: Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement with Hong Kong and Macau.

Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA, Traditional Chinese: ) can refer to one of the following agreements between the customs territories within the Peoples Republic of China: Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (Traditional Chinese: ) Mainland and Macau Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (Traditional Chinese: , Portuguese: Acordo de Estreitamento das...

Macroeconomic trends

The table below shows the trend of the GDP of China at market prices estimated by the IMF with figures in millions (Chinese yuan).[51][52] For purchasing power parity comparisons, the US dollar is exchanged at 2.05 CNY only. IMF redirects here. ... This article is about the Chinese currency base unit. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...

Year Gross domestic product US dollar exchange Inflation index (2000=100)
1955 91,000 2.46 -
1960 145,700 2.46 -
1965 171,600 2.46 -
1970 225,300 2.46 21.3
1975 299,700 1.86 22.4
1980 460,906 1.49 25
1985 896,440 2.93 30
1990 1,854,790 4.78 49
1995 6,079,400 8.35 91
2000 9,921,500 8.27 100
2005 18,308,500 8.19 106

Average wages in 2007 hover around $12-14 per day (just below Guatemalan levels).


Systemic problems

The government has in recent years struggled to contain the social strife and environmental damage related to the economy's rapid transformation; collect public receipts due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; reduce corruption and other economic crimes; sustain adequate job growth for tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; and keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises, most of which had not participated in the vigorous expansion of the economy and many of which had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 50 to 100 million surplus rural workers were adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's population control program. Another long-term threat to continued rapid economic growth has been the deterioration in the environment, notably air and water pollution, soil erosion, growing desertification and the steady fall of the water table especially in the north. China also has continued to lose arable land because of erosion and infrastructure development. Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... For other uses, see Crime (disambiguation). ... A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is an enterprise, often a corporation, owned by a government. ... A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The one-child policy is the current birth control policy of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities, which can be harmful to organisms and... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Other major problems concern the labor force and the pricing system. There is large-scale underemployment in both urban and rural areas, and the fear of the disruptive effects of major, explicit unemployment is strong. The prices of certain key commodities, especially of industrial raw materials and major industrial products, are determined by the state. In most cases, basic price ratios were set in the 1950s and are often irrational in terms of current production capabilities and demands. Over the years, large subsidies were built into the price structure, and these subsidies grew substantially in the late 1970s and 1980s.[53] By the early 1990s these subsidies began to be eliminated, in large part due to China's admission into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, which carried with it requirements for further economic liberalization and deregulation. China's ongoing economic transformation has had a profound impact not only on China but on the world. The market-oriented reforms China has implemented over the past two decades have unleashed individual initiative and entrepreneurship. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In economics, the term underemployment has at least three different distinct meanings and applications. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... The word commodity has a different meaning in business than in Marxian political economy. ... A Raw material is something that is acted upon by human labour or industry to create some product that humans desire. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... WTO redirects here. ... Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizing mature organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. ...


Regulatory environment

Though China's economy has expanded rapidly, its regulatory environment has not kept pace. Since Deng Xiaoping's open market reforms, the growth of new businesses has outpaced the government's ability to regulate them. This has created a situation where businesses, faced with mounting competition and poor oversight, will be willing to take drastic measures to increase profit margins, often at the expense of consumer safety. This issue acquired more prominence in 2007, with a number of restrictions being placed on problematic Chinese exports by the United States. The Chinese Government recognizes the severity of the problem, recently concluding that up to 20% of the country's products are substandard or tainted. A regulation is a legal restriction promulgated by government administrative agencies through rulemaking supported by a threat of sanction or a fine. ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ... Look up oversight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Profit margin is a measure of profitability. ... Consumer protection is government regulation to protect the interests of consumers, for example by requiring businesses to disclose detailed information about products, particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food. ...


Inflation

During the winter of 2007-2008, inflation ran about 7% on an annual basis, rising to 8.7% in statistics for February, 2008, released in March, 2008.[54][55][56] The food and fuel sectors were major problem areas, with meat and fuel posing special difficulties.


Shortages of gasoline and diesel fuel developed in the fall of 2007 due to reluctance of refineries to produce fuel at low prices set by the state. These prices were slightly increased in November, 2007 with fuel selling for $2.65 a gallon, still slightly below world prices. Price controls were in effect on numerous basic products and services, but were ineffective with food, prices of which were rising at an annual rate of 18.2% in November, 2007.[57][58] The problem of inflation has caused concern at the highest levels of the Chinese government. On January 9, 2008 the government of China issued the following statement on its official website: "The Chinese government decided on Wednesday to take further measures to stabilize market prices and increase the severity of punishments for those guilty of driving up prices through hoarding or cheating."[59][60] In economics, incomes policies are wage and price controls used to fight inflation. ...


Pork is an important part of the Chinese economy with a per capita consumption of a fifth of a pound per day. The worldwide rise in the price of animal feed associated with increased production of ethanol from corn resulted in steep rises in pork prices in China in 2007. Increased cost of production interacted badly with increased demand resulting from rapidly rising wages. The state responded by subsidizing pork prices for students and the urban poor and called for increased production. Release of pork from the nation's strategic pork reserve was considered.[61]


By January 2008, the inflation rate rose to 7.1%, which BBC News described as the highest inflation rate since 1997, due to the winter storms that month.[62]China's inflation rate jumped to a new decade high of 8.7 percent in February 2008 after severe winter storms disrupted the economy and worsened food shortages, the government said March 11, 2008.[63] This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Labor shortages and rising export costs

See also: Labor section below.

By 2005, there were signs of stronger demand for labor with workers being able to choose employment which offered higher wages and better working conditions, enabling some to move away from the restrictive dormitory life and boring factory work which have characterized export industries in provinces such as Guangdong and Fujian. Minimum wages began rising toward the equivalent of 100 U.S. dollars a month as companies scrambled for employees, with some paying as much as $150 a month on average. The labor shortage was partially driven by the demographic trends, as the proportion of people of working age fell as the result of strict family planning.[64] Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... Demographics of China, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Oral contraceptives. ...


It was reported in The New York Times in April 2006 that labor costs continued to increase and a shortage of unskilled labor had developed with a million or more employees being sought. Operations which relied on cheap labor were contemplating relocations to cities in the interior or to other low-cost countries such as Vietnam or Bangladesh. Many young people were attending college rather than opting for minimum-wage factory work. The demographic shift resulting from the one-child policy continued to reduce the supply of young entry-level workers. Also, government efforts to advance economic development in the interior of the country were beginning to be effective at creating better opportunities there.[65] A follow-up article in The New York Times in late August 2007 reported acceleration of this trend. The minimum wage a young unskilled factory worker could be hired at had increased to $200 with experienced workers commanding more. There was strong demand for young workers willing to work long hours and live in dormitory conditions, while older workers, over forty, were considered unsuitable. Rising wages were being, to a certain extent, offset by increases in productivity, but in 2007, a slight rise in the cost of imports from China was recorded by the United States government: "After falling since its inception in December, 2003, the price index for imports from China rose 0.4 percent in July, 2007, the largest monthly increase since the index was first published in December 2003. The July increase was the third consecutive monthly advance. Over the past year, import prices from China increased 0.9 percent."[66][67] By February, 2008, concerns were being raised that rising wages and inflation in China were beginning to create inflationary pressure in the United States and Europe, which had depended on cheap prices for consumer goods from China exerting downward pressure on prices.[68] Population ageing or population aging (see English spelling differences) occurs when the median age of a country or region rises. ... The phrase one-child policy is commonly used in English to refer to the population control policy (or Planned Birth policy) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


Financial and banking system

A Shanghai branch of Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
A Shanghai branch of Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
Main articles: Chinese financial system and Banking in the People's Republic of China

Most of China's financial institutions are state governed. The chief instruments of financial and fiscal control are the People's Bank of China (PBC) and the Ministry of Finance, both under the authority of the State Council. The People's Bank of China replaced the Central Bank of China in 1950 and gradually took over private banks. It fulfills many of the functions of other central and commercial banks. It issues the currency, controls circulation, and plays an important role in disbursing budgetary expenditures. Additionally, it administers the accounts, payments, and receipts of government organizations and other bodies, which enables it to exert thorough supervision over their financial and general performances in consideration to the government's economic plans. The PBC is also responsible for international trade and other overseas transactions. Remittances by overseas Chinese are managed by the Bank of China (BOC), which has a number of branch offices in several countries. Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , more commonly just 工行 Gōngháng) is the largest of Chinas Big Four state-owned commercial banks, the other 3 banks being the Bank of China, Agricultural Bank of China, and China Construction Bank, and one of... Chinas financial system is highly regulated and relatively underdeveloped, but has recently begun to expand rapidly as monetary policy becomes integral to its overall economic policy. ... The field of finance refers to the concepts of time, money and risk and how they are interelated. ... Fiscal policy is the economic term that defines the set of principles and decisions of a government in setting the level of public expenditure and how that expenditure is funded. ... The Peoples Bank of China (PBC) (Simplified Chinese: 中国人民银行; Traditional Chinese: 中國人民銀行; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Yínháng ) (not to be confused with the Bank of China or the Central Bank of China) is the central bank of the Peoples Republic of China with the power to... The Ministry of Finance of the Peoples Republic of China (simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the national executive agency of the Central Peoples Government which administers macroeconomic policies and the national annual budget. ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn), which is largely synonymous with the Central Peoples Government (中央人民政府), is the chief administrative authority of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Central Bank of China (中央銀行) is the central bank of the Republic of China (on Taiwan). ... Private banks are banks which are not incorporated, and hence the entirety of their assets is available to meet the liabilities of the bank. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A commercial bank is a type of financial intermediary and a type of bank. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... A transaction is an agreement, communication, or movement carried out between separate entities or objects. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Bank of China Limited (BOC) SEHK: 3988 (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; often abbreviated as 中行) is one of the big four state-owned commercial banks of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Other financial institutions that are crucial, include the China Development Bank (CDB), which funds economic development and directs foreign investment; the Agricultural Bank of China (ABC), which provides for the agricultural sector; the China Construction Bank (CCB), which is responsible for capitalizing a portion of overall investment and for providing capital funds for certain industrial and construction enterprises; and the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), which conducts ordinary commercial transactions and acts as a savings bank for the public. The China Development Bank (CDB) (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Guójiā Kāifā Yínháng) is a financial institution in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) under the direct jurisdiction of the State Council. ... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... Investment is a term with several closely-related meanings in finance and economics. ... The Agricultural Bank of China ( 中国农业银行, pinyin: Zhōngguó Nóngyè Yínháng ) is one of the big four banks in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The China Construction Bank (CCB) SEHK: 0939 (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó Jiànshè Yínháng) is one of the big four banks in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Invest redirects here. ... Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , more commonly just 工行 Gōngháng) is the largest of Chinas Big Four state-owned commercial banks, the other 3 banks being the Bank of China, Agricultural Bank of China, and China Construction Bank, and one of... A savings bank is a financial institution whose primary purpose is accepting savings deposits. ...

China's economic reforms greatly increased the economic role of the banking system. Enterprises and individuals can go to the banks to obtain loans outside the state plan, and this has proved to be a major source of financing both for start-up companies and businesses and for the expansion, modernization or privatization of existing enterprises. Even though nearly all investment capital was previously provided on a grant basis according to the state plan, policy has since the start of the reform shifted to a loan basis through the various state-directed financial institutions. Increasing amounts of funds are made available through the banks for economic and commercial purposes. Foreign sources of capital have also become increasingly prominent. China has received loans from the World Bank and several United Nations programs, as well as from countries (particularly Japan) and, to a lesser extent, commercial banks. Hong Kong has been a major conduit of this investment, as well as a source itself. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese stock exchange based in the city of Shanghai, with a market capitalization of nearly US$2. ... Chinese Economic Reform (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refers to the program of economic changes called Socialism with Chinese characteristics in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) that were started in 1978 by pragmatists within the Communist Party of China (CPC) led by Deng Xiaoping and are ongoing... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... Look up Grant, grant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Loan (disambiguation). ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Chinas seat in the United Nations has been occupied by the Peoples Republic of China since October 25, 1971. ...


With two stock exchanges (Shanghai Stock Exchange and Shenzhen Stock Exchange), mainland China's stock market had a market value of $1 trillion by January 2007, which became the third largest stock market in Asia, after Japan and Hong Kong.[69] It is estimated to be the world's third largest by 2016.[70] The Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese stock exchange based in the city of Shanghai, with a market capitalization of nearly US$2. ... Shenzhen Stock Exchange building Shenzhen Stock Exchange building Shenzhen Stock Exchange (深圳交易所) is one of the Peoples Republic of Chinas three stock exchanges. ...


Currency system

See also: Renminbi, Chinese yuan, and Currency of China.

The renminbi (“people’s currency”) is the currency of the mainland, denominated as the yuan, subdivided into 10 jiao or 100 fen. The renminbi is issued by the People's Bank of China, the monetary authority of the PRC. The ISO 4217 abbreviation is CNY, although also commonly abbreviated as "RMB". The Latinised symbol is ¥. The yuan is generally considered by outside observers to be undervalued by about 30%.[71] CNY and RMB redirect here. ... This article is about the Chinese currency base unit. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... This article is about the Chinese currency base unit. ... This article is about the Chinese currency base unit. ... This article is about the Chinese currency base unit. ... The Peoples Bank of China (PBC) (Simplified Chinese: 中国人民银行; Traditional Chinese: 中國人民銀行; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Yínháng ) (not to be confused with the Bank of China or the Central Bank of China) is the central bank of the Peoples Republic of China with the power to... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Â¥ Â¥9 Chinese price sticker Â¥ is a currency sign used for the following currencies: Chinese yuan (CNY) Japanese yen (JPY) The base unit of the two currencies above share the same Chinese character (圓/å…ƒ/円), pronounced yuan in Mandarin Chinese and en in Standard Japanese. ...


The renminbi is held in a floating exchange-rate system managed primarily against the US dollar. On July 21, 2005 China revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and, since then has moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies and has allowed the renminbi to fluctuate at a daily rate of up to half a percent. In finance, the exchange rate (also known as the foreign-exchange rate, forex rate or FX rate) between two currencies specifies how much one currency is worth in terms of the other. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The rate of exchange (Chinese yuan per US$1) in mid-2007 was RMB 7.45, while in early 2006 was RMB 8.07:US $1 = 8.2793 yuan (January 2000), 8.2783 (1999), 8.2790 (1998), 8.2898 (1997), 8.3142 (1996), 8.3514 (1995).


Beginning January 1, 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Peoples Bank of China (PBC) (Simplified Chinese: 中国人民银行; Traditional Chinese: 中國人民銀行; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Yínháng ) (not to be confused with the Bank of China or the Central Bank of China) is the central bank of the Peoples Republic of China with the power to... USD redirects here. ...


