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Encyclopedia > Economic history of France
History of France
Ancient times
  Prehistoric France
  Celtic Gaul
  Roman Gaul
  The Franks
    Merovingians (481–751)
France in the Middle Ages
  Carolingians (751–987)
  Capetians (987–1328)
  Valois (direct) (1328–1498)
Early Modern France (1492-1792)
  Valois-Orléans (1498–1515)
  Valois-Angoulême (1515–1589)
  Bourbon Dynasty (1589–1792)
Modern France I & Modern France II
  First Republic (1792–1804)
    National Convention (1792–1795)
    Directory (1795–1799)
    Consulate (1799–1804)
  First Empire (1804–1814)
  Restoration (1814–1830)
  July Monarchy (1830–1848)
  Second Republic (1848–1852)
  Second Empire (1852–1870)
  Third Republic (1870–1940)
  Vichy France (1940–1944)
  France after Libération (1944–1946)
    Provisional Government (1944–1946)
  Fourth Republic (1946–1958)
  Fifth Republic (1958–present)
Topical
  Historical French provinces
  Economic history
  Demographic history
  Military history
  Colonial history
  Art history
  Literary history
  French culture
Timeline of French history
French Portal

This is a history of the economy of France. For more information on historical, cultural, demographic and sociological developments in France, see the chronological era articles in the template to the right. For more information on specific political and governmental regimes in France, see the dynasty and regime articles. The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the template to the right. ... Ancient history is the study of significant cultural and political events from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages. ... Prehistoric France is the period in the human occupation (including early hominins) of the geographical area covered by present-day France which extended through prehistory and ended in the Iron Age with the Celtic La Tène culture. // The Palaeolithic Lower Palaeolithic France includes Olduwan (Abbevillian) and Acheulean sites from... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin Gallia, Greek Galatia) was the region of Western Europe occupied by present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... France in the Middle Ages roughly corresponds to modern day France from the death of Charlemagne in 814 to the middle of the 15th century. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The direct Capetian Dynasty followed the Carolingian rulers of France from 987 to 1328. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion - Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes the periods of the First French Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814-1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe dOrléans (1830... The History of France from 1914 to the present, includes the later years of the Third French Republic (1871-1941), the Vichy Regime (1940-1944), the years after Libération (1944-1946), the French Fourth Republic (1946-1958) and the French Fifth Republic (since 1958) and also includes World War... The French people proclaimed Frances First Republic on 21 September 1792 as a result of the French Revolution and of the abolition of the French monarchy. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: from the end of the Convention to the beginning of the Consulate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The First French Empire, commonly known as the French Empire or the Napoleonic Empire, covers the period of the domination of France and much of continental Europe by Napoleon I of France. ... Following the ouster of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... The French Second Republic (often simply Second Republic) was the republican regime of France from February 25, 1848 to December 2, 1852. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... France under German occupation 1940-44 Presidential flag of Vichy France For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... Between 1944 and 1946 France was ruled by the Provisional Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement provisoire de la République française). ... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... The Fourth Republic existed in France between 1946 and 1958. ... The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ... The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... It has been suggested that French people be merged into this article or section. ... Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires France had colonial possessions, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... The visual and plastic arts of France have had an unprecedented diversity -- from the Gothic cathedral of Chartres to Georges de la Tours night scenes to Monets Waterlilies and finally to Duchamps radical Fontaine -- and have exerted an unparalleled influence on world cultural production. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... This is a timeline of French history. ...

Contents


The Economy of Medieval France

The collapse of the Roman Empire devastated the French economy. Town life and trade declined and society became based on the self-sufficient manor. What limited international trade existed in the Merovingian age — primarily in goods such as silk, papyrus, and silver — was carried out by foreign merchants such as Syrians. The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. ... Å¢ For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ...


Agricultural output began to increase in the Carolingian age as a result of the arrival of new crops, improvements in agricultural production, and good weather conditions. However, this did not lead to the revival of urban life; in fact, urban activity further declined in the Carolingian era as a result of civil war, Arab raids, and Viking invasions. Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... The term Viking denotes the ship-borne explorers, traders, and warriors of the Norsemen who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ...


The High Middle Ages saw a continuation of the agricultural boom of the Carolingian age. In addition, urban life grew during this period; towns such as Paris expanded dramatically. However, in the fourteenth century, bad weather, the Hundred Years War, and the Black Death, led to the temporary collapse of the French economy. The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur Tossed by the waves, she does not founder Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ...


See article Frankish Empire The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ...


See article France in the Middle Ages France in the Middle Ages roughly corresponds to modern day France from the death of Charlemagne in 814 to the middle of the 15th century. ...


The Economy of Early Modern France

(For information on the administrative and taxation structure of Ancien Régime France, see Early Modern France.)

