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Encyclopedia > Economic impact of illegal immigrants in the United States

Those who find positive economic effects focus on added productivity and lower costs to consumers for certain goods and services.[1]

Contents

Historic views

According to a 1998 article in The National Academies Press, "many [previous studies] represented not science but advocacy from both sides of the immigration debate...often offered an incomplete accounting of either the full list of taxpayer costs and benefits by ignoring some programs and taxes while including others", and that "the conceptual foundation of this research was rarely explicitly stated, offering opportunities to tilt the research toward the desired result."[2]


A survey conducted in the 1980s found that economists themselves overwhelmingly viewed immigration, including illegal immigration, as positive for the economy.[3] They found that 76 percent felt that recent illegal immigration has a positive affect on the economy.


In an article that appeared in the World Policy Journal (1994), Peter Andreas asserts that constraining the flow of illegal immigration in states such as California, may result in economic stagnation.[4]


Participation in the free market

One of the largest drivers of immigration both legal and illegal is economic supply and demand for labor and the natural human desire of people to participate in the economy and in so doing better their economic situation. Labor is a mobile economic factor of production, efforts to limit its mobility are attempts at limiting the free market (for labor). However, a free migration argument consistent with free market economy would require us to first have a free market and no welfare system.[5][6] The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... Classical economics distinguishes between three factors of production which are used in the production of goods: Land or natural resources - naturally-occurring goods such as soil and minerals. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Social welfare redirects here. ...


According to the executive vice president of Banco Popular, the bank has found no higher rate of default in home loans to illegal immigrants than any other market the company serves.[7] This article is about a Puerto Rican bank. ...


Impact on Social Services

The nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office.[8] reviewed 29 reports published over 15 years to evaluate the impact of unauthorized immigrants on the budgets of state and local governments. It found the following The Congressional Budget Office is a federal agency within the legislative branch of the United States government. ...

  • State and local governments incur costs for providing services to unauthorized immigrants and have limited options for avoiding or minimizing those costs
  • The amount that state and local governments spend on services for unauthorized immigrants represents a small percentage of the total amount spent by those governments to provide such services to residents in their jurisdictions
  • The tax revenues that unauthorized immigrants generate for state and local governments do not offset the total cost of services provided to those immigrants
  • Federal aid programs offer resources to state and local governments that provide services to unauthorized immigrants, but those funds do not fully cover the costs incurred by those governments.

Editorialist Robert Samuelson points out that poor immigrants strains public services such as local schools and health care. He points out that "from 2000 to 2006, 41 percent of the increase in people without health insurance occurred among Hispanics"[9], although he makes clear that these facts are true of legal as well as illegal immigrants. According to the Center for Immigration Studies, 25.8% of Mexican immigrants lived in poverty — more than double the rate for natives in 1999.[10] In another report, The Heritage Foundation notes that from 1990 to 2006, the number of poor Hispanics increased 3.2 million, from 6 million to 9.2 million.[11] The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) is a nonpartisan immigration reduction-oriented, non-profit research organization and was founded in 1985. ... The Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank located in Washington, D.C., is widely regarded as one of the worlds most influential public policy research institutes. ...


Professor of Law [12] writes that the belief that undocumented migrants are exploiting the US economy and that they cost more in services than they contribute to the economy is "undeniably false". Lipman asserts that "undocumented immigrants actually contribute more to public coffers in taxes than they cost in social services" and "contribute to the U.S. economy through their investments and consumption of goods and services; filling of millions of essential worker positions resulting in subsidiary job creation, increased productivity and lower costs of goods and services; and unrequited contributions to Social Security, Medicare and unemployment insurance programs."[13]