There is a complex relationship between China's balance of trade, inflation, measured by the consumer price index and the value of its currency. Despite allowing the value of the yuan to "float", China's central bank has decisive ability to control its value with relationship to other currencies. Inflation in 2007, reflecting sharply rising prices for meat and fuel, is probably related to the worldwide rise in commodities used as animal feed or as fuel. Thus rapid rises in the value of the yuan permitted in December, 2007 are possibly related to efforts to mitigate inflation by permitting the renminbi to be worth more.[72] The balance of trade encompasses the activity of exports and imports, like the work of this cargo ship going through the Panama Canal. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Tax system

Main article: Tax system in China

From the 1950s to the 1980s, the central government's revenues derived chiefly from the profits of the state enterprises, which were remitted to the state. Some government revenues also came from taxes, of which the most important was the general industrial and commercial tax. For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ... Taxes redirects here. ...


The trend, however, has been for remitted profits of the state enterprises to be replaced with taxes on those profits. Initially, this tax system was adjusted so as to allow for differences in the capitalization and pricing situations of various firms, but more-uniform tax schedules were introduced in the early 1990s. In addition, personal income and value-added taxes were implemented at that time. Capitalization (or capitalisation) is writing a word with its first letter as a majuscule (upper case letter) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lower case letters), in those writing systems which have a case distinction. ... Per capita personal income in the United States was $29,469 in the year 2000. ... Value added tax (VAT) is a sales tax levied on the sale of goods and services. ...


Agriculture

Main articles: Agriculture in the People's Republic of China and Agriculture in China
Production of wheat from 1961-2004. Data from FAO, year 2005. Y-axis: Production in metric ton.
Production of wheat from 1961-2004. Data from FAO, year 2005. Y-axis: Production in metric ton.

China is the world's most populous country and one of the largest producers and consumers of agricultural products. According to the United Nations World Food Program, in 2003, China fed 20 percent of the world's population with only 7 percent of the world's arable land.[73] China ranks first worldwide in farm output, and, as a result of topographic and climatic factors, only about 10–15 percent of the total land area is suitable for cultivation. Of this, slightly more than half is unirrigated, and the remainder is divided roughly equally between paddy fields and irrigated areas. Nevertheless, about 60 percent of the population lives in the rural areas, and until the 1980s a high percentage of them made their living directly from farming. Since then, many have been encouraged to leave the fields and pursue other activities, such as light manufacturing, commerce, and transportation; and by the mid-1980s farming accounted for less than half of the value of rural output. Today, agriculture contributes only 13% of China's GDP. Agriculture is the most important economic sector of China, employing over 300 million farmers- nearly half of its work force. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... The World Food Programme (WFP) is an agency of the United Nations which distributes food commodities to support development projects, to long-term refugees and displaced persons and as emergency food assistance in situations of natural and man-made disasters. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Agricultural output in January 2008 Industrial output in January 2008 Service output in January 2008 This is a list of countries by GDP sector composition based on nominal GDP estimates and sector composition ratios provided by the CIA World Fact Book at market or government official exchange rates with figures... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... Irrigating cotton fields Irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the movement of people or objects, see transport. ...


The quality of the soil varies. Environmental problems such as floods, drought, and erosion pose serious threats in many parts of the country. The wholesale destruction of forests gave way to an energetic reforestation program that proved inadequate, and forest resources are still fairly meagre.[74] The principal forests are found in the Qinling Mountains and the central mountains and on the Sichuan-Yunnan plateau. Because they are inaccessible, the Qinling forests are not worked extensively, and much of the country's timber comes from Heilongjiang, Jilin, Sichuan, and Yunnan. According to the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, soil quality is the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support human health and habitation. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States from Hurricane Wilmas storm surge in October 2005 For other uses, see Flood (disambiguation). ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... This article is about a community of trees. ... Biodiversity on a 15-year-old reforested plot of land. ... The Qinling Mountains (Chinese Simplified 秦岭, Chinese Traditional 秦嶺) are a major mountain range in central China. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... For the city, see Jilin City. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Yunan redirects here. ...


About 45 percent of China's labor force is engaged in agriculture. There are over 300 million Chinese farm workers - mostly laboring on small pieces of land relative to U.S. farms. Virtually all arable land is used for food crops. China is the world's largest producer of rice and is among the principal sources of wheat, corn (maize), tobacco, soybeans, peanuts (groundnuts), cotton, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, oilseed, pork, and fish. Major non-food crops, including cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds, furnish China with a small proportion of its foreign trade revenue. Agricultural exports, such as vegetables and fruits, fish and shellfish, grain and grain products, and meat and meat products, are exported to Hong Kong. Yields are high because of intensive cultivation, for example, China's cropland area is only 75% of the U.S. total, but China still produces about 30% more crops and livestock than the United States. China hopes to further increase agricultural production through improved plant stocks, fertilizers, and technology. For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up crop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... For other uses, see Peanut (disambiguation). ... This article is about peanut, the food. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... This article is about the legume. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Vegetable oil or vegoil is fat extracted from plant sources. ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Vegetable oil or vegoil is fat extracted from plant sources. ... Intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the significant use of inputs, and seeking to maximize the production. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


Though incomes for farmers have continued to rise over the past two decades, the rate of growth has fallen further behind that of urban residents, leading to an increasing wealth gap between the cities and countryside. Government policies that have continued to emphasize grain self-sufficiency and the fact that farmers do not own — and cannot buy or sell — the land they work have contributed to this situation. In addition, inadequate port facilities and lack of warehousing and cold storage facilities impede both domestic and international agricultural trade.


Western China, comprising Tibet, Xinjiang, and Qinghai, has little agricultural significance except for areas of floriculture and cattle raising. Rice, China's most important crop, is dominant in the southern provinces, many of which yield two harvests a year. In the north, wheat is of the greatest importance, while in central China wheat and rice vie with each other for the top place. Millet and kaoliang (a variety of grain sorghum) are grown mainly in the northeast and some central provinces, which, together with some northern areas, also provide considerable quantities of barley. Most of the soybean crop is derived from the north and the northeast; corn (maize) is grown in the center and the north, while tea comes mainly from the hilly areas of the southeast. Cotton is grown extensively in the central provinces, but it is also found to a lesser extent in the southeast and in the north. Tobacco comes from the center and parts of the south. Other important crops are potatoes, sugar beets, and oilseeds. Western China Western China refers to the western part of China. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... Kaoliang jiu (literally sorghum liquor; often called simply kaoliang) is a strong distilled liquor, made from fermented sorghum (which is called gaoliang in Chinese). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Soy redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ...


There is still a relative lack of, especially advanced, agricultural machinery. For the most part the Chinese peasant or farmer depends on simple, nonmechanized farming implements. Good progress has been made in increasing water conservancy, and about half the cultivated land is under irrigation. Mechanized military units are otherwise slow-moving or immobile military units that have had trucks or other ground transport systems added to their formation to add to or improve their mobility. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ...


Animal husbandry constitutes the second most important component of agricultural production. China is the world's leading producer of pigs, chickens, and eggs, and it also has sizable herds of sheep and cattle. Since the mid-1970s, greater emphasis has been placed on increasing the livestock output. China has a long tradition of ocean and freshwater fishing and of aquaculture. Pond raising has always been important and has been increasingly emphasized to supplement coastal and inland fisheries threatened by overfishing and to provide such valuable export commodities as prawns. Shepherd with his sheep in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Fresh water redirects here. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... Superfamilies and families Penaeoidea Aristeidae Benthesicymidae Penaeidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Sergestoidea Luciferidae Sergestidae Wikispecies has information related to: Dendrobranchiata Prawns are shrimp–like crustaceans, belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata [1]. Prawns are distinguished from the superficially similar shrimp by the gill structure which is branching in prawns (hence the name...


Energy and mineral resources

Energy


Electricity:

  • production: 2.8344 trillion kWh (2006)
  • consumption: 2.8248 trillion kWh (2006)
  • exports: 11.19 billion kWh (2005)
  • imports: 5.011 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity - production by source:

  • thermal: 77.8% (68.7% from coal) (2006)
  • hydro: 20.7% (2006)
  • other: 0.4% (2006)
  • nuclear: 1.1% (2006)

Oil:

  • production: 3.631 million bbl/day (2005)
  • consumption: 6.534 million bbl/day (2005) and expected 9.3 million bbl/day in 2030
  • exports: 443,300 bbl/day (2005)
  • imports: 3.181 million bbl/day (2005)
  • net imports: 2.74 million barrel/day (2005)
  • proved reserves: 16.3 billion bbl (1 January 2006)

Natural gas:

  • production: 47.88 billion m³ (2005 est.)
  • consumption: 44.93 billion m³ (2005 est.)
  • exports: 2.944 billion m³ (2005)
  • imports: 0 m³ (2005)
  • proved reserves: 1.448 trillion m³ (1 January 2006 est.)
See also: Energy policy of China.

Since 1980 China's energy production has grown dramatically, as has the proportion allocated to domestic consumption. Some 80 percent of all power generated is at thermal plants, with about 17 precent at hydroelectric installations; only about two percent is from nuclear energy, mainly from plants located in Guangdong and Zhejiang.[75] Though China has rich overall energy potential, most have yet to be developed. In addition, the geographical distribution of energy puts most of these resources relatively far from their major industrial users. Basically the northeast is rich in coal and oil, the central part of north China has abundant coal, and the southwest has immense hydroelectric potential. But the industrialized regions around Guangzhou and the Lower Yangtze region around Shanghai have too little energy, while there is relatively little heavy industry located near major energy resource areas other than in the southern part of the northeast. The energy policy in China is closely watched by the international community. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ...


Although electric-generating capacity has grown rapidly, it has continued to fall considerably short of demand. This has been partly because energy prices were long fixed so low that industries had few incentives to conserve. In addition, it has often been necessary to transport fuels (notably coal) great distances from points of production to consumption. Coal provides about 70-75 percent of China's energy consumption, although its proportion has been gradually declining. Petroleum production, which grew rapidly from an extremely low base in the early 1960s, has increased much more gradually from 1980. Natural gas production still constitutes only a small (though increasing) fraction of overall energy production, but gas is supplanting coal as a domestic fuel in the major cities. For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


In the 1990s, energy demand rocketed in response to the rapid expansion of the economy but energy production was constrained by limited capital. As in other sectors of the state-owned economy, the energy sector suffered from low utilization and inefficiencies in production, transport, conversion, consumption, and conservation. Other problems included declining real prices, rising taxes and production costs, spiraling losses, high debt burden, insufficient investment, low productivity, poor management structure, environmental pollution, and inadequate technological development. In order to keep pace with demand, China sought to increase electric generating capacity to a target level of 290 gigawatts by 2000. tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ...


According to Chinese statistics, China managed to keep its energy growth rate at just half the rate of GDP growth throughout the 1990s. Though these numbers are not reliable, there has been agreement that China had improved its energy efficiency significantly over this period. In the late 1990s, an estimated 10,000 megawatts of generating capacity was added each year, at an annual cost of about $15 billion. China imported new power plants from the West to increase its generation capacity, and these units then accounted for approximately 20% of total generating capacity. More power generating capacity came on line in the mid-2000s as large scale investments were completed. In 2001, China's total energy consumption was projected to double by 2020. Energy consumption grew at nearly 10 percent per year between 2000 and 2005, more than twice the yearly rate of the previous two decades.[76] tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ...


In 2003, China surpassed Japan to become the second-largest consumer of primary energy, after the United States. China is the world's second-largest consumer of oil, after the United States, and for 2006, China's increase in oil demand represented 38% of the world total increase in oil demand. China is also the third-largest energy producer in the world, after the United States and Russia. China's electricity consumption is expected to grow by over 4% a year through 2030, which will require more than $2 trillion in electricity infrastructure investment to meet the demand. China expects to add approximately 15,000 megawatts of generating capacity a year, with 20% of that coming from foreign suppliers. Primary energy is energy contained in raw fuels and any other forms of energy received by a system as input to the system. ...


China, due in large part to environmental concerns, has wanted to shift China's current energy mix from a heavy reliance on coal, which accounts for 70-75% of China's energy, toward greater reliance on oil, natural gas, renewable energy, and nuclear power. China has closed thousands of coal mines over the past 5-10 years to cut overproduction. According to Chinese statistics, this has reduced coal production by over 25%. For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... China’s rapid economic growth and heavy reliance on increasingly expensive foreign oil, the vast environmental toll that is one of the most apparent costs of Chinas economic success, persistent rural poverty in China and periodic power shortages all have impressed upon the Chinese government that renewable energy must... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the mining of coal. ...


Only one-fifth of the new coal power plant capacity installed from 1995 to 2000 included desulphurization equipment. Interest in renewable sources of energy is growing, but except for hydropower, their contribution to the overall energy mix is unlikely to rise above 1%-2% in the near future. China's energy sector continues to be hampered by difficulties in obtaining funding, including long-term financing, and by market balkanization due to local protectionism that prevents more efficient large plants from achieving economies of scale. The process of removing sulfur from compounds or from something, commonly from petroleum products, coal, or another fuel that is burned. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower or hydraulic power is the force or energy of moving water. ... Balkanization is a geopolitical term originally used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... The increase in output from Q to Q2 causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit from C to C1. ...


Since 1993, China has been a net importer of oil, a large portion of which comes from the Middle East. Imported oil accounts for 20% of the processed crude in China. Net imports are expected to rise to 3.5 million barrels (560,000 m³) per day by 2010. China is interested in diversifying the sources of its oil imports and has invested in oil fields around the world. China is developing oil imports from Central Asia and has invested in Kazakhstani oil fields. Beijing also plans to increase China's natural gas production, which currently accounts for only 3% of China's total energy consumption and incorporated a natural gas strategy in its 10th Five-Year Plan (2001-2005), with the goal of expanding gas use from a 2% share of total energy production to 4% by 2005 (gas accounts for 25% of U.S. energy production). Analysts expect China's consumption of natural gas to more than double by 2010. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... “bbl” redirects here. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ...


The 11th Five-Year Program (2006-10), announced in 2005 and approved by the National People's Congress in March 2006, called for greater energy conservation measures, including development of renewable energy sources and increased attention to environmental protection. Guidelines called for a 20% reduction in energy consumption per unit of GDP by 2010. Moving away from coal towards cleaner energy sources including oil, natural gas, renewable energy, and nuclear power is an important component of China's development program. Beijing also intends to continue to improve energy efficiency and promote the use of clean coal technology. China has abundant hydroelectric resources; the Three Gorges Dam, for example, will have a total capacity of 18 gigawatts when fully on-line (projected for 2009). In addition, the share of electricity generated by nuclear power is projected to grow from 1% in 2000 to 5% in 2030. China's renewable energy law, which went into effect in 2006, calls for 10% of its energy to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ... Clean coal is the name attributed to coal chemically washed of minerals and impurities, sometimes gasified, burned and the resulting flue gases treated with steam, with the purpose of almost completely eradicating sulfur dioxide, and reburned so as to make the carbon dioxide in the flue gas economically recoverable. ...