(Figures cited in the following section are given in livre tournois, the standard "money of account" used in the period. Comparisons with modern figures are extremely difficult; food items were comparatively cheap, but luxury goods and fabrics were very expensive. In the 15th century, an artisan could earn perhaps 30 livres a year; a great noble could have land revenues from 6000 to 30,000 livres or more.[1] A late seventeenth-century unskilled worker in Paris earned around 250 livres a year [2], while a revenue of 4000 livres a year maintained a relatively successful writer in modest comfort [3]. At the end of the 18th century, a well-off family could earn 100,000 livres by year, although the most prestigious families could gain twice or three times that much, while, for provincial nobility, yearly earnings of 10,000 livres permitted a minimum of provincial luxury.) Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ...


Renaissance

The economy of Renaissance France was, for the first half-century, marked by a dynamic demographic growth and by developments in agriculture and industry. With an estimated population of 17 million in 1400, 20 million in the 1600s, and 28 million in 1789, until 1795 France was the most populated country in Europe (above even Russia and twice the size of Britain and Holland) and the third most populous country in the world, behind only China and India. These demographic changes also led to a massive increase in urban populations, although on the whole France remained a profoundly rural country (over 90% of the population). Paris was one of the most populated cities in Europe (estimated at 400,000 inhabitants in 1550; 650,000 at the end of the 18th century). Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur Tossed by the waves, she does not founder Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ...


Agricultural production of a variety of food items expanded: olives, wine, cider, woad (Fr. "pastel", a source of blue dye), and safron. One also saw the introduction of new products via southern Europe: artichokes, melons, romaine lettuce, eggplants, salsifys, celery, fennel, parsley, and alfalfa; and from the New World: common beans, corn (maize), squash, tomatoes, potatoes, and bell peppers. These changes notwithstanding, France's agriculture remained attached to medieval techniques, produced low yields, and even with increases in arable land, a maximum expansion was soon reached. The situation was made worse by repeated disastrous harvests from 1550 on (the Rhône river even froze in the harsh winters of 1565, 1569, 1590, 1595, 1603). Binomial name Olea europaea L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... A pint of cider. ... Binomial name Isatis tinctoria L. Woad (or glastum) is the common name of the flowering plant Isatis tinctoria in the family Brassicaceae. ... For the lead singer of Republica see Saffron Saffron is the name given to the dried stigmata and part of the style of the saffron crocus, traditionally called Crocus sativus, which are harvested, dried, and used for cooking. ... Artichokes are three types of vegetables in the daisy family Asteraceae. ... Binomial name Cucumis melo L. The melon is the fruit and plant of a typically vine-like (climber and trailer) herb that was first cultivated more than 4000 years ago (~ 2000 BC) in Persia and Africa. ... Romaine lettuce Romaine or Cos lettuce (often called simply Romaine or Cos) (Lactuca sativa L. var. ... Binomial name Solanum esculentum Drege ex Dun. ... Species about 45, including: Tragopogon coloratus Tragopogon crocifolius Tragopogon cupani Tragopogon dubius Tragopogon floccosus Tragopogon gracilis Tragopogon mirabilis Tragopogon mirus Tragopogon miscellus Tragopogon porrifolius Tragopogon pratensis Tragopogon X crantzii Tragopogon X neohybridus The Goatsbeards or Salsifies are the genus Tragopogon of flowering plants within the family Asteraceae. ... Binomial name Apium graveolens L. Celery (Apium graveolens dulce) is a herbaceous biennial plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the coasts of western and northern Europe, most commonly in ditches and saltmarshes. ... Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... Species Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Binomial name Medicago sativa L. Subspecies subsp. ... Binomial name Phaseolus vulgaris L. The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, indigenous to the Americas, is an herbaceous annual plant domesticated independently in ancient Mesoamerica and the Andes, and now grown worldwide for its edible bean, popular both dry and as a green bean. ... Look up corn in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... Binomial name Solanum lycopersicum L. Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. Bell pepper is a Cultivar Group of the species Capsicum annuum, as are the jalapeño and pimento. ... Starry Night Over the Rhone, by Vincent van Gogh (1888) The River Rhône (French Rhône, Occitan Ròse, Franco-Provençal Roun, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten, Italian Rodano) is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ...


Industrial developments greatly affected printing (introduced in 1470 in Paris, 1473 in Lyon) and metallurgy. The introduction of the high-temperature forge (starting in the north-east and spreading across the country) and increased mineral mining were important developments, although France remained poor in many metals (copper, bronze, tin, and lead) which it had to import. Mines and glasswork were privileged with royal tax exemptions for twenty years, and they were two of the industrial sectors in which a noble could invest his money without violating his noble status. Silk production (introduced in Tours in 1470 and in Lyon in 1536) created a thriving market, but French products remained of lesser quality than Italian silks. Wool production was widespread, as was the production of linen and of hemp (both major export products). This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... A blacksmiths forge For finery forges (making iron) see finery forge. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Assorted ancient bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 118. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. ... Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... Three of the main sights in Lyon, the Cathedral St-Jean, the Basilica Notre Dame de Fourvière, and the Tour métallique de Fourvière City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 9... Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... See Alpaca wool, Angora wool (of rabbits) and Cashmere wool (of goats) for information about other wools. ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax (and historically, cannabis) plant. ... This is one of several related articles about cannabis. ...