The Internal Revenue Service issues an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) regardless of immigration status because both resident and nonresident aliens may have Federal tax return and payment responsibilities under the Internal Revenue Code. Federal tax law prohibits the IRS from sharing data with other government agencies including the INS. In 2006 1.4 million people used ITIN when filing taxes, of which more than half were illegal aliens.[14] Seal of the Internal Revenue Service Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        IRS redirects here. ... An Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (or ITIN) is a United States tax processing number issued by the Internal Revenue Service. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In U.S. law, an alien is a person who owes political allegiance to another country or government and not a native or naturalized citizen of the land where they are found. ... Look up Tax return in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For tax returns in the United States see Tax return (United States); for tax returns in Canada see Tax return (Canada). ... The Internal Revenue Code (or IRC) (more formally, the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended) is the main body of domestic statutory tax law of the United States organized topically, including laws covering the income tax (see Income tax in the United States), payroll taxes, gift taxes, estate taxes... The acronym INS can refer to: Immigration and Naturalization Service Indian Navy Ship Inelastic neutron scattering Inertial navigation system Insert Key of a keyboard Insurgency, a multi-player mod for Half-Life 2 International Network Services International News Service International Numbering System adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission Irish Naval...


Social security

Since 1986, when the Immigration Reform and Control Act set penalties for employers who knowingly hire illegal immigrants, most illegal immigrant workers have been using fake or stolen ID's and social security numbers to get a job.[15] Many employers who hire illegals withhold social security and income taxes and send the required numbers and tax payments on to the IRS and Social Security administration (SSA).


When Social Security numbers are already in use; names do not match the numbers or the numbers are fake, or the person of record is too old, young, dead etc., the earnings reported to the Social Security Agency are put in an Earnings Suspense file [ESF]. The Social Security spends about $100 million a year and corrects all but about 2% of these. From Tax Years (TY) 1937 through 2003 the ESF had accumulated about 255 million mismatched wage reports, representing $520 billion in wages and about $75 billion in employment taxes paid into the over $1500 billion in the Social Security Trust funds. As of October 2005, approximately 8.8 million wage reports, representing $57.8 billion in wages remained unresolved in the suspense file for TY 2003.[16] This money represents income reporting mistakes, honest and otherwise of U.S. citizens and income paid by illegal immigrant workers and underground U.S. workers using counterfeit or stolen cards. The largest single source of this mismatched income is illegal immigrant workers. To put this in persepective it should be noted that in 2005 SSA brought in $1045.2 billion dollars total of taxes and interest.[17]


Impact on Poverty

"Supporters of a crackdown argue that the U.S. economy would benefit if illegal immigrants were to leave, because U.S. employers would be forced to raise wages to attract American workers. Critics of this approach say the loss of illegal immigrants would stall the U.S. economy, saying undocumented workers do many jobs few native-born Americans will do."[18]


Most Americans would not see any wage increases if illegal immigrants disappeared. However, high school drop outs would expect to see an average of 25 dollar a week raise if illegal immigrants disappeared. On the other hand, they would also see an increase in the costs of some goods and services[2]. Illegal immigrants are thought to have disproportionately affected certain groups of American citizens such as black and Hispanic poor. Research by George Borjas, Robert W. Scrivner Professor of Economics and Social Policy at Harvard University, shows that the average American's wealth is increased by less than 1% by illegal immigration. The effect on wages for middle class individuals was an overall wealth increase. However, illegal immigrants had a long-term reduction of wages among American poor citizens during the 1980s and 1990s by 4.8% [19]. Harvard redirects here. ...


Paul Samuelson, Nobel prize-winning economist from MIT, concurs asserts that there is no unitary, singular effect, good or bad, that arises from illegal immigration, but instead a variety of effects on Americans depending on their economic class. Samuelson posits that wealthier Americans tend to benefit from the illegal influx, while poorer Americans tend to suffer.[20][21] Paul Anthony Samuelson (born May 15, 1915, in Gary, Indiana) is an American neoclassical economist known for his contributions to many fields of economics, beginning with his general statement of the comparative statics method in his 1947 book Foundations of Economic Analysis. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ...