In May 2004, then-Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) that launched the U.S.-China Energy Policy Dialogue. The Dialogue strengthened energy-related interactions between China and the United States, the world's two largest energy consumers. The U.S.-China Energy Policy Dialogue has built upon the two countries' existing cooperative ventures in high energy nuclear physics, fossil energy, energy efficiency and renewable energy and energy information exchanges. The NDRC and the Department of Energy also exchange views and expertise on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technologies, and convenes an annual Oil and Gas Industry Forum with China. Edward Spencer Abraham (born June 12, 1952 in East Lansing, Michigan) is an a former United States Senator of Lebanese descent. ... A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) is a document describing a bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties. ... The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) is a powerful macroeconomic management agency under the Chinese State Council, which has broad administrative and planning control over the Chinese economy. ...


Mining

Outdated mining and ore-processing technologies are being replaced with modern techniques, but China’s rapid industrialization requires imports of minerals from abroad. In particular, iron ore imports from Australia and the United States have soared in the early 2000s as steel production rapidly outstripped domestic iron ore production. This article is about mineral extractions. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...

Energy and mineral resources
Energy and mineral resources

The major areas of production in 2004 were coal (nearly 2 billion tons), iron ore (310 million tons), crude petroleum (175 million tons), natural gas (41 million cubic meters), antimony ore (110,000 tons), tin concentrates (110,000 tons), nickel ore (64,000 tons), tungsten concentrates (67,000 tons), unrefined salt (37 million tons), vanadium (40,000 tons), and molybdenum ore (29,000 tons). In order of magnitude, bauxite, gypsum, barite, magnesite, talc and related minerals, manganese ore, fluorspar, and zinc also were important. In addition, China produced 2,450 tons of silver and 215 tons of gold in 2004. The mining sector accounted for less than 0.9% of total employment in 2002 but produced about 5.3% of total industrial production. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Nodding donkey pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 Petroleum (from Latin petrus – rock and oleum – oil), mineral oil, or crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold, is a thick, dark brown or greenish flammable liquid, which exists in the upper strata of some areas of the Earths... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the element. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... This article is about common table salt. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... This article is about the ore. ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ... Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. ... Magnesite is magnesium carbonate, MgCO3. ... Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Octahedral fluorite crystals from New Mexico, USA Fluorite (also called fluor-spar or Blue John) is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...

See also: Gold mining in China.

Hydroelectric resources

China has an abundant potential for hydroelectric power production due to its considerable river network and mountainous terrain. Most of the total hydroelectric capacity is situated in the southwest of the country, where coal supplies are poor but demand for energy is rising swiftly. The potential in the northeast is fairly small, but it was there that the first hydroelectric stations were built — by the Japanese during its occupation of Manchuria.[77] Due to considerable seasonal fluctuations in rainfall, the flow of rivers tends to drop during the winter, forcing many power stations to operate at less than normal capacity, while in the summer, on the other hand, floods often interfere with generation. Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... The southwestern Peoples Republic of China region. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... For other uses, see Power station (disambiguation). ... World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ...


Thirteen years in construction at a cost of $24 billion, the immense Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River was essentially completed in 2006 and will revolutionize electrification and flood control in the area. The Three Gorges Dam (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese hydroelectric river dam that spans the Yangtze River in Sandouping, Yichang, Hubei, China. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... Electrification refers to changing a thing or system to operate using electricity. ... A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ...


Coal

China is well endowed with mineral resources,[78] the most important of which is coal. China's mineral resources include large reserves of coal and iron ore, plus adequate to abundant supplies of nearly all other industrial minerals. Although coal deposits are widely scattered (some coal is found in every province), most of the total is located in the northern part of the country. The province of Shanxi, in fact, is thought to contain about half of the total; other important coal-bearing provinces include Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Jilin, Hebei, and Shandong.[79] Apart from these northern provinces, significant quantities of coal are present in Sichuan, and there are some deposits of importance in Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, and Guizhou.[79] A large part of the country's reserves consists of good bituminous coal, but there are also large deposits of lignite. Anthracite is present in several places (especially Liaoning, Guizhou, and Henan), but overall it is not very significant.[80] Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the city, see Jilin City. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ« Zhuàngzú ZìzhìqÅ«) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... Yunan redirects here. ... (Simplified Chinese: 贵州; Traditional Chinese: è²´å·ž; pinyin: Gùizhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuei-chou; also spelled Kweichow) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. ... Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... Strip mining lignite at Garzweiler, Germany Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ... Anthracite coal Anthracite (Greek Ανθρακίτης, literally a form of coal, from Anthrax [Άνθραξ], coal) is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... (Simplified Chinese: 贵州; Traditional Chinese: è²´å·ž; pinyin: Gùizhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuei-chou; also spelled Kweichow) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...


In order to ensure a more even distribution of coal supplies and to reduce the strain on the less than adequate transportation network, the authorities pressed for the development of a large number of small, locally run mines throughout the country. This campaign was energetically pursued after the 1960s, with the result that thousands of small pits have been established, and they produce more than half the country's coal. This output, however, is typically expensive and is used for local consumption. It has also led to a less than stringent implementation of safety measures in these unregulated mines, which cause several thousands of deaths each year.[81] For the movement of people or objects, see transport. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming in the United States of America. ...


Coal makes up the bulk of China's energy consumption (70% in 2005), and China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. As China's economy continues to grow, China's coal demand is projected to rise significantly. Although coal's share of China's overall energy consumption will decrease, coal consumption will continue to rise in absolute terms. China's continued and increasing reliance on coal as a power source has contributed significantly to putting China on the path to becoming the world's largest emitter of acid rain-causing sulfur dioxide and greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

See also: Coal power in China.

Oil and natural gas

China's onshore oil resources are mostly located in the Northeast and in Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, Shandong, and Henan provinces. Shale oil is found in a number of places, especially at Fushun in Liaoning, where the deposits overlie the coal reserves, as well as in Guangdong. Light oil of high quality has been found in the Pearl River estuary of the South China Sea, the Qaidam Basin in Qinghai, and the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang. The country consumes most of its oil output but does export some crude oil and oil products. China has explored and developed oil deposits in the China Seas, the Yellow Sea, the Gulf of Tonkin, and the Bohai Sea. Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Oil shale is a general term applied to a group of fine black to dark brown shales rich enough in bituminous material (called kerogen) to yield petroleum upon distillation. ... Location within China Fushun (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a city in Liaoning, China, about 45 km from Shenyang, with a population about 1. ... The are two Pearl Rivers: The Pearl River (China) (See also the Pearl River Delta) The Pearl River in the U.S. states of Mississippi and Louisiana Pearl River is also the name of some places in the United States of America: Pearl River, Louisiana Pearl River, Mississippi Pearl River... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... Qaidam, also spelt Tsaidam, is an arid basin in Qinghai, western China. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... The China Sea can refer to the: South China Sea, or East China Sea This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... ... The Gulf of Tonkin is located to the south of China. ... A map showing the location of the Bohai Sea. ...


The total extent of China's natural gas reserves is unknown, as relatively little exploration for natural gas has been done.[82] Sichuan accounts for almost half of the known natural gas reserves and production.[83] Most of the rest of China's natural gas is associated gas produced in the Northeast's major oil fields, especially Daqing oilfield. Other gas deposits have been found in the Qaidam Basin, Hebei, Jiangsu, Shanghai, and Zhejiang, and offshore to the southwest of Hainan Island.[84] Daqing complex is the largest oil field in China, located between the Songhua river and Nunjiang river in Heilongjiang province. ... Qaidam, also spelt Tsaidam, is an arid basin in Qinghai, western China. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Henan and Hunan Hainan (海南; pinyin: Hǎinán) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located at the southern end of the country. ...


Metals and nonmetals

Iron ore reserves are found in most provinces, including Hainan. Gansu, Guizhou, southern Sichuan, and Guangdong provinces have rich deposits. The largest mined reserves are located north of the Yangtze River and supply neighboring iron and steel enterprises. With the exception of nickel, chromium, and cobalt, China is well supplied with ferroalloys and manganese. Reserves of tungsten are also known to be fairly large. Copper resources are moderate, and high-quality ore is present only in a few deposits. Discoveries have been reported from Ningxia. Lead and zinc are available, and bauxite resources are thought to be plentiful. China's antimony reserves are the largest in the world. Tin resources are plentiful, and there are fairly rich deposits of gold. China is the world’s fifth largest producer of gold and in the early twenty-first century became an important producer and exporter of rare metals needed in high-technology industries. The rare earth reserves at the Bayan Obi mine in Inner Mongolia are thought to be the largest in any single location in the world. This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... Ferroalloy refers to various alloys of less than 50 percent iron and one or more other element, manganese or silicon for example. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Ningxia (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏; Pinyin: Níngxià; Wade-Giles: Ning-hsia; Postal Pinyin: Ningsia), full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏回族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏回族自治區; Pinyin: Níngxià Huízú ZìzhìqÅ«), is a Hui autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, located on the northwest Loess... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... This article is about the ore. ... This article is about the element. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For the CSI episode of the same name, see Precious Metal (CSI episode). ... A rare earth is an oxide of a rare earth element. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


China also produces a fairly wide range of nonmetallic minerals. One of the most important of these is salt, which is derived from coastal evaporation sites in Jiangsu, Hebei, Shandong, and Liaoning, as well as from extensive salt fields in Sichuan, Ningxia, and the Qaidam Basin. There are important deposits of phosphate rock in a number of areas. Pyrites occur in several places; Liaoning, Hebei, Shandong, and Shanxi have the most important deposits. China also has large resources of fluorite (fluorspar), gypsum, asbestos, and cement. Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Vaporization redirects here. ... Phosphate minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43-) anion along with the freely substituting arsenate (AsO43-) and vanadate (VO43-). Chlorine (Cl-), fluorine (F-), and hydroxide (OH-) anions also fit into the crystal structure. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. ... Octahedral fluorite crystals from New Mexico, USA Fluorite (also called fluor-spar or Blue John) is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ...


Industry and manufacturing

See also: Industry of China and Made in China.

Industry and construction account for about 48% of China's GDP. Around 8% of the total manufacturing output in the world comes from China itself. China ranks third worldwide in industrial output. Major industries include mining and ore processing; iron and steel; aluminum; coal; machinery; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemical; fertilizers; food processing; automobiles and other transportation equipment including rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; consumer products including footwear, toys, and electronics; telecommunications and information technology. China has become a preferred destination for the relocation of global manufacturing facilities. Its strength as an export platform has contributed to incomes and employment in China. The state-owned sector still accounts for about 40% of GDP. In recent years, authorities have been giving greater attention to the management of state assets — both in the financial market as well as among state-owned-enterprises — and progress has been noteworthy. Made in China label on a D-Link Gigabit Ethernet switch. ... Agricultural output in January 2008 Industrial output in January 2008 Service output in January 2008 This is a list of countries by GDP sector composition based on nominal GDP estimates and sector composition ratios provided by the CIA World Fact Book at market or government official exchange rates with figures... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... The bayonet, still used in war as both knife and spearpoint. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... Girls wearing formal attire for dancing, an example of one of the many modern forms of clothing. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans or animals. ... Car redirects here. ... In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. ... High-heeled shoe Footwear consists of garments worn on the feet. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ...


Since the founding of the People's Republic, industrial development has been given considerable attention. Among the various industrial branches the machine-building and metallurgical industries have received the highest priority. These two areas alone now account for about 20-30 percent of the total gross value of industrial output.[85] In these, as in most other areas of industry, however, innovation has generally suffered at the hands of a system that has rewarded increases in gross output rather than improvements in variety, sophistication and quality. China, therefore, still imports significant quantities of specialized steels. Overall industrial output has grown at an average rate of more than 10 percent per year, having surpassed all other sectors in economic growth and degree of modernization.[86] Some heavy industries and products deemed to be of national strategic importance remain state-owned, but an increasing proportion of lighter and consumer-oriented manufacturing firms are privately held or are private-state joint ventures. This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... Consumers refers to individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. ... A joint venture (often abbreviated JV) is an entity formed between two or more parties to undertake economic activity together. ...


The predominant focus of development in the chemical industry is to expand the output of chemical fertilizers, plastics, and synthetic fibers. The growth of this industry has placed China among the world's leading producers of nitrogenous fertilizers. In the consumer goods sector the main emphasis is on textiles and clothing, which also form an important part of China's exports. Textile manufacturing, a rapidly growing proportion of which consists of synthetics, account for about 10 percent of the gross industrial output and continues to be important, but less so than before. The industry tends to be scattered throughout the country, but there are a number of important textile centers, including Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Harbin.[87][88] The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ...


Major state industries are iron, steel, coal, machine building, light industrial products, armaments, and textiles. These industries completed a decade of reform (1979-1989) with little substantial management change. Prior to 1978, most output was produced by state-owned enterprises. As a result of the economic reforms that followed, there was a significant increase in production by enterprises sponsored by local governments, especially townships and villages, and, increasingly, by private entrepreneurs and foreign investors. The 1996 industrial census revealed that there were 7,342,000 industrial enterprises at the end of 1995; total employment in industrial enterprises was approximately 147 million. The 1999 industrial census revealed that there were 7,930,000 industrial enterprises at the end of 1999 (including small-scale town and village enterprises); total employment in state-owned industrial enterprises was about 24 million. The automobile industry has grown rapidly since 2000, as has the petrochemical industry. Machinery and electronic products became China's main exports. China is the world’s leading manufacturer of chemical fertilizers, cement, and steel. By 2002 the share in gross industrial output by state-owned and state-holding industries had decreased to 41%, and the state-owned companies themselves contributed only 16% of China’s industrial output. A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is an enterprise, often a corporation, owned by a government. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Town and village enterprises (TVEs) are a type of commercial activity or manufacturing concern that has developed in mainland China since the beginning of economic opening under Deng Xiaoping in the early 1980s. ... Automakers are companies that produce automobiles. ... ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


China’s construction sector has grown substantially since the early 1980s. In the twenty-first century, investment in capital construction has experienced major annual increases. In 2001 investments increased 8.5% over the previous year. In 2002 there was a 16.4% increase, followed by a 30% increase in 2003. The manufacturing sector produced 44.1% of GDP in 2004 and accounted for 11.3% of total employment in 2002. Industry and construction produced 53.1% of China’s GDP in 2005. Industry (including mining, manufacturing, construction, and power) contributed 52.9% of GDP in 2004 and occupied 22.5% of the workforce. This article is about work. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ...