After Paris, Rouen was the second largest city in France (70,000 inhabitants in 1550), in large part because of its port. Marseille (French since 1481) was France's second major port: it benefited greatly from France's trading agreements with Suleiman the Magnificent (signed in 1536). To increase maritime activity, François I founded Le Havre in 1517. Other significant ports included Toulon, Saint Malo and La Rochelle. Location within France Rouen Cathedral The entrance to Rouen Cathedral Abbey church of Saint-Ouen, (chevet) in Rouen Rouen, medieval house Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France, and presently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... city flag coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, Marseille shines in the world Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Département Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Mayor Jean-Claude Gaudin (UMP) (since 1995... Suleiman I (Modern Turkish: Süleyman; Arabic: ‎ Sulaymān) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth Osmanli Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and its longest-serving, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Location within France Abbey of Graville, Le Havre An old house in Le Havre Church of St. ... Location within France Coat of Arms of Toulon Toulon (Tolon in Provençal) is a city in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. ... Saint-Malo is a walled port city in Brittany in northern France on the English Channel. ... La Rochelle is a town and commune of western France, and a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean (population 76,584 in 1999). ...


Lyon was the center of France's banking and international trade markets. Market fairs occurred four times a year and permitted exportation of French goods (cloth, fabrics) and importation of Italian, German, Dutch, English and exotic goods (silks, alum, glass, wools, spices, dyes). Lyon also contained houses of most of Europe's banking families (Fugger, Medici, etc.). Regional markets and trade routes linked Lyon, Paris and Rouen to the rest of the country. Under François I and Henri II, the relationship between imports and exports with England and Spain was in France's favor, and was roughly balanced with the Netherlands, but France had a huge trade deficit with Italy due to the latter's silks and exotic goods. In subsequent decades, English, Dutch and Flemish maritime activity would create conflicts with French trade and displace the major markets to the northwest, leading to the decline of Lyon. Three of the main sights in Lyon, the Cathedral St-Jean, the Basilica Notre Dame de Fourvière, and the Tour métallique de Fourvière City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 9... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. ... A crystal of Alum Alum, in chemistry, is a term given to the crystallized double sulfates of the typical formula M+2SO4·M3+2(SO4)3·24H2O, where M+ is the sign of an alkali metal (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, or caesium), and M3+ denotes one of the trivalent metal... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colours as shown in this ball from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... See Alpaca wool, Angora wool (of rabbits) and Cashmere wool (of goats) for information about other wools. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... A dye can generally be described as a coloured substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. ... The Fugger family was a historically prominent group of European bankers. ... The Medici coat of arms The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. ... A market is, as defined in economics, a social arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to discover information and carry out a voluntary exchange. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Balance of trade figures are the sum of the money gained by a given economy by selling exports, minus the cost of buying imports. ...


Although France arrived late to the exploration and colonization of the Americas (being initially more interested in the Italian wars), private initiative and piracy brought Bretons, Normans and Basques early to American waters. Starting in 1524, François I began to sponsor exploration of the New World (as by Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier); Henri II sponsored the explorations of Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon (who established a largely Calvinist colony in Rio de Janeiro, 1555-1560). Later, René Goulaine de Laudonnière and Jean Ribault established a protestant colony in Florida (1562-1565). (see French colonisation of the Americas). The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack This article is about sea piracy; for other uses of Piracy or Pirate, see Pirate (disambiguation). ... Breton can refer to: The Breton language A person from Brittany, a region of France previously controlled by Britons the Breton people, a Celtic ethnic group native to the region of Brittany Author André Breton Thierry Breton, the French Minister of Economy, Finance, and Industry French realist painter Jules Adolphe... Norman may refer to: the Normans, the Norman people. ... Basque may refer to: Look up Basque in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Basque language The Basque people A basque (clothing) See also: The Basque Country, the homeland of the Basques Basque Country (autonomous community), an administrative division of Spain Basque nationalism Basque mythology Basque music Basque Nationalist Party Basque... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – July 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Giovanni da Verrazano (his last name is also spelled Verrazzano) was born, on his familys castle, Castello Verrazzano, near Val di Greve, 30 miles south of Florence. ... Portrait of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, ca. ... Henry II of France Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 - July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from 1547 until his death. ... Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, born 1510 in Villegaignon, Seine et Marne, France was a naval officer (vice-admiral of Brittany) who attempted to help the Huguenots in France escape persecution. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Flag Seal Location Location of Rio de Janeiro Coordinates , Government Country Region State Brazil Southeast Rio de Janeiro Mayor Cesar Maia (PFL) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,260 km² Population     City (2005) 5,613,000 [1]     Density   4. ... René Goulaine de Laudonnière (c. ... Jean Ribault (1520 - October 12, 1565) was a French naval officer, navigator, and a colonizer of what would become the southeastern United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // North America The French established colonies across the New World in the 17th century. ...