Impact on Black Americans

Research by George Borjas (Robert W. Scrivner Professor of Economics and Social Policy at Harvard University), Jeffrey Grogger (the Irving Harris Professor in Urban Policy in the Harris School at the University of Chicago), and Gordon H. Hanson (the Director of the Center on Pacific Economies and Professor of Economics at UCSD) found that a 10-percent immigrant-induced increase in the supply of a particular skill group reduced the black wage by 4.0 percent, lowered the employment rate of black men by 3.5 percentage points, and increased the incarceration rate of blacks by almost one percent. [22]


“We're being overrun,” says Ted Hayes of Choose Black America, which has led anti-illegal immigration marches in south-central Los Angeles, California. “The compañeros have taken all the housing. If you don't speak Spanish they turn you down for jobs. Our children are jumped upon in the schools. They are trying to drive us out.”[23] He also touts illegal immigration as the biggest threat to blacks in America since slavery.[24] Hayesâ Crispus Attucks Brigade and the American Black Citizens Opposed to Illegal Immigration Invasion have organized protests against illegal immigration.[25] Ernesto Zedillo, former President of Mexico and current Director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, asserts that illegal immigrants are only a drain on government services when they are incapable of paying taxes; and that this incapacity is the result of restrictive federal policies that require proof of citizenship. He further argues that the US economy has "crucial" need for migrant workers, and that the current debate must acknowledge this rather than just focus on enforcement.[26] Ted Hayes is an American homeless advocate and Republican Party activist. ... Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) was President of Mexico from 1994 to 2000. ... The Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, or YCSG, is a research centre at Yale University at New Haven, Connecticut. ...


Education

Using the U.S. INS statistics on how many illegal immigrants are residing in each country and the U.S. Dept of Education's current expenditure per pupil by state, the Federation for American Immigration Reform has estimated cost of educating illegal alien students and U.S.-Born Children of Illegal Aliens in 2004 for the top five states was as follows[27] The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was a part of the United States Department of Justice and handled legal and illegal immigration and naturalization. ... The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) is a non-partisan, non-profit 501(c)(3) educational organization in the United States that advocates for reforms of U.S. immigration policies that would result in significant immigration reduction. ...

State Illegal Alien Students U.S. Born Children of Illegal Aliens Total
California $3,220,200 $4,508,300 $7,728,500
Texas $1,645,400 $2,303,600 $3,949,000
New York $1,306,300 $1,828,900 $3,135,200
Illinois $834,000 $1,167,600 $2,001,700
New Jersey $620,200 $868,200 $1,488,400
For all 50 states $11,919,900 $16,687,900 $28,607,800

According to the newsbrief, "the enormous impact of large-scale illegal immigration cannot be ignored." [28]


Health care

Because of the federal Emergency Treatment and Active Labor Act established in the mid-1990's, any illegal alien may receive medical treatment and an interpreter at a hospital without divulging their insurance, citizenship, or employment status.


Almost $190 million or about 25 percent of the uncompensated costs southwest border county hospitals incurred resulted from emergency medical treatment provided to undocumented immigrants[29]


Also, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) continues to bring injured and ill undocumented immigrants to hospital emergency rooms without taking financial responsibility for their medical care.[30]


In 2006, the Oklahoma Health Care Authority estimated that it would spend about $9.7 million on emergency Medicaid services for unauthorized immigrants and that 80 percent of those costs would be for services associated with childbirth.[31]


Madeleine Cosman writes in the Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons that the burden of illegal immigrants on the health care system in the US has forced many hospitals to close due to unpaid bills and the unfunded mandate of Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA). Between 1993 and 2003, 60 hospitals in California alone were forced to close, and many others had to reduce staff or implement other procedures which reduced the level of service they could provide. The article attributes these closings mainly to illegal immigration. [3] Madeleine Pelner Cosman (Dec. ... The Association of American Physicians and Surgeons is a conservative association of physicians, medical professionals and students, patients and others[1] founded in 1943[2]. According to the AAPSs website the organization is dedicated to the highest ethical standards of the Oath of Hippocrates and to preserving the sanctity... The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act () is a United States Act of Congress passed in 1986 as part of the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. ...