Energy production has increased rapidly, but it still falls considerably short of demand. This is partly due to artificial energy prices that have been held so low that industries have had few incentives to conserve. Coal provides about 75-80 percent of China's energy consumption. Petroleum production, which began growing rapidly from an extremely low base in the early 1960s, has basically remained at the same level since the late 1970s. There are large petroleum reserves in the inaccessible northwest and potentially significant offshore petroleum deposits, but about half of the country's oil production still comes from the major Daqing oilfield in the northeast. China has much, and partially undeveloped, hydroelectric power potential and natural gas reserves. The government has made plans to develop nuclear power plants in the coastal and western regions (see Nuclear power in China). // Energy development is the ongoing effort to provide sustainable, accessible energy resources through knowledge, skills, and constructions. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Petro redirects here. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... Daqing complex is the largest oil field in China, located between the Songhua river and Nunjiang river in Heilongjiang province. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


Overall, the distribution of industry remains very uneven, despite serious efforts from the mid-1950s to the late 1970s to build up industry in the interior at the cost of the major cities on the east coast. While percentage growth of industry in the interior provinces generally greatly exceeded that of the coastal areas, the far larger initial industrial base of the latter has meant that a few coastal regions have continued to dominate China's industrial economy. The establishment of special economic zones in coastal areas only heightened this disparity. Shanghai by itself accounts for about 8-10 percent of China's gross value of industrial output,[88] and the east coast accounts for about 60 percent of the national industrial output.[85] The rate of industrialization increased and diversified after the early 1990s. Notable were the development of aerospace, aircraft, and automobile manufacturing. In addition, China expanded rapidly into the production of pharmaceuticals, software, semiconductors, electronics, and precision equipment. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... Diversification is a measure of the commonality of a population. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Car redirects here. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature, but which has a sizable electrical conductivity at room temperature. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... In Wikipedia, precision has the following meanings: In engineering, science, industry and statistics, precision characterises the degree of mutual agreement among a series of individual measurements, values, or results - see accuracy and precision. ...


Steel industry

China is the largest producer of steel in the world and the steel industry has been rapidly increasing its steel production. Iron ore production kept pace with steel production in the early 1990s but was soon outpaced by imported iron ore and other metals in the early 2000s. Steel production, an estimated 140 million tons in 2000, was increased to 419 million tons in 2006. Much of the country's steel output comes from a large number of small-scale producing centers, one of the largest being Anshan in Liaoning. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Anshan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Ä€nshān; lit. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Automotive industry

By 2006 China had become the world’s third largest automotive vehicle manufacturer (after US and Japan) and the second largest consumer (only after US). Automobile manufacturing has soared during the reform period. In 1975 only 139,800 automobiles were produced annually, but by 1985 production had reached 443,377, then jumped to nearly 1.1 million by 1992 and increased fairly evenly each year up until 2001, when it reached 2.3 million. In 2002 production rose to nearly 3.25 million and then jumped to 4.44 million in 2003, 5.07 million in 2004, 5.71 million in 2005 and 7.28 million in 2006. In 2007, 9 million automobiles are expected to be produced and the country could become the number-one automaker in the world by 2020. Domestic sales have kept pace with production. After respectable annual increases in the mid- and late 1990s, passenger car sales soared in the early 2000s. In 2006, a total of 7.22 million automobiles have been sold, including 5.18 million units of passenger cars and 2.04 million units of commercial vehicles. Chinas automobile industry is in rapid development since year 2000. ... Car redirects here. ...


So successful has China’s automotive industry been that it began exporting car parts in 1999. China began to plan major moves into the automobile and components export business starting in 2005. A new Honda factory in Guangzhou was built in 2004 solely for the export market and was expected to ship 30,000 passenger vehicles to Europe in 2005. By 2004, 12 major foreign automotive manufacturers had joint-venture plants in China. They produced a wide range of automobiles, minivans, sport utility vehicles, buses, and trucks. In 2003 China exported US$4.7 billion worth of vehicles and components. The vehicle export was 78,000 units in 2004, 173,000 units in 2005, and 340,000 units in 2006. The vehicle and component export is targeted to reach US$70 billion by 2010. This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A joint venture (often abbreviated JV) is an entity formed between two or more parties to undertake economic activity together. ... It has been suggested that Mini MPV be merged into this article or section. ... A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ... Autobus redirects here. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ...


Other industries

See also: Telecommunications industry in China, Electronic information industry in China, Pharmaceutical industry in China, Defense industry in China, and Shipping industry in China.

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Services

China's services output ranks ranks seventh worldwide, and high power and telecom density has ensured that it has remained on a high-growth trajectory in the long-term. In 2005 the services sector produced 40.3% of China’s annual GDP, second only to manufacturing. However, its proportion of GDP is still low compared with the ratio in more developed countries, and the agricultural sector still employs a larger workforce. Prior to the onset of economic reforms in 1978, China’s services sector was characterized by state-operated shops, rationing, and regulated prices. With reform came private markets and individual entrepreneurs and a commercial sector. The wholesale and retail trade has expanded quickly, with urban areas now having many shopping malls, retail shops, restaurant chains and hotels. Public administration has still remained a main component of the service sector, while tourism has become a significant factor in employment and as a source of foreign exchange. The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... Agricultural output in January 2008 Industrial output in January 2008 Service output in January 2008 This is a list of countries by GDP sector composition based on nominal GDP estimates and sector composition ratios provided by the CIA World Fact Book at market or government official exchange rates with figures... Retail redirects here. ... Gasoline ration stamps being printed as a result of the 1973 oil crisis Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services. ... Wholesaling consists of the sale of goods/merchandise to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... For the traditional meaning of the word mall, see pedestrian street or promenade. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about work. ... Foreign exchange has several meanings: In telecommunications, Foreign exchange service is a type of network service. ...


Tourism

Main article: Tourism in China

China's tourism industry is one of the fastest-growing industries in the national economy and is also one of the industries with a very distinct global competitive edge. The total revenue of China's tourism industry reached USD 67.3 billion in 2002, accounting for 5.44% of the GDP. It dropped, largely due to SARS, to USD 59 billion in 2003. Nevertheless, for areas rich in tourism resources, tourism has become the main source of tax revenue and the key industry for economic development. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... Sars may refer to any of the following: Severe acute respiratory syndrome, commonly abbreviated as SARS Michael Sars, a Norwegian biologist, father of Georg Sars Georg Sars, a Norwegian biologist, son of Michael Sars Special Administrative Regions, commonly abbreviated as SARs Sars, Perm Krai, an urban settlement in Perm Krai... Tax revenue is the income that is gained by governments because of taxation of the people. ...


The total number of inbound tourists was 91.66 million in 2003, and that of tourists staying overnight was 32.7 million, about 10 times of the number in 1980. International tourism receipts were USD 17.4 billion in 2003. China's ranking for both the overnight tourist arrivals and tourism receipts were among the world's top five in 2003. However, there is unlikely to be a big increase in the inbound tourism market.


China's domestic tourism market makes up more than 90% of the country's tourism traffic, and contributes more than 70% of total tourism revenue. In 2002, domestic tourists reached 878 million and tourism revenue was USD 46.9 billion. The five-days-per-week and long vacation schemes have increased leisure time for the Chinese people and spurred market demand in domestic tourism and led to its prosperity.


A large middle class population with strong consumption power is emerging in China, especially in major cities. China's outbound tourists reached 20.22 million in 2003, overtaking Japan for the first time. Currently there are 65 countries/areas open to Chinese tour groups. Putting aside the threat of SARS and other unexpected events, based on the current economic growth situation and the social development of China, China's outbound tourism is poised to achieve a new growth peak.


Driven by the flourishing tourism industry, China's tourist hotel sector is expanding rapidly. At the end of 2003, China had a total of 10,093 tourist hotels and more than 820,000 rooms. 773 of these tourist hotels were foreign-funded. The number of foreign-funded (inclusive of Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan investments) four- and five-star tourist hotels made up 26% and 30.02% of the national total, respectively. For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ...


In 2003, there were a total of 11,522 travel agencies in China, among which, 1,349 were international ones and 10,203 were domestic ones. While overall tourism market concentration rose, there was a drop in the market position of the traditional three key travel agencies. As competition heightened, China's tourism industry on the whole, had begun to start earning low profits, even while it was expanding its scale of operations.


Currently, there are approximately 15,000 natural, cultural and man-made places of attraction which are above county level. Presently, Hong Kong investors are the main participants in the establishment of tourist attractions in China. In 2001, Sichuan became the first province to propose renting out the operation rights of 10 scenic areas to foreign investors.   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... This article is about an agreement for payment for temporary use. ...


According to the plan by China National Tourism Administration, the number of inbound tourists, foreign exchange earnings from tourism and the domestic market size are targeted to have an annual growth of 4%, 8% and 8%, respectively, in the next five to ten years. It is also forecasted by the WTO that China's tourism industry will take up to 8.6% of world market share to become the world's top tourism industry by 2020.


Labor and welfare

A window washer on one of the thousands of skyscrapers in Shanghai.
A window washer on one of the thousands of skyscrapers in Shanghai.

One of the hallmarks of China's socialist economy was its promise of employment to all able and willing to work and job-security with virtually lifelong tenure. Reformers targeted the labor market as unproductive because industries were frequently overstaffed to fulfill socialist goals and job-security reduced workers' incentive to work. This socialist policy was pejoratively called the iron rice bowl. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 651 KB) Summary Photo by Fumiko (doraemon). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 651 KB) Summary Photo by Fumiko (doraemon). ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Iron rice bowl (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese term used to refer to an occupation with guaranteed job security, as well as steady income and benefits. ...


In 1979-1980, the state reformed factories by giving wage increases to workers, which was immediately offset by sharply rising inflation rates of 6%-7%. In other words, although they were given more pay, their money was worth less and they could buy less, which meant they were poorer. The state remedied this problem, in part, by distributing wage subsidies.


The reforms also dismantled the iron rice bowl, which meant it witnessed a rise in unemployment in the economy. In 1979, immediately after the iron rice bowl was dismantled, there were 20 million unemployed people.[89] Official Chinese statistics reveal that 4.2% of the total urban workforce was unemployed in 2004, although other estimates have reached 10%. As part of its newly developing social security legislation, China has an unemployment insurance system. At the end of 2003, more than 103.7 million people were participating in the plan, and 7.4 million laid-off employees had received benefits. Iron rice bowl (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese term used to refer to an occupation with guaranteed job security, as well as steady income and benefits. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ...


A 10-percent sample tabulation of census questionnaires from the 1982 census provided needed statistical data on China's working population and allowed the first reliable estimates of the labor force's size and characteristics. The quality of the data was considered to be quite high, although a 40-million-person discrepancy existed between the 10-percent sample and the regular employment statistics. This discrepancy can be explained by the combination of inaccurate employment statistics and varying methods of calculation and scope of coverage. The estimated mid-1982 labor force was 546 million, or approximately 54 percent of the total population. Males accounted for slightly more than half of the estimated labor force, and the labor force participation rates for persons age fifteen years and older were among the highest in the world.


The 10-percent sample showed that approximately three-fourths of the labor force worked in the agricultural sector. According to the National Bureau of Statistics, in the mid-1980s more than 120 million people worked in the nonagricultural sector. The sample revealed that men occupied the great majority of leadership positions. The average worker was about thirty years old, and three out of every four workers were under forty-five years of age. The working population had a low education level. Less than 40 percent of the labor force had more than a primary school education, and 30 percent were illiterate or semiliterate.


In mid-1982 the overall unemployment rate was estimated to be about 5 percent. Of the approximately 25 million unemployed, 12 million were men and 13 million were women. The unemployment rate was highest in the northeast and lowest in the south. The unemployment rates were higher than those of East Asian, Southeast Asian, and Pacific island countries for which data were available but were lower than the rates found in North America and Europe. Virtually all of the unemployed persons in cities and towns were under twenty years of age.


By the 1990s and 2000s, agriculture has remained the largest employer, though its proportion of the workforce has steadily declined; between 1991 and 2001 it dropped from about 60% to 40% of the total. The manufacturing labor force has also become smaller at a slower rate, partially because of reforms implemented at many of the state-run enterprises. Such reforms and other factors have increased unemployment and underemployment in both urban and rural areas. Women have been a major labor presence in China since the People's Republic was established. Some 40-45 percent of all women over age 15 are employed. CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... In economics, the term underemployment has at least three different distinct meanings and applications. ...


China’s estimated employed labor force in 2005 totaled 791.4 million persons, about 60% of the total population. During 2003, 49% of the labor force worked in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 22% in mining, manufacturing, energy, and construction industries; and 29% in the services sector and other categories. In 2004 some 25 million persons were employed by 743,000 private enterprises. Urban wages rose rapidly from 2004-2007, at a rate of 13 to 19% per year with average wages near $200 in 2007.[90] A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ... Capitalism generally refers to a combination of economic practices that became institutionalized in Europe between the 16th and 19th centuries, especially involving the right of individuals and groups of individuals acting as legal persons (or corporations) to buy and sell capital goods such as land, labor, and money (see finance...


The All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) was established in 1925 to represent the interests of national and local trade unions and trade union councils. The ACFTU reported a membership of 130 million, out of an estimated 248 million urban workers, at the end of 2002. Chinese trade unions are organized on a broad industrial basis. Membership is open to those who rely on wages for the whole or a large part of their income, a qualification that excludes most agricultural workers. In theory, membership is not compulsory, but in view of the unions' role in the distribution of social benefits, the economic pressure to join is great. The lowest unit is the enterprise union committee. Individual trade unions also operate at the provincial level, and there are trade union councils that coordinate all union activities within a particular area and operate at county, municipal, and provincial levels. At the top of the movement is the ACFTU, which discharges its functions through a number of regional federations. The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... A social welfare provision refers to any government program which seeks to provide a minimum level of income, service or other support for disadvantaged peoples such as the poor, elderly, disabled, students and minority groups. ...


In theory the appropriate trade union organizations have been consulted on the level of wages as well as on wage differentials, but in practice their role in these and similar matters has been insignificant. They have not engaged in collective bargaining, as their principal duties have included assisting the party and promoting production. In fulfilling these tasks, they have had a role in enforcing labor discipline. From the point of view of the membership, the most important activities have concerned the social and welfare services. Thus, the unions have looked after industrial safety, organized social and cultural activities, and, provided services such as clinics, rest and holiday homes, hostels, libraries, and clubs. They also administer old-age pensions, workers' insurance, disability benefits, and other welfare schemes. More recently, however, reforms of the social security system have involved moving the responsibility for pensions and other welfare to the provinces. A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ... A Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ... A social worker is a person employed in the administration of charity, social service, welfare, and poverty agencies, advocacy, or religious outreach programs. ... Social welfare redirects here. ... A pension (also known as superannuation) is a retirement plan intended to provide a person with a secure income for life. ... Workers compensation (colloquially known as workers comp in North American English or compo in Australia) provides insurance to cover medical care and compensation for employees who are injured in the course of employment, in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employees right to sue his or her employer for... Disabled redirects here. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In China exists labor laws which, if fully enforced, would greatly alleviate common abuses such as not paying workers. In 2006, a new labor law was proposed and submitted for public comment. The new law, as currently drafted, would permit collective bargaining in a form analogous to that standard in Western economies, although the only legal unions would continue to be those affiliated with the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, the Communist Party’s official union organization. The new law has support from labor activists, but has been opposed by some foreign corporations, including the American Chamber of Commerce and the European Chamber of Commerce. There is some expectation that the new law, if enacted, would be enforced.[91] An ongoing effort to organize Chinese operations of foreign companies succeeded in 2006 at Wal-Mart. The campaign is projected to include Eastman Kodak, Dell and other companies.[92] It was reported in 2008 that problems with sweatshops persist.[93] A Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ... The All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) is the sole national trade union federation of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... The United States Chamber of Commerce is the worlds largest not-for-profit business federation, representing 3,000,000 businesses (via its Federation of local chambers and association members. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is an American multinational public company which produces photographic materials and equipment. ... This article is about the corporation Dell, Inc. ...