By the middle of the 16th century, France's demographic growth and the increased demand for products, combined with the glut of gold and silver from Africa and the Americas, led to inflation and wage stagnation (grain became five times as expensive from 1520 to 1600). Although many land-owning peasants and enterprising merchants had been able to grow rich during the boom, the standard of living fell greatly for rural peasants (all the more affected by bad harvests). This led to reduced purchasing power and a decline in manufacturing. The monetary crisis would lead to France abandoning (in 1577) the livre as its money of account, in favor of the écu in circulation, and banning most foreign currencies. General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The term écu may refer to one of several French coins. ...


Meanwhile, France's military ventures in Italy and (later) disastrous civil wars demanded huge sums of cash, levied through the taille and other taxes (the taille increased from 2.5 million livres in 1515 to 6 million after 1551; in 1589 the taille reached a record 21 million livres, before dropping), burdening mainly the peasantry. Financial crises hit the royal household repeatedly (in 1523, in order to raise money, François I established a government bond system in Paris, the "rentes sur l'Hôtel de Ville"). The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ...


The French Wars of Religion were concurrent with crop failures and epidemics. The belligerents also practiced massive "torched earth" strategies to rob their enemies of foodstuffs. Brigands and leagues of self-defense flourished; transport of goods ceased; villagers fled to the woods and abandoned their lands; towns were set on fire. The south was particularly affected: Auvergne, Lyon, Burgundy, Languedoc -- agricultural production in those areas fell roughly 40%. The great banking houses left Lyon (from 75 Italian houses in 1568, there remained only 21 in 1597) [4]. The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during a... History Auvergne was also historically a province of France, deriving its name from Averni, a Gallic tribe who once occupied the area. ... Three of the main sights in Lyon, the Cathedral St-Jean, the Basilica Notre Dame de Fourvière, and the Tour métallique de Fourvière City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 9... Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Pre-Indo-European people, Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... Coat of arms of the province of Languedoc, now being used as an official flag by the Midi-Pyrénees region as well as by the city of Toulouse Languedoc (Lengadòc in Occitan) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions of Languedoc...


Seventeenth century

After 1597, France's economic situation improved and agricultural production was aided by milder weather. Henri IV (with his minster Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully) adopted monetary reforms (better coinage, a return to the livre tournois as account money), reduction of the debt (200 million livres in 1596) and of the tax burden on peasants (attacking abuses, administrative reform, increased charges for official offices, the "paulette"), repurchase of alienated royal lands, improvement of roads and the construction of canals, and the beginning of a state-supervised mercantile philosophy (indebted to Barthélemy Laffemas) and agricultural reforms (indebted to Olivier de Serres). These economic reforms, and mercantilism, would also be the policies of Louis XII's minister Richelieu. In an effort to counteract foreign imports and exploration, Richelieu sought alliances with Morocco and Persia, and encouraged exploration of New France, the Antilles, Sénégal, Gambia and Madagascar (only the first two were successes at the time). These reforms would establish the groundwork for the Louis XIV's policies. By Frans Pourbus the younger. ... Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully (December 13, 1560 – December 22, 1641) was the doughty soldier, French minister, staunch Protestant and faithful right-hand man who enabled Henry IV of France to accomplish so much. ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ... La Paulette (after the financier Charles Paulet, who proposed it) was the name commonly given to the annual right (droit annuel), a special tax levied by the French Crown during the ancien régime. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... Olivier de Serres (1529 – 1619) was a French author and soil scientist whose Théâtre dArgriculture was the text book of French agriculture in the 1600s. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ... For other uses of Richelieu, see Richelieu (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... New France (French: la Nouvelle-France) describes the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River, by Jacques Cartier in 1534, to the cession of New France to the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763. ... The Antilles (the same in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch) refers to the islands forming the greater part of the West Indies in the Caribbean. ... The Republic of Senegal is a country south of the Senegal River in West Africa. ... Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715) ruled as King of France and of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death shortly prior to his seventy-seventh birthday. ...


Louis XIV's glory was irrevocably linked to two great projects, military conquest and the building of Versailles -- both of which required enormous sums of money (from 1664-1690, 81 million livres were spent on the château, 11 million livres alone for the year 1685; the vast sums needed for its construction were often in competition with military expenditures). Louis XIV's economic policy was largely the creation of his minister of finances, Jean-Baptiste Colbert. Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715) ruled as King of France and of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death shortly prior to his seventy-seventh birthday. ... , Versailles (pronounced , roughly vair-sye’, in French), formerly the de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 – September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from...