To reduce the risk of diseases in low-incidence areas, the main countermeasure has been the screening of immigrants on arrival. Prior to being awarded a green card, legal immigrants over the age of 15 must have a chest x-ray or skin test to check for tuberculosis.[32][33] Illegal immigrants are not screened in this manner. In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... A United States Permanent Resident Card (green card) A United States Permanent Resident Card, also green card, is an identification card attesting the permanent resident status of an alien in the United States of America. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


However, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)], tuberculosis (TB) cases among foreign-born individuals remain disproportionately high, at nearly nine times the rate of U.S.-born persons. Immigration from areas of high incidence is thought to have fueled the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB), chagas, hepatitis, and leprosy in areas of low incidence. In 2003, nearly 26 percent of foreign-born TB patients in the United States were from Mexico. Another third of the foreign-born cases were among those from the Philippines, Vietnam, India and China, the CDC report said.[34][35][36] Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Chagas disease (also called American trypanosomiasis) is a human tropical parasitic disease which occurs in the Americas, particularly in South America. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ...


Data from personal interviews

At least two research studies have been done which attempt to discover the cost of health care for illegal immigrants by asking the illegal immigrants themselves.

  • A phone survey in which Alexander Ortega and colleagues at the University of California asked illegal immigrants how often they receive medical care reported that illegal immigrants are no more likely to visit the emergency room than native born Americans[37].
  • A RAND study concluded that the total federal cost of providing medical expenses for the 78% illegal immigrants without health insurance coverage was $1.1 billion, with immigrants paying $321 million of health care costs out-of-pocket. The study found that undocumented immigrants tend to visit physicians less frequently than U.S. citizens because they are younger and because people with chronic health problems are less likely to immigrate.[38]

.[39]