See also: Welfare in the People's Republic of China.

This article is about the welfare system in the Peoples Republic of China. ...

External trade

Statistics

Exports: $1216 billion (2007)
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, footwear, toys, mineral fuels, plastics, optical and medical equipment, iron and steel
Exports - partners: US 21.0%, EU 18.1%, Hong Kong 17.0%, Japan 12.4%, ASEAN 7.2%, South Korea 4.7% (2004)
Imports: $953.9 billion (2007)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, optical and medical equipment, organic chemicals, iron and steel
Imports - partners: Japan 16.8%, EU 12.4%, ASEAN 11.2%, South Korea 11.1%, US 7.9%, Russia 2.2% (2004)

International trade makes up a sizeable portion of China's overall economy. The course of China's foreign trade has experienced considerable transformations since the early 1950s. In 1950 more than 70 percent of the total trade was with non-Communist countries, but by 1954, a year after the end of the Korean War, the situation was completely reversed, and trade with Communist countries stood at about 75 percent. During the next few years, trade with the Communist world lost some of its standing, but it was only after the Sino-Soviet split of 1960, which resulted in the cancellation of Soviet credits and the withdrawal of Soviet technicians, that the non-Communist world began to see a speedy recovery in its position. In 1965 China's trade with other socialist countries made up only about a third of the total. International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... A Communist state is a state governed by a single political party which declares its allegiance to the principles of Marxism-Leninism. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Credit as a financial term, used in such terms as credit card, refers to the granting of a loan and the creation of debt. ... The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers state) can carry one of several different (but related) meanings: Strictly speaking, any real or hypothetical state organized along the principles of socialism may be called a socialist state. ...


Being a Second World country at the time, a meaningful segment of China's trade with the Third World was financed through grants, credits, and other forms of assistance. At first, from 1953 to 1955, aid went mainly to North Korea and North Vietnam and some other Communist states; but from the mid-1950s large amounts, mainly grants and long-term, interest-free loans, were promised to politically uncommitted developing countries. The principal efforts were made in Asia, especially to Indonesia, Burma, Pakistan, and Ceylon, but large loans were also granted in Africa (Ghana, Algeria, Tanzania) and in the Middle East (Egypt). However, after Mao Zedong's death in 1976, these efforts were scaled back. After which, trade with developing countries became negligible, though during that time, Hong Kong and Taiwan both began to emerge as major trading partners. A map of countries often considered to have made up the Second World from the 1950s through to the 1980s. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Mao redirects here. ...


Since economic reforms began in the late 1970s, China sought to decentralize its foreign trade system to integrate itself into the international trading system. On November 1991, China joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) group, which promotes free trade and cooperation the in economic, trade, investment, and technology spheres. China served as APEC chair in 2001, and Shanghai hosted the annual APEC leaders meeting in October of that year. APEC redirects here. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


China's global trade totaled $324 billion in 1997 and $151 billion in the first half of 1998; the trade surplus stood at $40.0 billion. China's primary trading partners were Japan, Taiwan, the U.S., South Korea, Hong Kong, Germany, Singapore, Russia, and the Netherlands. China had a trade surplus with the U.S. of $49.7 billion in 1997 and $54.6 billion in 1998. Major imports were power generating equipment, aircraft and parts, computers and industrial machinery, raw materials, and chemical and agricultural products.


In 1998, China was in its 12th year of negotiations for accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) — formerly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and had significantly reduced import tariffs. Previously in 1996, China had already introduced cuts to more than 4,000 tariff lines, reducing average tariffs from 35% to 23%; further tariff cuts that took effect October 1, 1997 decreased average tariffs to 17%. To gain WTO entry, all prospective WTO members were required to comply with certain fundamental trading disciplines and offer substantially expanded market access to other members of the organization. Many major trading entities — among them the United States, the European Union, and Japan — shared concerns with respect to China's accession. These concerns included obtaining satisfactory market access offers for both goods and services, full trading rights for all potential Chinese consumers and end-users, nondiscrimination between foreign and local commercial operations in China, the reduction of monopolistic state trading practices, and the elimination of arbitrary or non-scientific technical standards. China and other WTO members worked to achieve a commercially viable accession protocol. WTO redirects here. ... The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (typically abbreviated GATT) was originally created by the Bretton Woods Conference as part of a larger plan for economic recovery after World War II. The GATTs main objective was the reduction of barriers to international trade. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Market access (市场准入) for goods in the WTO means the conditions, tariff and non-tariff measures, agreed by members for the entry of specific goods into their markets. ...


In 1999, Premier Zhu Rongji signed a bilateral U.S.-China Agricultural Cooperation Agreement, which lifted longstanding Chinese prohibitions on imports of citrus, grain, beef, and poultry. In November 1999, the United States and China reached a historic bilateral market-access agreement to pave the way for China's accession to the WTO. As part of the far-reaching trade liberalization agreement, China agreed to lower tariffs and abolish market impediments after it joins the world trading body. Chinese and foreign businessmen, for example, would gain the right to import and export on their own - and to sell their products without going through a government middleman. After reaching a bilateral WTO agreement with the EU and other trading partners in summer 2000, China worked on a multilateral WTO accession package. China concluded multilateral negotiations on its accession to the WTO in September 2001. The completion of its accession protocol and Working Party Report paved the way for its entry into the WTO on December 11, 2001, after 16 years of negotiations, the longest in GATT history. ZhÅ« RóngjÄ« (born October 1, 1928, Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ) is a prominent Chinese politician who served as the Mayor and Party chief in Shanghai between 1987 and 1991, before serving as Vice-Premier and then Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from March 1998 to March... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... middle_man is a program created by Krunch Software with the sole purpose of Enhancing your AIM experience. The AOL Instant Messenger plug-in enhances and extends funtionality of AIM to its users. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (usually abbreviated GATT) functions as the foundation of the WTO trading system, and remains in force, although the 1995 Agreement contains an updated version of it to replace the original 1947 one. ...

Global distribution of Chinese exports in 2006 as a percentage of the top market.

According to IMF statistics, China's global trade totaled $353 billion in 1999; the trade surplus stood at $36 billion. China's global trade totaled $454 billion in 2000; the trade surplus stood at $20 billion. China's primary trading partners included Japan, the EU, the U.S., South Korea, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. According to U.S. statistics, China had a trade surplus with the U.S. of $68.7 billion in 1999. China had a trade surplus with the U.S. of $83 billion in 2000. (Note: U.S. figures may overestimate Chinese exports, and its surplus, by failing to account for the fact that China's assembly industries first import many almost-finished products.) Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png) This bubble map shows the global distribution of Chinese exports in 2006 as a percentage of the top market (USA - $203,898,000,000). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png) This bubble map shows the global distribution of Chinese exports in 2006 as a percentage of the top market (USA - $203,898,000,000). ...


China's global trade exceeded $1.758 trillion at the end of 2006.[94] It first broke the 1 trillion mark ($1.15 trillion) in 2004, more than doubling from 2001. At the end of 2004, China became the world's third largest trading nation behind the United States and Germany.[95] The trade surplus however was stable at $30 billion (more than 40 billion in 1998, less than 30 billion in 2003). China's primary trading partners include Japan, the U.S., South Korea, Germany, Singapore, Malaysia, Russia, and the Netherlands. The vast majority of China's imports consists of industrial supplies and capital goods, notably machinery and high-technology equipment, the majority of which comes from the developed countries, primarily Japan and the United States. Regionally, almost half of China's imports come from East and Southeast Asia, and about one-fourth of China's exports go to the same destinations. About 80 percent of China's exports consist of manufactured goods, most of which are textiles and electronic equipment, with agricultural products and chemicals constituting the remainder. Out of the five busiest ports in the world, three are in China. Balance of trade figures are the sum of the money gained by a given economy by selling exports, minus the cost of buying imports. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ...


The U.S. is one of China's primary suppliers of semiconductors and electronic components, power-generating equipment, aircraft and parts, computers and industrial machinery, raw materials, waste and scrap, and chemical and agricultural products. However, U.S. exporters continue to have concerns about fair market access due to China's restrictive trade policies and U.S. export restrictions. Intellectual property theft makes many foreign companies wary of doing business in mainland China. Some foreign politicians and manufacturers also say the value of the yuan is artificially low and gives export from mainland China an unfair advantage. These and other issues are behind the recent push for greater protectionism by some in the US Congress, including a 27.5% consumer tax on imports. According to U.S. statistics, China had a trade surplus with the U.S. of $170 billion in 2004, more than doubling from 1999. Wal-Mart, the United States' largest retailer, is China's 7th largest export partner, just ahead of the United Kingdom. Intellectual property violation in the Peoples Republic of China includes the violation or infringement of patents, copyrights, and trademarks in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... It has been suggested that Chinese yuan be merged into this article or section. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ...


The U.S. trade deficit with China reached $232.5 billion in 2006, as imports grew 18%. China's share of total U.S. imports has grown from 7% to 15% since 1996. At the same time, the share of many other Asian countries' imports to the United States fell, from 39% in 1996 to 21.1% in 2005. The share of overall Asian imports (including China) to the United States actually declined from 38.8% in 1996 to 35.7% in 2005. The U.S. global trade deficit with the Asia-Pacific region as a whole also has fallen from 75% in 1995 to 49% in 2005.

Chinese cars at a dealer's lot in Nizhny Novgorod, the traditional capital of the Russian automotive industry.
Chinese cars at a dealer's lot in Nizhny Novgorod, the traditional capital of the Russian automotive industry.

Trade volume between China and Russia reached $29.1 billion in 2005, an increase of 37.1% compared with 2004. A spokesman for the Ministry of Commerce, Van Jingsun, said that the volume of trade between China and Russia could exceed 40 billion dollars in 2007.[96] China’s export of machinery and electronic goods to Russia grew 70%, which is 24% of China’s total export to Russia in the first 11 months of 2005. During the same time, China’s export of high-tech products to Russia increased by 58%, and that is 7% of China’s total exports to Russia. Also in this time period border trade between the two countries reached $5.13 billion, growing 35% and accounting for nearly 20% of the total trade. Most of China’s exports to Russia remain apparel and footwear. Russia is China’s eighth largest trade partner and China is now Russia’s fourth largest trade partner, and China now has over 750 investment projects in Russia, involving $1.05 billion. China’s contracted investment in Russia totaled $368 million during January-September of 2005, twice that in 2004. Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny, is the fourth largest city in Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... The Ministry of Commerce of the Peoples Republic of China (MOFCOM) is one of the ministries of the State Council of China. ...


Chinese imports from Russia are mainly those of energy sources, such as crude oil, which is mostly transported by rail, and electricity exports from neighboring Siberian and Far Eastern regions. In the near future, exports of both of these commodities are set to increase, as Russia is building the Eastern Siberia-Pacific Ocean oil pipeline with a branch to Chinese border, and Russian power grid monopoly UES is building some of its hydropower stations with a view of future exports to China.


Export growth have continued to be a major component supporting China's rapid economic growth. To increase exports, China pursued policies such as fostering the rapid development of foreign-invested factories, which assembled imported components into consumer goods for export and liberalizing trading rights. In its 11th Five-Year Program, adopted in 2005, China placed greater emphasis on developing a consumer demand-driven economy to sustain economic growth and address imbalances. In general, a things components are its parts; the things that compose it. ...


The China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) promotes China's international economic and commercial interests. This is accomplished by developing business cooperation and exchanges with foreign countries. It also produces economic data, creates diplomatic ties and is active with trade arbitration issues. Hong Kong remains prominent in domestic trade, notably in its reliance on the mainland for agricultural products. China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) is an organ of the Chinese national government created in the year 1952. ...


Foreign investment

China's investment climate has changed dramatically with more than two decades of reform. In the early 1980s, China restricted foreign investments to export-oriented operations and required foreign investors to form joint-venture partnerships with Chinese firms. The Encouraged Industry Catalogue sets out the degree of foreign involvement allowed in various industry sectors. Foreign investment slowed in late 1989 in the aftermath of Tiananmen Square protests. In response, the government introduced legislation and regulations designed to encourage foreigners to invest in high-priority sectors and regions. As one of the key tools used by the Chinese government to direct foreign investment into China, the Encouraged Industry Catalogue is significant in international trade with China. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship...


Since the early 1990s, the government has allowed foreign investors to manufacture and sell a wide range of goods on the domestic market, eliminated time restrictions on the establishment of joint ventures, provided some assurances against nationalization, allowed foreign partners to become chairs of joint venture boards, and authorized the establishment of wholly foreign-owned enterprises, now the preferred form of FDI. In 1991, China granted more preferential tax treatment for Wholly Foreign Owned Enterprises and contractual ventures and for foreign companies, which invested in selected economic zones or in projects encouraged by the state, such as energy, communications and transportation. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... A joint venture (often abbreviated JV) is an entity formed between two or more parties to undertake economic activity together. ... The Wholly Foreign Owned Enterprise or WFOE is a common investment vehicle for China-based business. ...


China also authorized some foreign banks to open branches in Shanghai and allowed foreign investors to purchase special "B" shares of stock in selected companies listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Securities Exchanges. These "B" shares sold to foreigners carried no ownership rights in a company. In 1997, China approved 21,046 foreign investment projects and received over $45 billion in foreign direct investment. China revised significantly its laws on Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprises and China Foreign Equity Joint Ventures in 2000 and 2001, easing export performance and domestic content requirements. For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stock (disambiguation). ... The Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese stock exchange based in the city of Shanghai, with a market capitalization of nearly US$2. ... Shenzhen Stock Exchange building Shenzhen Stock Exchange building Shenzhen Stock Exchange (深圳交易所) is one of the Peoples Republic of Chinas three stock exchanges. ... This article is about economics. ...


Foreign investment remains a strong element in China's rapid expansion in world trade and has been an important factor in the growth of urban jobs. In 1998, foreign-invested enterprises produced about 40% of China's exports, and foreign exchange reserves totalled about $145 billion. Foreign-invested enterprises today produce about half of China's exports (note that the majority of China's foreign investment come from Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), and China continues to attract large investment inflows. However, the Chinese government's emphasis on guiding FDI into manufacturing has led to market saturation in some industries, while leaving China's services sectors underdeveloped. From 1993-2001, China was the world's second-largest recipient of foreign direct investment after the United States. China received $39 billion FDI in 1999 and $41 billion FDI in 2000. China is now one of the leading FDI recipients in the world, receiving almost $80 billion in 2005 according to World Bank statistics. In 2006, China received $69.47 billion in foreign direct investment.[97]


Foreign exchange reserves totaled $155 billion in 1999 and $165 billion in 2000. Foreign exchange reserves exceeded $800 billion in 2005, more than doubling from 2003. Foreign exchange reserves were $819 billion at the end of 2005, $1.066 trillion at the end of 2006, and have now surpassed those of Japan, making China's foreign exchange reserves the largest in the world. Foreign exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) in a strict sense are only the foreign currency deposits held by central banks and monetary authorities. ... Reserves of foreign exchange and gold in 2006 Foreign exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) in a strict sense are only the foreign currency deposits held by central banks and monetary authorities. ...