Colbert's mercantile system used protectionism and state-sponsored manufacturing, to promote the production of luxury goods over the rest of the economy. The state established new industries (the royal tapestry works at Beauvais, French quarries for marble), took over established industries (the Gobelins tapestry works), protected inventors, invited workmen from foreign countries (Venetian glass and Flemish cloth manufacturing), and prohibited French workmen from emigrating. To maintain the character of French goods in foreign markets, Colbert had the quality and measure of each article fixed by law, and severely punished breaches of the regulations. This massive investment in (and preoccupation with) luxury goods and court life (fashion, decoration, cuisine, urban improvements, etc.), and the mediatization (through such gazettes as the Mercure galant) of these products, elevated France to a role of arbiter of European taste. [5] Mercantilism is the economic theory that a nations prosperity depended upon its supply of gold and silver, that the total volume of trade is unchangeable. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... Beauvais is a town and commune of northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Oise département. ... Gobelin was the name of a family of dyers, who in all probability came originally from Reims, and who in the middle of the 15th century established themselves in the Faubourg Saint Marcel, Paris, on the banks of the Bièvre. ... Venetian could mean of Venice of the venetia territory of the Republic of Venice of the venet nation the Venetian language The Venetian, a hotel and casino in Las Vegas, Nevada A venetian blind - a horizontally slatted window blind. ... Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians... The Mercure de France was a French gazette and literary magazine first published from 1672 to 1724 (with an interruption in 1674-1677) under the title Mercure galant (sometimes spelled Mercure gallant) (1672-1674) and Nouveau Mercure galant (1677-1724). ...


Unable to abolish the duties on the passage of goods from province to province, Colbert did what he could to induce the provinces to equalize them. His régime improved roads and canals. To encourage companies like the important French East India Company (founded in 1664), Colbert granted special privileges to trade with the Levant, Senegal, Guinea and other places, for the importing of coffee, cotton, dyewoods, fur, pepper, and sugar, but none of these ventures proved successful. Colbert achieved a lasting legacy in his establishment of the French royal navy; he reconstructed the works and arsenal of Toulon, founded the port and arsenal of Rochefort, and the naval schools of Rochefort, Dieppe and Saint-Malo. He fortified, with some assistance from Vauban, many ports including those of Calais, Dunkirk, Brest and Le Havre. The French East India Company (French Compagnie des Indes Orientales) was a commercial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the British and Dutch East India companies. ... The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Coffee Coffee is a beverage, served hot or with ice, prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Magnified crystals of refined sugar Magnification of typical sugar In general use, non-scientists take sugar to mean sucrose, also called table sugar or saccharose, a white crystalline solid disaccharide. ... Location within France Coat of Arms of Toulon Toulon (Tolon in Provençal) is a city in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. ... Rochefort is the name of several communes in France, of a municipality in Belgium and a commune in Switzerland: Rochefort in the Charente-Maritime département of France Rochefort in the Côte-dOr département of France Rochefort in the Savoie département of France Rochefort, Belgium Rochefort, Switzerland It is also... Dieppe is the name of several places and events: Dieppe, France (pop. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for both his skill to design fortifications and to break through them. ... Location within France The Burghers of Calais, by Rodin, with Calais Hotel de Ville behind J.M.W. Turner: Calais Pier Calais (Dutch: ) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a... Location of Dunkirk in the arrondissement of Dunkirk Location within France Dunkirks seafront Map of Dunkirk courtesy of the Calgary Highlanders. ... Location within France Brest, at the tip of Brittany Brest is a city in the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... Location within France Abbey of Graville, Le Havre An old house in Le Havre Church of St. ...


Colbert's economic policies were a key element in Louis XIV's creation of a centralized and fortified state and in the promotion of government glory, including the construction of Versailles, but they had many economic failures: they were overly-restrictive on workers, they discouraged inventiveness, and had to be supported by unreasonably-high tariffs.


Louis XIV of France created several additional tax systems, including the "capitation" (begun in 1695) which taxed every person including nobles and the clergy (although exemption could be bought for a large one-time sum) and the "dixième" (1710-1717, restarted in 1733), which was a true tax on income and on property value and was meant to support the military.


The Revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685 created additional economic problems: of the more than 200,000 Huguenot refugees who fled France (to Prussia, Switzerland, England, Ireland, United Provinces, Denmark, and eventually America), many were highly-educated skilled artisans and business-owners (tapestries, weaving, silversmiths, plate-making) who took their skills, businesses (and in some cases their Catholic workers) with them. The expansion of French as a European lingua franca in the 18th century and the modernization of the Prussian army have been credited to the Huguenots. The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, or historically as the French Calvinists. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


The wars and the weather at the end of the century brought the economy to the brink: in 1683 the national deficit was 16 million livres; from 1700-1706 it was 750 million livres; from 1708-1715 the deficit reached 1,1 trillion livres. To increase tax revenues, the taille was augmented, as too were the prices of official posts in the administration and judicial system. With the borders guarded, international trade was severely hindered. The economic plight of the vast majority of the French population -- predominantly simple farmers -- was extremely precarious, and the effects of the "Little Ice Age" made themselves felt in deadly-cold winters and crop failures, from the 1680s on (in 1693-1694, France lost 6% of its population; in the extremely harsh winter of 1709, France lost 3.5% of its population [6]. Unwilling to sell or transport their much-needed grain to the army, many peasants rebelled or attacked grain convoys, but they were repressed by the state. Meanwhile, wealthy families with stocks of grains survived relatively unscathed; in 1689 and again in 1709, in a gesture of solidarity with his suffering people, Louis XIV had his royal dinnerware and other objects of gold and silver melted down. The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling lasting approximately from the 14th to the mid-19th centuries (some say from 13th to 17th), although there is no generally agreed start or end date: some confine the period to 1550-1850. ...


Eighteenth century

France experienced a slow economic and demographic recovery in the first decades following the death of Louis XIV, although monetary confidence was briefly eroded by the disastrous paper money "System" introduced by John Law from 1716-1720 (in 1726, under Louis XV's minister Cardinal Fleury, a system of monetary stability was put in place, leading to a strict conversion rate between gold and silver, and set values for the coins in circulation in France). Jean Law John Law (1671 April 21 - 1729 March 21) was a Scottish economist who believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself, and that national wealth depended on trade. ... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... Cardinal Fleury, one of many studio copies of the official portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud Cardinal André_Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus (June 22 or 26, 1653 - January 29, 1743) was a French cardinal who served as the chief minister of Louis XV. He was born in Lodève, the son of...


Starting in the late 1730s and early 1740s however, and continuing for the next 30 years, France's population and economy underwent an important expansion (of all European countries, France's economic growth was second only to that of England, in this period), and rising prices (particularly for agricultural products) were extremely profitable for large landholders (nobles, clergy, bourgeois, and weathy peasants); artisans and tenant farmers also saw wage increases, but on the whole they benefited less from the growing economy. Important developments in agriculture (modern techniques of crop rotation, the use of fertilizers) modelled on successes in England and Italy began to be introduced in parts of France, but still would take several generations to spread across the country. The farming of recent New World crops (maize, potatoes) continued to expand, and provided an important supplement to the diet. Crop rotation: grain crop, fallow land, legumes Crop rotation is the practice of growing two (or more) dissimilar type of crops in the same space in sequence. ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ...


The most dynamic industries of the period were mines, metallurgy and textiles (in particular printed fabrics, such as those made by Christophe Philippe Oberkampf), often thanks to foreigners (John Kay, John Holker) and foreign technology (such as the steam engine). Capital remained difficult to raise for commercial ventures, however, and the state remained highly mercantilistic, protectionist, and interventionist in the domestic economy (setting requirements for production quality and industrial standards, limiting industries to certain cities, etc.). The Memorial to John Kay in Bury, Lancashire, England John Kay (June 17, 1704 – 1780) was the inventor of the flying shuttle, which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution. ... Categories: People stubs ... A steam engine is an external combustion heat engine that makes use of the thermal energy that exists in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ...


The international commercial centers of the country were based in Lyon, Marseille, Nantes (the largest port in the country) and Bordeaux, and these last two cities saw phenomenal growth due to trade with Spain and Portugal (Cadiz was the commercial hub for export of French printed fabrics to India), the Americas and the Antilles (coffee, sugar, tobacco, American cotton), and Africa (the slave trade, centered in Nantes). Three of the main sights in Lyon, the Cathedral St-Jean, the Basilica Notre Dame de Fourvière, and the Tour métallique de Fourvière City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 9... city flag coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, Marseille shines in the world Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Département Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Mayor Jean-Claude Gaudin (UMP) (since 1995... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Département Loire-Atlantique (44) Région Pays-de-la-Loire Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault (PS) (since 1989) Intercommunality Urban Community of Nantes City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 65. ... New city flag (traditional tri-crescent) City coat of arms Motto: The fleur-de-lis alone rules over the moon, the waves, the castle, and the lion Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Département Gironde (33) Région Aquitaine Mayor Hugues Martin (UMP) (since 2004) Intercommunality Urban Community... This article is about the Spanish city. ... The Antilles (the same in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch) refers to the islands forming the greater part of the West Indies in the Caribbean. ... Coffee Coffee is a beverage, served hot or with ice, prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant. ... Magnified crystals of refined sugar Magnification of typical sugar In general use, non-scientists take sugar to mean sucrose, also called table sugar or saccharose, a white crystalline solid disaccharide. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... Cotton ready for harvest. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the purchase and transport of people from West Africa and Central Africa into bondage and servitude in the New World. ...