References

  1. ^ Suarez-Orozco, Carola and Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo (2001) Children of Immigration. Harvard University Press pages 41-45
  2. ^ James P. Smith and Barry Edmonston, Eds., The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration (1998), p. 2, The National Academies Press (1998) The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration (1998). Retrieved: February 19, 2008.
  3. ^ Survey results reported in Simon, Julian L. (1989) The Economic Consequences of Immigration Boston: Basil Blackwell are discussed widely and available as of September 12, 2007 at a Cato group policy paper by Simon here.
  4. ^ Andreas, Peter, The Making of Amerexico (Mis)Handling Illegal Immigration, World Policy Journal Vol. 11.2 (1994): pp.55. "The sad irony is that the most important constraint on the flow of illegal aliens may be continued economic stagnation in states such as California. In periods of recession, labor markets tighten, reducing em- ployment opportunities--both legal and illegal. Economic recovery, on the other hand--propelled in no small part by the hard work of illegal laborers already here-- would expand opportunities in the labor market, encouraging continued illegal immigration."
  5. ^ The War on Immigration Will Fail - Wade A. Mitchell - Mises Institute
  6. ^ On Free Immigration and Forced Integration
  7. ^ Shaheen Pasha. Banking on illegal immigrants. CNN/Money, August 8, 2005.
  8. ^ The Impact of Unauthorized Immigrants on the Budgets of State and Local Governments December 2007
  9. ^ Samuelson, Robert (2007) "Importing poverty" Washington Post September 5, 2007)
  10. ^ Center for Immigration Studies Not Dated
  11. ^ Importing Poverty: Immigration and Poverty in the United States: A Book of Charts October 25, 2006
  12. ^ Francine Lipman
  13. ^ J. Lipman, Francine, J. - Taxing Undocumented Immigrants: Separate, Unequal and Without Representation. Spring 2006 In Tax Lawyer, Spring 2006. Also published in Harvard Latino Law Review Spring 2006.
  14. ^ U.S. Tax Program for Illegal Immigrants Under Fire NPR, March 5, 2007.
  15. ^ Congressional Testimony - March 14, 2006
  16. ^ Congressional Testimony - March 14, 2006
  17. ^ THE Summary of the 2007 Annual Reports
  18. ^ http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5312900
  19. ^ The Evolution of the Mexican-Born Workforce in the United States April 2005
  20. ^ Elstrom, Peter (2/27/2007), "Fresh Ideas for the Immigration Debate", BusinessWeekOnline: 6-6
  21. ^ Rising black-Latino clash on jobs May 25, 2006
  22. ^ Immigration and African-American Employment Opportunities: The Response of Wages, Employment, and Incarceration to Labor Supply Shocks September 2006
  23. ^ Wikipedia Race relations
  24. ^ Black activists join Minutemen Project against illegal immigration Sep 3, 2007
  25. ^ Black activists join Minutemen Project against illegal immigration Sep 3, 2007
  26. ^ Zedillo, Ernesto (1/8/2007), "Migranomics Instead of Walls", Forbes: 25-25
  27. ^ http://www.fairus.org/site/PageServer?pagename=research_researchf6ad
  28. ^ Breaking the Piggy Bank: How Illegal Immigration is Sending Schools Into the Red, by Jack Martin, Director of Special Projects, Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), June 2005.
  29. ^ EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, The USMBCC hired MGT of America, Inc. (MGT) in the fall of 2001 to conduct the analysis. Fall 2001
  30. ^ EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, The USMBCC hired MGT of America, Inc. (MGT) in the fall of 2001 to conduct the analysis. Fall 2001
  31. ^ statement of Nico Gomez, spokesman for Oklahoma Health Care Authority, before the Oklahoma Senate Task Force on Immigration, September 18, 2006. The Medicaid program is funded jointly by the states and the federal government. This report did not include the federal portion of funding for the program.
  32. ^ The Patient Predator, Investigative Fund of Mother Jones March/April 2003 Issue
  33. ^ I-693, Medical Examination of Aliens Seeking Adjustment of Status, Department of Homeland SecurityU.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services OMB No. 1615-0033; Expires 08/31/09
  34. ^ Is CDC covering up skyrocketing TB rate? March 19, 2005
  35. ^ CDC - Persistent High Incidence of Tuberculosis in Immigrants in a Low-Incidence Country May 13, 2002
  36. ^ Leprosy, Hepatitis and Tuberculosis Rising Fast in United States December 2, 2004
  37. ^ Illegal Immigrants not US Health Care Burden [1]
  38. ^ Health Care For Undocumented Immigrants Cost $1.1B In 2000, Study Finds
  39. ^ RAND study shows relatively little public money spent providing health care to undocumented immigrants

NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... Race relations is the area of sociology that studies the social, political, and economic relations between races at all different levels of society. ...