As part of its WTO accession, China undertook to eliminate certain trade-related investment measures and to open up specified sectors that had previously been closed to foreign investment. New laws, regulations, and administrative measures to implement these commitments are being issued. Major remaining barriers to foreign investment include opaque and inconsistently enforced laws and regulations and the lack of a rules-based legal infrastructure. Warner Bros., for instance, withdrew its cinema business in China as a result of a regulation that requires Chinese investors to own at least a 51 percent stake or play a leading role in a foreign joint venture.[98]


Demographics

Main articles: Demographics of the People's Republic of China, Migration in China, Urbanization in China, and Chinese emigration
See also: Standard of living in China and Poverty in China.

Since the 1950s medical care, public hygiene and sanitation improved considerably, and epidemics were controlled. Consecutive generations continuously experienced better health. The population growth rate surged as the mortality rate dropped more rapidly than the birth rate. China’s massive population has always been a major difficulty for the government as it has struggled to provide for it. In the 1950s, food supply was inadequate and the standard of living was generally low. This spurred the authorities to initiate a major birth control program. The Great Leap Forward industrial plan in 1958-60 caused a huge famine which caused the death rate to surpass the birth rate and by 1960, the overall population was declining. A second population control drive began in 1962 with major efforts focused on promoting late marriages and the use of contraceptives. By 1963 the country was in the beginning of recovery from the famine and the birth rate soared to its highest since 1949 with an annual population growth rate of 3%. In 1966, the Cultural Revolution suspended this second family planning program, but resumed four years later with the third attempt by making later marriage and family size limitation an obligation. Since 1970, the efforts have been much more effective. The third family planning program continued until 1979 when the one child per family policy was implemented. By the early 1980s, China’s population reached around 1 billion and by the early 2000s, surpassed 1.3 billion. In the 1980s, the average overall population growth was around 1.5%. In the 1990s, this fell to about 1%. Today it is about 0.6%.[99] China's population growth rate is now among the lowest for a developing country, although, because its population is so huge, annual net population growth is still considerable. One demographic consequence of the one-child policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly ageing countries in the world. Demographics of China, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... This article is about migration in the Peoples Republic of China. ... See also Healing, North East Lincolnshire Healing is the process where the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... An epidemic is generally a widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – AD 2000. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... The Three Years of Natural Disasters (S:三年自然灾害; T:三年自然災害; pinyin: sān nián zì rán zāi hài) refers to the period in the Peoples Republic of China between 1959 and 1961, in which a combination of poor economic planning and rounds of natural disasters caused widespread... Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ... Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ... Oral contraceptives. ... The phrase one-child policy is commonly used in English to refer to the population control policy (or Planned Birth policy) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Population growth rate is a term used in demographics and ecology which refers to the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases. ...  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita... Population ageing or population aging (see English spelling differences) occurs when the median age of a country or region rises. ...


From 100 million to 150 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time, low-paying jobs.


According to the latest Forbes China Rich List (2007), China had 66 billionaires, the second largest number after the United States, which had 415. In the 2006 Forbes Rich List it stated that there were 15 Chinese billionaires.[100] In the latest 2007 Hurun Report, it lists 106 billionaires in China.[101] A billionaire is a person who has a net worth of at least one billion units of currency, such as United States Dollars (USD), Pounds or Euros. ...


Transportation

Development of the country’s transportation infrastructure is given a high priority because it is so strategically tied to the national economy and national defense. Regardless, the transportation infrastructure is still not fully developed in many aspects and areas, and it constitutes a major hindrance on economic growth and the efficient logistical movement of goods and people. China's transportation policy, influenced by political, military, and economic concerns, have undergone major changes since 1949. A road in Beijing, Chinas capital Transportation in the Peoples Republic of China has experienced major growth and expansion since 1949 and especially since the early 1980s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Any activity or effort performed to protect a nation against attack or other threats. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Immediately after the People’s Republic was founded, the primary goal was to repair existing transportation infrastructure in order to meet military transport and logistics needs as well as to strengthen territorial integrity. During most of the 1950s, new road and rail links were built, while at the same time old ones were improved. During the 1960s much of the improvement of regional transportation became the responsibility of the local governments, and many small railways were constructed. Emphasis was also placed on developing transportation in remote rural, mountainous, and forested areas, in order to integrate poorer regions of the country and to help promote economies of scale in the agricultural sector. Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ... Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ...


Before the reform era began in the late 1970s, China's transportation links were mostly concentrated in the coastal areas and access to the inner regions was generally poor. This situation has been improved considerably since then, as railways and highways have been built in the remote and frontier regions of the northwest and southwest. At the same time, the development of international transportation was also pursued, and the scope of ocean shipping was broadened considerably.


Freight haulage is mainly provided by rail transport. The rail sector is monopolized by China Railways which is controlled by the Ministry of Railways and there is wide variation in services provided. In late 2007 China became one of the few countries in the world to launch its own indigenously developed high-speed train.[102] As rail capacity is struggling to meet demand for the transport of goods and raw materials such as coal, air routes, roads and waterways are rapidly being developed to provide an increasing proportion of China's overall transportation needs.[103] Freight is a term used to classify the transportation of cargo and is typically a commercial process. ... Haulage, also called cartage or drayage, is the horizontal transport of ore, coal, supplies, and waste. ... railroads redirects here. ... China Railways (CR) is the national railway company of the Peoples Republic of China, under the Chinese Ministry of Railways. ... The Ministry of Railways in India is in charge of the Indian Railways, the state-owned company that enjoys a monopoly in Rail transport in India. ... TGV R seau class, Marseille St-Charles station This page is about high speed rail in general. ...


Communications

China possesses a diversified communications system that links all parts of the country by Internet, telephone, telegraph, radio, and television. None of the telecommunications forms are as prevalent or as advanced as those in modern Western countries, but the system includes some of the most sophisticated technology in the world and constitutes a foundation for further development of a modern network. This article is about Communications in mainland China. ... The term communications is used in a number of disciplines: Communications, also known as communication studies is the academic discipline which studies communication, generally seen as a mixture between media studies and linguistics. ...


China's number of Internet users or netizens topped 137 million by the end of 2006,[104] an increase of 23.4% from a year before and 162 million by June 2007, making China the second largest Internet user after the United States, according to China's Ministry of Information Industry (MII). China's mobile phone penetration rate is 34% in 2007. In 2006, mobile phone users sent 429 billion text messages, or on average 967 text messages per user. For 2006, the number of fixed-lines grew by 79%, mainly in the rural areas.[105] A Netizen (a portmanteau of Internet and citizen) [also known as a cybercitizen] is a person actively involved in online communities. ... The telecommunications industry in China is monopolized by various state-run businesses: China Telecom and China Netcom in the fixed-line business, China Mobile and China Unicom in the mobile sector, as well as two much smaller companies: China Satcom and China TieTong. ... A landline or main line is a telephone line which travels through a solid medium, either metal wire or optical fibre. ...


Science and technology

Science and technology have always preoccupied China's leaders and indeed, China's political leadership comes almost exclusively from technical backgrounds and has a high regard for science. Deng Xiaoping called it "the first productive force." In recent times, with Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao and their predecessors Jiang Zemin and Zhu Rongji all being trained engineers, China's leaders have been described as technocrats. Science and technology in China is currently experiencing rapid growth. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Hu Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born December 21, 1942) is currently the Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... Zhū Róngjī (born October 1, 1928, Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ) is a prominent Chinese politician who served as the Mayor and Party chief in Shanghai between 1987 and 1991, before serving as Vice-Premier and then Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from March 1998 to March... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Technocrat can refer to: An individual who makes decisions based solely on technical information and not personal or public opinion. ...


Since the early 1980s scientific and technological modernization has been given an especially high priority. Plans were made to rebuild the educational structure, continue sending students abroad, negotiate technological purchases and transfer arrangements with the U.S. and others, and develop ways to disseminate scientific and technological information. Areas of most critical interest have included microelectronics, telecommunications, computers, automated manufacturing, and energy. China also has had a space program since the 1960s and, by the late 1990s, had successfully launched more than 25 satellites. Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ...


On the other hand, distortions in the economy and society created by party rule have severely hurt Chinese science, according to some Chinese science policy experts. The Chinese Academy of Sciences, modeled on the Soviet system, puts much of China's greatest scientific talent in a large, under-funded apparatus that remains largely isolated from industry, although the reforms of the past decade have begun to address this problem. Science policy is usually considered the art of justifying, managing or prioritizing support of scientific research and development. ... The Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese: 中国科学院; pinyin: Zhōngguó Kēxuéyuàn), formerly known as Academia Sinica (not to be confused with Taiwans Academia Sinica currently headquartered in Taipei which shares the same root), is the national academy for the natural sciences of the Peoples Republic of... Original headquarters of the Imperial Academy of Sciences - the Kunstkammer in Saint Petersburg. ...


Chinese science strategists have seen China's greatest opportunities in newly emerging fields such as biotechnology and computers where there is still a chance for China to become a significant player. Most Chinese students who went abroad have not returned,[106] but they have built a dense network of global contacts that have greatly facilitated international scientific cooperation.[107] The United States is often held up as the standard of scientific modernity in China. Indeed, photos of the Space Shuttle often appear in Chinese advertisements as a symbol of advanced technology. China's growing space program, which has put a man in space and successfully completed their second manned orbit in October 2005, is a focus of national pride. The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... The space program of the Peoples Republic of China was initiated at the behest of the Central Military Commission for fulfilling national needs. ...


At the end of 1996, China had 5,434 state-owned independent research and development institutions at and above the county level. There were another 3,400 research institutions affiliated with universities, 13,744 affiliated with medium and large industrial enterprises, and 726 affiliated with medium and large construction enterprises. A total of 2.8 million people were engaged in scientific and technological activities in these institutions.


The U.S.-China Science and Technology Agreement remains the framework for bilateral cooperation between the two countries in this field. It was originally signed in 1979. A five-year agreement to extend and amend the accord, including provisions for the protection of intellectual property rights, was signed in May 1991, and the Agreement was again extended for five years in April 1996. Five-year agreements to extend the accord were signed in April 2001 and April 2006. The Agreement is among the longest-standing U.S.-China accords, and includes over eleven U.S. Federal agencies and numerous branches that participate in cooperative exchanges under the S&T Agreement and its nearly 60 protocols, memoranda of understanding, agreements and annexes. The Agreement covers cooperation in areas such as marine conservation, high-energy physics, renewable energy, and health. Biennial Joint Commission Meetings on Science and Technology bring together policymakers from both sides to coordinate joint science and technology cooperation. Executive Secretaries meetings are held biennially to implement specific cooperation programs. In law, particularly in common law jurisdictions, intellectual property is a form of legal entitlement which allows its holder to control the use of certain intangible ideas and expressions. ... Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. ... Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ...


Japan and the European Union also have high profile science and technology cooperative relationships with China.


Environment and public health

Main articles: Environment of China, Water supply and sanitation in the People's Republic of China, and Public health in the People's Republic of China

One of the serious negative consequences of China's rapid industrial development since the 1980s has been increased pollution and degradation of natural resources. Problems such as soil erosion, desertification and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the north, have posed a threat to the sustainable development of the country. Although China has passed environmental legislation and has participated in some international anti-pollution conventions, pollution will be a serious problem in China for years to come. Beijing air on a day after rain (L) and a rainless day (R) One of the serious negative consequences of the Peoples Republic of Chinas rapid industrial development has been increased pollution and degradation of natural resources. ... Water supply and sanitation in China is undergoing a massive transition while facing numerous challenges such as rapid urbanization, a widening gap between rich and poor as well as urban and rural areas, as well as water scarcity, contamination and pollution. ... Since the founding of the Peoples Republic of China, the goal of health programs has been to provide care to every member of the population and to make maximum use of limited health-care personnel, equipment, and financial resources. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife. ... Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ...


A 1998 WHO report on air quality in 272 cities worldwide concluded that seven of the world's 10 most polluted cities were in China. According to China's own evaluation, two-thirds of the 338 cities for which air-quality data are available are considered polluted - two-thirds of them moderately or severely so. Respiratory and heart diseases related to air pollution are the leading causes of death in China. WHO redirects here. ... Diseases of the mammalian respiratory system are classified under one of two broad categories: physiologic, where disease states are characterised by alterations in physiology, or anatomical, where disease states are defined by the anatomical location/level affected, or by the layers of the respiratory system affected by disease. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ...


Almost all of the nation's rivers are considered polluted to some degree, and half of the population lacks access to clean water. Ninety percent of urban water bodies are severely polluted. Water scarcity also is an issue; for example, severe water scarcity in northern China is a serious threat to sustained economic growth and has forced the government to plan a large-scale diversion of water from the Yangtze River to northern cities, including Beijing and Tianjin. Acid rain falls on 30% of the country. Various studies estimate pollution costs the Chinese economy about 7%-10% of GDP each year. A 2005 report by the World Bank states that more than 300 million people in rural China have no access to safe water and nearly 800 million have seen no improvement in sanitation and hygiene in recent years. Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be drank by humans. ... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... The South-North Water Transfer Project (Chinese:南水北调工程) is a proposed scheme by the Peoples Republic of China to divert water from the Yangtze River to the Yellow River. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... Peking redirects here. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ...


China's leaders have increasingly paid attention to the country's severe environmental problems. The head of National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) proclaimed in 1991 that environmental protection was one of China's basic national policies, at the same time cautioning that environmental protection must be coordinated with economic development. According to NEPA, $3.2 billion was spent on pollution prevention and environmental rehabilitation from 1981-85, $8.8 billion from 1986-1990, and about $15 billion for the eighth five-year plan (1991-95). Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ...


China has sought to contain its increasing industrial pollution largely through administrative procedures and efforts to increase public awareness. The heavily polluted Pearl River delta was one of the first major industrialized areas targeted for clean up. Officials hoped that new sewage treatment plants for cities in the delta area would enable the river to support an edible fish population by the year 2000. A nascent environmental protection industry has also emerged. However, in some areas of China, pollution has long been considered as one of the costs associated with economic development. Map of Pearl River Delta (details) The Pearl River Delta Region (PRD) in China occupies the low-lying areas alongside the Pearl River estuary where the Pearl river flows into the South China Sea. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... ...