In 1749, a new tax (modelled on the "dixième"), the "vingtième" (or "one-twentieth"), was enacted to reduce the royal deficit, and this tax continued throughout the ancien régime. This tax was based solely on revenues (5% of net earnings from land, property, commerce, industry and from official offices), and was meant to touch all citizens regardless of status, but the clergy, the regions with "pays d'état" and the parlements protested; the clergy won exemption, the "pays d'état" won reduced rates, and the parlements halted new income statements, effectively making the "vingtième" a far less efficient tax than it was designed to be. The financial needs of the Seven Years' War led to a second (1756-1780), and then a third (1760-1763) "vingtième" being created. In 1754 the "vingtième" produced 11.7 million livres. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The later years of Louis XV's reign saw some economic setbacks (the Seven Years' War, 1756-1763, led to an increase in the royal debt and the loss of nearly all of France's North American possessions), but the French economy began truly to enter a state of crisis in 1775, starting with an extended reduction in agricultural prices over 12 years (with dramatic crashes in 1777 and 1786), and further complicated by climatic events (the winters from 1785-1789 were disastrous). Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


With the government deeply in debt, Louis XVI permitted the radical reforms of Turgot and Malesherbes, but noble disaffection led to Turgot's dismissal and Malesherbes' resignation 1776. They were replaced by Jacques Necker. Louis supported the American Revolution in 1778, but in the Treaty of Paris (1783), the French gained little except an addition to the country's enormous debt, and the government was forced to increase taxes (such as the "vingtième") and loans. Necker had resigned in 1781, to be replaced temporarily by Calonne and Brienne, but he was restored to power in 1788. Louis XVI, also called Louis August, Duke of Berry (born August 23, 1754 in Versailles; died January 21, 1793 in Paris) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, often referred to as Turgot (May 10, 1727 ? March 18, 1781), was a French statesman and economist. ... Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, often referred to as Malesherbes or Lamoignon-Malesherbes (December 6, 1721–April 23, 1794) was a French statesman, minister, and afterwards counsel for the defence of Louis XVI. Born at Paris from a famous legal family... This article is about the year 1776. ... Jacques Necker Jacques Necker (September 30, 1732 – April 9, 1804) was a French statesman and finance minister of Louis XVI. // Early life Necker was Geneva, Switzerland. ... The American Revolution was a political movement by 13 American colonies that declared independence and fought off British military efforts to regain control. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Alexandre de Calonne, portrait by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun. ... Etienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne Etienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne (October 9, 1727 - 16 February 1794) was a French churchman and politician. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In these last decades, French industries continued to develop (introduction of mechanization, creation of factories, mergers and monopolies), but this growth was complicated by competition from England (textiles, cotton). On the other hand, French commercial ventures continued to expand, both domestically and internationally. The American War of Independence had led to a reduction of trade (cotton and slaves), but by the 1780s American trade was stronger than before. Similarly, the Antilles represented the major source for European sugar and coffee, and it was a huge importer of slaves through Nantes. Paris became France's center of international banking and stock trades, in these last decades (like Amsterdam and London), and the Caisse d'Escompte was founded in 1776 (paper money was re-introduced, denominated in livres; these were issued until 1793). The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... The Antilles (the same in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch) refers to the islands forming the greater part of the West Indies in the Caribbean. ... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Département Loire-Atlantique (44) Région Pays-de-la-Loire Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault (PS) (since 1989) Intercommunality Urban Community of Nantes City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 65. ... Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 742,951(1 January 2005) Demonym Amsterdammer Coordinates Website www. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom. ... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ...


The agricultural and climatic problems of the 1770s and 1780s led to an important increase in poverty (in some cities in the north, historians have estimated the poor as reaching upwards of 20% of the urban population), displacement (although France remained well behind England in its urban development and growth of a working class) and criminality (mainly theft), and the growth of groups of mendicants and bandits became a problem. Although nobles, bourgeois and weathy landholders saw their revenues affected by the depression, the hardest-hit in this period were the working class (including children and women) and the peasants (while their tax burden to the state had generally decreased in this period, feudal and seigneurial dues had increased).


The French Revolution would put an end to France's industrial development, leaving France greatly behind England for the next half a century. Liberty Leading the People, a painting by Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830 but which has come to be generally accepted as symbolic of French popular uprisings against the monarchy in general. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population...


The Economy of Modern France

French economic history since its end-18th century Revolution was tied to three major events and trends: the Napoleonic Era, the "industrialization" competition with Britain and its other neighbors, and the "total wars" of the late-19th and early 20th centuries. The post-war period, since 1950, saw significant new departures in both economic development and the policies designed to affect it.