See also

The economic impact of immigration to Canada is a much-debated topic in Canada. ... Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law, see also Immigration to the United States. ... Trafficking in human beings (or human trafficking) involves the movement of people (mostly women and children) against their will by means of force for the purpose of sexual or labor exploitation. ... A Labor shortage is an economic condition in which there are insufficient qualified candidates (employees) to fill the market-place demands for employment at any price. ... The border between Mexico and the United States spans four U.S. states, six Mexican states, and has over twenty commercial crossings. ... Immigration reduction refers to movements active within the United States that advocate a reduction in the amount of immigration allowed into the United States or other countries. ... The Guest worker program is a program that has been proposed many times in the past and now also by U.S. President George W. Bush as a way to permit U.S. employers to sponsor non-U.S. citizens as laborers for approximately three years, to be deported afterwards... Image File history File links US_Department_of_Homeland_Security_Seal. ... The Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act (also called The DREAM Act) is a piece of proposed federal legislation in the United States that would provide high school students who are long term illegal immigrants, and who wish to attend college or serve in the armed forces to... Radio Station advertisement in Spanish in East Los Angeles against the H.R.4437. ... Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act (McCain-Kennedy Bill, S. 1033) was a comprehensive immigration reform bill introduced in the United States Senate on May 12, 2005, which was the first of its kind since the early 2000s in incorporating legalization, guest worker programs, border enforcement components. ... S. 2691/ H. R. 5744, also known as the “Securing Knowledge Innovation and Leadership Act of 2006”, or the “SKIL Bill” from its acronym and rhyme, is targeted at increasing legal immigration of scientific, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workers into the United States by increasing the quotas on the... For the 2007 act, see Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007. ... The Security Through Regularized Immigration and a Vibrant Economy Act of 2007 or STRIVE Act of 2007 is proposed United States legislation designed to address the problem of illegal immigration, introduced into the United States House of Representatives (H.R. 1645). ... The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, or, in its full name, the Secure Borders, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Reform Act of 2007 (S. 1348) was a bill discussed in the 110th United States Congress that would have provided legal status and a path to legal citizenship for the approximately... Operation Wetback was a 1954 project of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to remove about 1. ... The REAL ID Act of 2005 requires people entering federal buildings, boarding airplanes or opening bank accounts to present identification that has met certain security and authentication standards. ... President George W. Bush signs the Secure Fence Act of 2006, in the Roosevelt Room on October 26, 2006. ... In 2006, millions of people were involved in protests over a proposed reform to U.S. immigration policy. ... Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is the largest and primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and is responsible for identifying, investigating, and dismantling vulnerabilities regarding the nations border, economic, transportation, and infrastructure security. ... The Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles (CHIRLA) is an American political advocacy organization. ... NAOC Logo The Coalition for Comprehensive Immigration Reform (CCIR), also known as CCIR/NAOC or New American Opportunity Campaign is a non-profit immigrant rights advocacy organization based in Washington, DC, established in 2003 to pass comprehensive immigration reform. ... The National Immigration Forum was established in 1982, dedicated to increasing public support for admitting larger numbers of immigrants and refugees into the United States. ... CCC Logo The Center for Community Change (CCC) is one of the larger community building organizations in the United States. ... The We Are Americe Alliance (WAAA) is a national alliance of immigrant rights organizations and allies in the United States that work towards social justice, including comprehensive immigration reform and immigrants civic participation. ... “NCLR” redirects here. ... The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) is a non-partisan, non-profit 501(c)(3) educational organization in the United States that advocates for reforms of U.S. immigration policies that would result in significant immigration reduction. ... The Minuteman Project is an activist organization started in April 2005 by a group of private United States individuals to monitor the United States–Mexico borders flow of illegal immigrants, although it has expanded to include the United States-Canada border as well. ... The Minuteman Civil Defense Corps, often confused with The Minuteman Project, Inc. ... California Coalition for Immigration Reform (CCIR) is a political advocacy group devoted to immigration reduction, based in Huntington Beach, California. ... Save Our State logo “Save Our State” redirects here. ... The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) is a nonpartisan immigration reduction-oriented, non-profit research organization and was founded in 1985. ... NumbersUSA is an immigration reduction organization whose intent is to reduce United States annual immigration to pre-1965 levels, but without the country of origin quotas that were in place during this period. ... The Migration Policy Institute is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank established in 2001 by Kathleen Newland and Demetrios G. Papademetriou. ... The first naturalization law in the United States was the 1795 Naturalization Act which restricted citizenship to free white persons who had resided in the country for five years. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... This article is about the former U.S. law. ... The Gentlemens Agreement of 1907 ) was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan regarding immigration and racial segregation. ... In the United States, the Emergency Quota Act (ch. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... The Bracero Program, (from the Spanish word brazo, meaning arm), was a temporary contract labor program initiated by an August 1942 exchange of diplomatic notes between the United States and Mexico. ... The Immigration and Nationality Act amendments of 1965 (Hart-Celler Act, INS Act of 1965, Pub. ... The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), also Simpson-Mazzoli Act (Pub. ... The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. ...

 
 

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