The question of environmental impacts associated with the Three Gorges Dam project has generated controversy among environmentalists inside and outside China. Critics claim that erosion and silting of the Yangtze River threaten several endangered species, while officials say the dam will help prevent devastating floods and generate clean hydroelectric power that will enable the region to lower its dependence on coal, thus lessening air pollution. The Three Gorges Dam (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese hydroelectric river dam that spans the Yangtze River in Sandouping, Yichang, Hubei, China. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ...


In March 1998, NEPA was officially upgraded to a ministry-level agency and renamed as the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), reflecting the growing importance the Chinese government placed on environmental protection. [3] The Chinese government recognizes the environmental situation in China is grim and that increasing water and air pollution, as well as deforestation and desertification, will threaten the base of China's economic development. In 1999, China invested more than 1% of GDP in environmental protection. The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn) is the chief civilian administrative body of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA, Simplified Chinese: 国家环境保护总局) is a cabinet-level agency in the executive branch of the Chinese Government (Peoples Republic of China). ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... Environmental movement is a term often used for any social or political movement directed towards the preservation, restoration, or enhancement of the natural environment. ...


In recent years, China has strengthened its environmental legislation and made some progress in stemming environmental deterioration. During the 10th Five-Year Plan (2001-2005), China planned to reduce total emissions by 10%. Beijing in particular has invested heavily in pollution control as part of its preparation of the 2008 Olympic Games. In 2005, China joined the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development, which brings industries and governments together to implement strategies that reduce pollution and address climate change. Some cities have seen improvement in air quality in recent years. Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008, to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm CST (12:08:08 UTC) at the Beijing National Stadium in... The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized index of the air quality in a given location, given in parts per billion. ...


At the beginning of 2007 SEPA announced 82 projects, with a total investment value of over 112 billion yuan, had been found in serious breach of the environmental impact assessment law and regulations on the integration of health and safety measures into project design.[108]


China is an active participant in climate change talks and other multilateral environmental negotiations in organization such as the UN Environment Program (UNEP). While China has taken environmental challenges seriously, it has pushed for the developed world to help developing countries to a far greater extent. It is a signatory to the Basel Convention governing the transport and disposal of hazardous waste and the Montreal Protocol for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and other major environmental agreements. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ... The Basel Convention (verbose: Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal) is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent dumping of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). ... This article describes hazardous waste as a substance; for the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal see Basel Convention Put simply, a Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment and generally exhibits one... The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer from depletion by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. ... The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. ... The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ...


China is a member of the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP). The APP is a public-private partnership of six nations (Australia, China, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the United States) committed to explore new mechanisms to meet national pollution reduction, energy security and climate change goals in ways that reduce poverty and promote economic development. APP members have undertaken cooperative activities involving deployment of clean technology in partner countries in eight areas: cleaner fossil energy, renewable energy and distributed generation, power generation and transmission, steel, aluminum, cement, coal mining, and buildings and appliances. The Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate is an agreement between six Asia-Pacific nations: Australia, the Peoples Republic of China, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United States to develop and share technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ... Public-private partnership (PPP) is a system in which a government service or private business venture is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies. ... Energy security, or security of supply, is a key component of energy policy in many countries. ...


The United States and China have been engaged in an active program of bilateral environmental cooperation since the mid-1990s, with an emphasis on clean energy technology and the design of effective environmental policy. The U.S.-China Forum on Environment and Development, co-chaired by the U.S. Vice President and the Premier of the People's Republic of China, has been the principal vehicle of an active program of bilateral environmental cooperation since its inception in 1997. Despite positive reviews of the Forum's achievements from both sides, China has often compared the U.S. program, which lacks a foreign assistance component, with those of Japan and several EU countries that include generous levels of aid. Clean energies are forms of energy which do not pollute the air, the ground, or the sea. ... Environmental policy is any (course of) action delibaretely taken (or not taken) to manage human activities with a view to prevent, reduce or mitigate harmful effects on nature and natural resources, and ensuring that man-made changes to the environment do not have harmful effects on humans [1]. // It is... Dick Cheney 46th and current Vice President (2001- ) The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who is a heartbeat from the presidency. ... The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ...


See also

國立政治大學 National Chengchi University © National Chengchi University National Chengchi University (Traditional Chinese: 國立政治大學; Simplified Chinese: 国立政治大学; Pinyin: Guólì Zhèngzhì Dàxué; National Political University) is a public university at Muzha in Wenshan District, Taipei City, Taiwan. ... A hùkÇ’u (Chinese: ) or hùjí (Chinese: ) refers to residency permits (household registration) issued in mainland China (by the Peoples Republic of China) and Taiwan (by the Republic of China). ... When the Communist Party of China came to power in 1949, its leaders fundamental long-range goals were to transform China into a modern, powerful, socialist nation. ... Chinese Economic Reform (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refers to the program of economic changes called Socialism with Chinese characteristics in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) that were started in 1978 by pragmatists within the Communist Party of China (CPC) led by Deng Xiaoping and are ongoing... The five-year plans of China were a series of economic development initiatives. ... There was no indigenous Industrial Revolution in China in the 18th and 19th centuries like that of Europe. ... Iron rice bowl (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese term used to refer to an occupation with guaranteed job security, as well as steady income and benefits. ... The “Three Anti Campaign” and “Five Anti Campaign” The suppression of reactionaries and the land reform mainly affected the countryside, while the subsequent “Three Anti Campaign” and “Five Anti Campaign” (also called the Three-striking campaign and Five-striking campaign) could be regarded as the corresponding genocide in cities. ... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers... The Four Modernizations (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) were the goals of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms. ... This article is about the term itself and its relationships. ... The Scientific Development Concept (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: , Pinyin: KÄ“xué FāzhÇŽn Guān) is the current official guiding socio-economic ideology of the Communist Party of China. ... Made in China label on a D-Link Gigabit Ethernet switch. ... Chinas automobile industry is in rapid development since year 2000. ... China Aviation Industry Corporation is a Chinese consortium of aircraft manufacturers under Aviation Industries of China (AVIC) I and AVIC II. Units Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation Xian Aircraft Industrial Corporation Shanxi Aircraft Company See also Changhe Aircraft Industries Corporation Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group ACAC consortium China Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing... The China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) is the main contractor for the Chinese space program. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jiu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the Chinese word that refers to all alcoholic beverages. ... Past packaging of Tsingtao Beer in a display at the Qingdao Beer Museum Chinese beer (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) has become increasingly popular, first in China in the last century, and then internationally in the last few decades. ... China’s rapid economic growth and heavy reliance on increasingly expensive foreign oil, the vast environmental toll that is one of the most apparent costs of Chinas economic success, persistent rural poverty in China and periodic power shortages all have impressed upon the Chinese government that renewable energy must... Growth rates for wind power in China have far exceeded the world average, although China still lags behind many countries in terms of total wind power installations. ... This is a list of prominent companies from the Peoples Republic of China. ... // Title China-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park (中国——新加坡苏州工业园区) Short Form: CS-SIP or SIP Background As Chinas modernization drive gained momentum in the late 1980s, many Chinese delegations visited Singapore, a southeast Asian nation that achieved economic miracle within 30 years of independence. ... This article is about Communications in mainland China. ... The postal system of the Peoples Republic of China was established as the General Postal Administration in Beijing in 1949, growing out of the posts that had been operating for several years in the liberated areas. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chinas financial system is highly regulated and relatively underdeveloped, but has recently begun to expand rapidly as monetary policy becomes integral to its overall economic policy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Han Dynasty cash coin Currency has been used in China since the New Stone Age, in which Chinese also invented paper money in the 9th century. ... This article is about the Chinese currency base unit. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... The history of banking in China includes the business of dealing with money and credit transactions, in China. ... This is a list of banks incorporated in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Beijing Financial Street The Beijing Financial Street (Hanyu Pinyin: Beijing Jinrong Jie) lies in the western part of the 2nd Ring Road, in a nearly vertical band just east of Fuxingmen. ... The Stock Exchange Executive Council (SEEC) of the Peoples Republic of China was established to improve the efficiency of the Chinese securities market. ... The Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese stock exchange based in the city of Shanghai, with a market capitalization of nearly US$2. ... The SSE composite is an index of all stock that trade on the Shanghai Stock Exchange. ... Shenzhen Stock Exchange building Shenzhen Stock Exchange building Shenzhen Stock Exchange (深圳交易所) is one of the Peoples Republic of Chinas three stock exchanges. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Shanghai Metal Exchange (SHME), one of the national level stock exchanges of China, was established on 28 May 1992. ... Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (ZCE), established in 1990, is a futures exchange in Zhengzhou, one of the three futures exchanges in China. ... Demographics of China, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Guóbiāo (国标) (GB) in the Peoples Republic of China is the abbreviation of Guójiā Biāozhǔn (国家标准), meaning the National Standards, or Guójiā Biāozhǔn Mǎ (国家标准码), meaning the National Standard Encoding as Chinese character encoding system. ... The China Compulsory Certificate is a set of quality and safety requirements set by the Chinese government for products entering China. ... Forbes magazine annually lists the worlds wealthiest individuals - The Worlds Richest People. ... The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) is a powerful macroeconomic management agency under the Chinese State Council, which has broad administrative and planning control over the Chinese economy. ... The Ministry of Finance of the Peoples Republic of China (simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the national executive agency of the Central Peoples Government which administers macroeconomic policies and the national annual budget. ... The Ministry of Commerce of the Peoples Republic of China (MOFCOM) is one of the ministries of the State Council of China. ... The All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) is the sole national trade union federation of the Peoples Republic of China. ... China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) is an organ of the Chinese national government created in the year 1952. ... The China Securities Regulatory Commission (zh: 中国证券监督管理委员会) is an institution of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... China International Trust Investment Company (中國國際信托投資公司) or commonly known as CITIC is a state-owned investment company of the Peoples Republic of China, established by Rong Yiren in 1979 with the approval from Deng Xiaoping. ... The following are international rankings of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Special Economic Zones of the Peoples Republic of China are Special Economic Zones (SEZs) located in mainland China. ... This article is about the welfare system in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Headline text Matthew David Walker ... Foreign aid to the Peoples Republic of China takes the form of both bilateral and multilateral official development assistance and official aid to individual recipients. ... This article is about migration in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Science and technology in China is currently experiencing rapid growth. ... Food safety is a growing concern in Chinas vast food production system. ... Intellectual property rights have been acknowledged and protected in the Peoples Republic of China since 1979. ... A U-turn in real estate prices in Chinas biggest city has driven many buyers straight into negative equity. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The 2007 Chinese export confidence crisis refers to a series of product recalls and import bans initiated by the product safety institutions of the United States and European Union against products manufactured in and exported from the Peoples Republic of China because of numerous consumer safety issues claimed from... Dogs and cats have been the main affected pets of the recall. ... The Chinese protein export scandal was first identified after the wide recall of many brands of cat and dog food starting in March 2007. ... The sub-pages of this article aim to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to China, including Hong Kong and Macau. ...

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  44. ^ Albert Keidel The limits of a smaller, poorer China. Financial Times. November 13 2007.; (2) Porter, Eduardo. "China Shrinks", The New York Times, December 9, 2007. ; (3) Mukul Devichand. Reporter, BBC Radio 4's More or Less When a dollar a day means 25 cents. 2 December 2007.; (4) Peter Day. From Our Own Correspondent. Harsh life for China's hill farmers. 15 December 2007.; (5) Neil Reynolds. Globe and Mail. China far poorer than the world thinks. 12 December 2007.
  45. ^ List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty. en.wikipedia.org.
  46. ^ List of socialist countries. en.wikipedia.org.
  47. ^ Starr, John (2001). Understanding China: A Guide to China's Economy, History, and Political Culture. Hill and Wang. ISBN 0809094894. 
  48. ^ a b Hsu, Robert C. (October 1, 2007). The political economy of guidance planning in Post-Mao China. Review of World Economics. 
  49. ^ Powell, Simon (1991). Agricultural Reform in China: From Communes to Commodity Economy, 1978-1990. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0719033829. 
  50. ^ Dong, Xiao-yuan (2006). China's Agricultural Development: Challenges And Prospects. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0754646963. 
  51. ^ Edit/Review Countries
  52. ^ China's gross domestic product (GDP) growth
  53. ^ Hiroshi Satō. Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty in Urban China. (2006) Routledge. ISBN 0415338727
  54. ^ "Consumer Price Index (CPI) Kept Growth in November" National Bureau of Statistics of China 2007-12-11 13:14:55
  55. ^ "China’s Inflation Rose to 7.1% in January" article by Keith Bradsher in The New York Times February 19, 2008
  56. ^ http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/newsandcomingevents/t20080311_402467365.htm Consumer Price Index (CPI) Expanded in February] National Bureau of Statistics of China 2008-03-11 14:53:02
  57. ^ "Chinese Prices Surge Again, Despite New Controls" article by Keith Bradsher in the New York Times November 14, 2007
  58. ^ "Inflation Picks Up in China; Trade Gap Grows" article by Keith Bradsher in The New York Times December 11, 2007
  59. ^ "China vows to stabilize prices, prevent price hikes" Published January 9, 2008, accessed January 9, 2008 on GOV.cn, Chinese Government's Official Web Portal reprint from Xinhua
  60. ^ "Fighting Inflation, China Freezes Energy Prices" article by Jim Yardley in The New York Times January 9, 2008
  61. ^ "Rise in China’s Pork Prices Signals End to Cheap Output" article by Keith Bradsher in the New York Times, June 8, 2007
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  63. ^ "China's inflation at decade high", CNN, 2008-03-10. Retrieved on 2008-03-11. 
  64. ^ Yardley, Jim; David Barboza (April 3, 2005). Help Wanted: China Finds Itself With a Labor Shortage. New York Times.
  65. ^ Barboza, David (April 3, 2006). Labor Shortage in China May Lead to Trade Shift. New York Times.
  66. ^ Bradsher, Keith (August 29, 2007). Wages Rise in China as Businesses Court the Young. New York Times.
  67. ^ http://www.bls.gov/news.release/ximpim.nr0.htm U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes
  68. ^ "China’s Inflation Hits American Price Tags" article by David Barboza in The New York Times February 1, 2008
  69. ^ Chinese stock market pushes above $1 trillion mark.
  70. ^ Xinhua: Chinese mainland stock market to become world's third largest in 10 years
  71. ^ "China’s Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Options CRS Report for Congress by Jonathan E. Sanford Congressional Research Service The Library of Congress Order Code RS22338 November 29, 2005
  72. ^ "China Lets Currency Appreciate a Bit Faster" article by Keith Bradsher in The New York Times December 29, 2007
  73. ^ WFP - Where we work - China
  74. ^ Plantation Study in China: Research Outline Forest Conservation Project, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan; February 2006.
  75. ^ World Nuclear Association. Nuclear Power in China (November 2007)
  76. ^ In Search of Clean Energy to Meet China’s Needs. World Bank (2007-12-19).
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  78. ^ MSN Encarta. Asia: Mineral Resources
  79. ^ a b TED Case Studies. China and Coal
  80. ^ Heping, Xie; Tad S. Golosinski (1999). Mining Science and Technology '99. Taylor & Francis, 252-256. ISBN 9058090671. 
  81. ^ Creedy, David; Lijie, Wang; Xinquan, Zhou; Haibin, Liu; Campbell, Gary (February 2006). "Transforming China's coal mines: A case history of the Shuangliu Mine". Natural Resources Forum 30 (1): 15-26. Blackwell Publishing. doi:10.1111/j.1477-8947.2006.00154.x. 
  82. ^ Xinhua. China to calculate oil and gas reserves 2004-11-25.
  83. ^ Puguang Named 2nd Largest Gas Field
  84. ^ Kaoru YAMAGUCHI, Keii CHO. Natural Gas in China IEEJ: August 2003.
  85. ^ a b Florida Forestry China Trade Mission Report
  86. ^ Industrial output growth 1978-2006
  87. ^ 14-19: Output of Major Industrial Products
  88. ^ a b Shanghai's GDP Keeps Growing Xinhua News Agency February 1, 2003.
  89. ^ Vice-Premier Li Xiannian's speech, published in the Hong Kong newspaper Ming Pao on June 14, 1979.
  90. ^ "Average Wage of On-Duty Staff and Workers in Urban Areas Jumped in the First Three Quarters". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2007-10-29, 15:35:2.
  91. ^ "China Drafts Law to Boost Unions and End Labor Abuse". New York Times. October 13, 2006.
  92. ^ "Official Union in China Says All Wal-Marts Are Organized". New York Times. October 13, 2006.
  93. ^ "In Chinese Factories, Lost Fingers and Low Pay". David Barboza. New York Times. January 5, 2008
  94. ^ China's foreign trade to top US$ 1.75 trillion. ChinaDaily (2007-01-02). Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  95. ^ Germany still the export achiever. CNN (2005-12-06). Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  96. ^ Trade between China and Russia could exceed $40 bln in 2007. The Voice of Russia (2007-08-02).
  97. ^ Foreign investment in China rebounds - International Herald Tribune
  98. ^ Warner Bros to withdraw from Chinese mainland (Xinhuanet.com, with source from China Radio International)
  99. ^ List of countries by population growth rate
  100. ^ The newest billionaires: China's economy churns out dozens. International Herald Tribune. November 6, 2007.
  101. ^ 2007 China Rich List series. Hurun Report.
  102. ^ China produces first home-grown bullet train: report
  103. ^ China: Logistics is key to inland shift
  104. ^ Internet users to log in at world No.1
  105. ^ BBC News. Emerging giants spur telecom boom, 12 December 2007.
  106. ^ The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a study in early June 2007 that shows 1.06 million Chinese have left to study elsewhere since 1978, but only 275,000 have returned.[1]
  107. ^ An extensive network for international academic exchanges has already been established here.[2]
  108. ^ How participation can help China's ailing environment

This article contains material from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which are United States government publications in the public domain. [4] This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (Simplified Chinese: 中国社会科学院; Traditional Chinese: 中國社會科學院; pinyin: Zhōngguó Shèhuì KÄ“xuéyuàn) is the national academy of the Peoples Republic of China for the social sciences. ... Map of world poverty by country, showing percentage of population below national poverty line. ... This is a combined map of all countries who declared themselves to be socialist states under any definition, color-coded for the number of years that the country in question claimed to be socialist:  Over 60 years  50 - 60 years  40 - 50 years  30 - 40 years  20 - 30 years  10... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Xinhua (Chinese:新华通讯社/新華通訊社, pinyin:xīnhuá tōngxùnshè) is also the short for Xinhua News Agency Xinhua (Chinese:新化县/新化縣, pinyin:xīnhuà xiàn) is a county in Hunan,China, See Xinhua County. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 3, 2005 Conflict in Iraq: A group of at least 40 Iraqi insurgents attacks Baghdads Abu Ghraib prison, using car bombs, grenades, and small arms. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress. ... The Great Hall interior. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The World Nuclear Association (formerly the Uranium Institute) is a pro-nuclear power organisation which monitors and promotes the use of nuclear power. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Xinhua (Chinese:新华通讯社/新華通訊社, pinyin:xīnhuá tōngxùnshè) is also the short for Xinhua News Agency Xinhua (Chinese:新化县/新化縣, pinyin:xīnhuà xiàn) is a county in Hunan,China, See Xinhua County. ... Lǐ Xiānniàn (1902–June 21, 1992) was President of the Peoples Republic of China between 1983 and 1988 and then president of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference until his death. ... The newspapers of Hong Kong can be categorized by language: English newspapers South China Morning Post The Standard (formerly, the iMail) Eastern Express (now defunct) The three English publications are regarded as neutral towards the government and are mostly serious newspapers. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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  • China, World Bank [5][6]
  • China, IMF [7]
  • China Economy (China Economic Information Network). News stories and subscriber-only market analysis for various sectors of the country's economy.
  • China's economy. Articles By Subject. Economist.com
  • China Economic Net. [8]
  • China Economic Review. [9]
  • Far Eastern Economic Review. [10] Dow Jones’ monthly magazine on Asia. For valuable insights on Asia’s business and political development. With search and 58-year archive.
  • Chinese Economy. [11] China Daily Special Coverage
  • China [12] Financial Times.
  • The New York Times series "Choking on Growth"
  • The China Perspective. [13]
  • Review of the China economy by exporters and importers

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UN

  • United Nations in China [14]
    • UN Development Programme [15]
    • International Labour Organization [16]
    • World Food Prog. [17]
    • Asian and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery [18]
    • UN Industrial Development Organization [19]
    • UNIFEM [20]
    • UNESCO [21]

WTO

  • WTO MEMBER INFORMATION [22]
  • China and WTO [23]

APEC

  • APEC [24]
  • APEC-China [25] [26]

OECD

  • China OECD Country Page.
  • OECD Economic Survey of China 2005 [27]. (latest)

Journals

  • China Economic Journal [28]
  • China Economic Quarterly [29]
  • China & World Economy [30]
  • Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies (JCEBS)[31] is the official journal of the Chinese Economic Association (UK).[32]
  • Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies [33]
  • The China Quarterly [34]
  • The Chinese Economy [35]
  • Journal of Chinese Economic Studies (ISSN: 1348-2521)
  • Journal of the Chinese Statistical Association (ISSN: 0529-6528)
  • China: An International Journal (ISSN: 0219-7472)
  • China Economic Review (ISSN: 1043-951X)
  • China Review (ISSN: 1680-2012)
  • Frontiers of Economics in China (ISSN: 1673-3444)

This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ... Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and Republic of China (Taiwan) For other meanings, see China (disambiguation). ... China stretches some 5,000 kilometers across the East Asian landmass in an eratically changing configuration of broad plains, expansive deserts, and lofty mountain ranges, including vast areas of inhospitable terrain. ... The Water resources of China are affected by pollution, contamination and regional scarcity. ... This is a list of rivers which are at least partially located in China, classified according to their respective termini: // Indus (印度河) Yarlung Tsangpo River (Brahmaputra) (雅鲁藏布江) (joins the Ganges) [1] Salween (萨尔温江 or 怒江) Mekong (江) Red River (Vietnam) (红河, a. ... Lakes in China include: Dagze Co Lake Dian Dongting Lake Erhai Lake Gaoyou Lake Hongze Lake Lugu Lake Luoma Lake Lake Poyang Qiandao Lake Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor) Taihu Lake Tianchi West Lake Yangcheng Lake Lumajangdong See also: Lake Tianchi Monster http://www. ... This is a list of active and extinct volcanoes in China. ... Chinese Mountain Cat Wildlife of China includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats. ... In the Peoples Republic of China, National Scenic and Historic Interest Area is the exact equivalent of the National Park, as specified by the Ministry of Construction in 1994. ... List of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... ... For other uses, see East Sea (Chinese mythology). ... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... Provinces (Simplified Chinese: 省, Traditional Chinese: 省, Hanyu Pinyin romanization: shÄ›ng) Autonomous regions (Simplified Chinese: 自治区, Traditional Chinese: 自治區, Hanyu Pinyin romanization: Zìzhìqū) Municipalities (Simplified Chinese: 直辖市, Traditional Chinese: 直轄市, Hanyu Pinyin romanization: Zhíxiáshì) Special Administrative Regions (Simplified Chinese: 特别行政区, Traditional Chinese: 特別行政區, Hanyu Pinyin romanization: Tèbié xíngzhèngqū) ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of Sheng (Chinese: 省 ShÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... According to administrative divisions of the Peoples Republic of China, there are three level of cities, namely municipalities, prefecture-level cities, and county-level cities. ... The North China Plain (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also called the Central Plain(s) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... Zhongyuan redirects here. ... China, with its large territory, spans across the longitude of five time zones. ... // Introduction China is one of the most victimized countries in the world by natural disasters. ... East China Charter Township is a charter township located in St. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... Northern Peoples Republic of China region. ... Western China Western China refers to the western part of China. ... Northwestern China Northwestern China (西北, XÄ«bÄ›i) includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai. ... The southwestern Peoples Republic of China region. ... The South Central region of the Peoples Republic of China South Central China (Chinese: 中南; pinyin: Zhōngnán) is a region of the Peoples Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the provinces of Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong and Hainan, and the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region. ... Demographics of China, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... This article is about migration in the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China (Communist China). ... Sexuality in China has undergone revolutionary changes and this sexual revolution still continues today. ... Social issues in the Peoples Republic of China in the 21st century are varied. ... Chinese social relations are social relations typified by a reciprocal social network. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chinas Generation Y (Gen Y) is a generation of approximately 240 million people born between 1980 and 1990. ... When the Communist Party of China came to power in 1949, its leaders fundamental long-range goals were to transform China into a modern, powerful, socialist nation. ... Chinese Economic Reform (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refers to the program of economic changes called Socialism with Chinese characteristics in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) that were started in 1978 by pragmatists within the Communist Party of China (CPC) led by Deng Xiaoping and are ongoing... This article is about Communications in mainland China. ... Chinas financial system is highly regulated and relatively underdeveloped, but has recently begun to expand rapidly as monetary policy becomes integral to its overall economic policy. ... Special Economic Zones of the Peoples Republic of China are Special Economic Zones (SEZs) located in mainland China. ... Foreign aid to the Peoples Republic of China takes the form of both bilateral and multilateral official development assistance and official aid to individual recipients. ... Headline text Matthew David Walker ... The term Administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction. ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... The flag of the Peoples Republic of China, the Five-Starred Red Flag (五星红旗 in pinyin: wÇ” xÄ«ng hóng qí), was designed by Zeng Liansong, an economist and artist from Ruian (瑞安 ruì ān), Zhejiang. ... The National Emblem of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国国徽) contains a representation of Tiananmen Gate, the entrance gate of the Forbidden City from the Tiananmen Square in Beijing, in a red circle. ... March of the Volunteers (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the national anthem of the Peoples Republic of China, written in the midst of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) by the noted poet and playwright Tian Han with music composed by Nie Er. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Elections in the Peoples Republic of China take two forms: elections for selected local government positions in selected rural villages, and elections by Communist Party peoples congresses for the national legislature: the National Peoples Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flag of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) The Nationality Law of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó guójí fÇŽ) regulates citizenship in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The civil service of the Peoples Republic of China consists of civil servants of all levels who run the day-to-day affairs in mainland China. ... The Chinese court system is based on civil law, modeled after the legal systems of Germany and France. ... Since the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949, the Military of the Peoples Republic of China has grown to include the active and reserve forces of the Peoples Liberation Army, the Peoples Liberation Army Navy, the Peoples Armed Police and the Militia... This article is a list of universities in the Peoples Republic of China by province (22), autonomous region (5), municipality (4), and special administrative region (2). ... This article is about the welfare system in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The foreign relations of the Peoples Republic of China draws upon traditions extending back to China in the Qing Dynasty and the Opium Wars, despite China having undergone many radical upheavals over the past two and a half centuries. ... Law enforcement in the the Peoples Republic of China are divided between the Peoples Armed Police Ministry of Public Security of China The security apparatus is made up of the Ministry of State Security and the Ministry of Public Security, the People’s Armed Police, the People’s... Terrorism in China is primarily committed by Muslim separatist militants in the Xinjiang Uyghur and Tibet autonomous regions. ... Science and technology in China is currently experiencing rapid growth. ... Water supply and sanitation in China is undergoing a massive transition while facing numerous challenges such as rapid urbanization, a widening gap between rich and poor as well as urban and rural areas, as well as water scarcity, contamination and pollution. ... The following are international rankings of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ... The history of Chinese-language cinema has three separate threads of development: Cinema of Hong Kong, Cinema of China, and Cinema of Taiwan. ... Chinese cuisine (Chinese: 中國菜) originated from different regions of China and has become widespread in many other parts of the world — from East Asia to North America, Australasia and Western Europe. ... Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ... The music of China dates back to the dawn of Chinese civilization with documents and artifacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC). ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kung fu redirects here. ... Variety arts in China, including tightrope walking, acrobatics, animal acts, and sleight of hand date back at least as far as the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) and were very popular in the imperial court. ... A pot of Chinese tea This article does not cite any references or sources. ... National Day in 2004, Beihai Park. ... The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... Main articles: History of China and History of the Peoples Republic of China The history of the Peoples Republic of China is often divided distinctly by historians into the Mao era and the post-Mao era. The Mao era lasted from the founding of the Peoples Republic... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // After the June 4th Incident, a large number of overseas Chinese students were granted political refuge almost unconditionally by foreign governments. ... // In November 2002 Jiang Zemin stepped down from the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China to make way for a younger fourth generation of leadership led by Hu Jintao. ... The sub-pages of this article aim to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to China, including Hong Kong and Macau. ...


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China. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (5878 words)
North China, which coincides with the Huang He (Yellow River) basin and is bounded in the S by the Qingling Mts., includes the loess plateau of the northwest, the N China plain, and the mountains of the Shandong peninsula.
China is the world’s largest producer of rice and wheat and a major producer of sweet potatoes, sorghum, millet, barley, peanuts, corn, soybeans, and potatoes.
China’s relations with other Asian nations, at first cordial, were affected by China’s encouragement of Communist activity within their borders, the suppression of a revolt in Tibet (1959–60), and undeclared border wars with India in the 1960s over disputed territory.
Peoples Republic of China (1175 words)
Four-stage Theory of the Republic of China - The Four-stage Theory of the Republic of China or the Theory of the Four stages of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國四階段論; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Sì Jiēduàn Lùn) is proposed by Chen Shui-bian, the current (10th and 11th terms) president of the Republic of China.
China's own history is entwined with its response to the West in a rich tapestry depicting its peoples, rulers, 2005 china people pharmacopoeia republic and society.
China People Republic - China People Republic A Concise History of China The centuries-long complexity of China's political experience, the richness of its exotic culture, china people republic and the drama of its economic unfolding are the hallmarks of this short but sweeping history.
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