The Napoleonic Era

The constant "war-footing" of the Napoleonic Era, 1795-1815, simultaneously stimulated the French economy and put great strains upon it. The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The economic stimuli of war production, of armaments and other military supplies, of fortifications, and the general channeling of the society toward the establishment and maintenance of massed armies, temporarily restored an economy shattered by several previous years of revolution. The rampant inflation of the Revolutionary era was halted by the establishment of a new currency.


The maritime Continental Blockade, however, implemented by Napoleon's opponents and very effectively enforced by the British Navy, gradually cut into any economic arena in which the French economy was not self-sufficient. Final defeat of the French forces, in 1815, and consequent collapse of its war-footing industries, created economic hardships. The Continental Blockade was a blocking of European ports for trade with Britain. ... The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Competitive Industrialization

Re-establishing the economy on a peacetime basis, after a quarter-century of nearly-continuous turmoil and warfare, proved difficult. Some industry and industrial technique developed for the wars was carried over, converted to peacetime purposes. France in 1815 largely still was a land of peasantry, however. Urbanization of the largest cities was well under way, and Paris was a leading world capital already. Smaller French towns and the country's many small villages, however, were impoverished and industrially-backward. The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ...


The 19th century development of French road and rail systems, and other social infrastructure, was greatly aided by the grandes ecoles, inherited from the prior era: graduates of these high-standards schools became the engineers and policy-makers of French industrialization. The grandes écoles (French for great schools) of France are higher education establishments outside of the mainstream framework of the public universities. ...


Industrial development in France was rapid, during the 19th century. Around the great cities, and in the north and in other areas which had natural resources readily available, large industries formed. Capital was available through banking services largely located, since the Revolution, in Paris. The large French population of the time supplied an available workforce.


Education was made a high priority of successive French governments. Various educational reforms, implemented from the central government at Paris and applied nationally, were designed to raise the general level of the children of French rural and smalltown families to a high national level. At the same time, education spread new and often radical ideas, fueling repeated resistance to and even revolt against the deplorable living conditions of many workers in the new industries and factory towns.


By the end of the 19th century, France had joined the industrial era. But it had joined late, and comparatively it had lost in the competition with its war-footing neighbor Germany, and with its trade-based chief rival across the Channel, Great Britain. France had great industry and infrastructure and factories, by 1900; but compared to Germany and Britain was "behind", so that people spoke of and French politicians complained of "the French backwardness (le retard français)".


Total War

In 1870 the first signs of French industrial and general economic "retard", compared to their new neighbor in Bismarck's newly-united "Germany", appeared during the Franco-Prussian War. The total defeat of France, in this conflict, was less a demonstration of French weakness than it was of German militarism and industrial strength. 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Alternate meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ... Combatants France Prussia allied with German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Helmuth von Moltke Strength 500,000 550,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian [citation needed] 100,000 dead or wounded 200,000 civilian [citation needed] The Franco-Prussian War (July...


By 1914, however, German armament and general industrialization had out-distanced not only France but all of its neighbors. In a scenario recounted best in Barbara Tuchman's book The Guns of August[7], France together with Germany's other competitors had entered a "war-footing" rearmament race which, once again, temporarily stimulated the economy while it prepared an economic bubble which inevitably would burst once the war's outcome was decided. 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


The First World War -- the "Great War" -- however produced an economic outcome disastrous for all parties, not just for the German losers. As predicted by Keynes in his bitter post-Versailles Conference book, The Economic Consequences of the Peace[8], the heavy war reparations imposed upon Germany not only were insufficient to fuel French economic recovery, they greatly damaged a Germany which might have become France's leading trade and industrial development partner, thereby seriously damaging France as well. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes [ˈkeɪns], 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton (June 5, 1883 - April 21, 1946) was an English economist, whose radical ideas had a major impact on modern economic and political thought. ... The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, negotiated the treaties ending World War I. The Paris Peace Conference, 1946, negotiated the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, with Germanys World War II allies and co-belligerents in Europe. ...


And their very heavy loss of life, in the "Great War", robbed France of a generation of its youth, and of some of the youthful imagination necessary for facing Germany again, only 25 years later, in the Second World War, when a by-then aged French general staff was ill-prepared and entirely-defensive up against an even more militant German economy and army. Damaged by the Great Depression, the older leaders left in France were reluctant to assume a "war-footing" economy yet again, and France was overrun and occupied by Nazi Germany, and its wartime economy turned entirely to supporting Germany and the German war effort. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn, starting in 1929 (although its effects were not fully felt until late in 1930) and lasting through most of the 1930s. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Post-War to 2000

The great hardships of wartime, and of the immediate post-war period, were succeeded by a period of steady economic development, in France, now often fondly recalled there as The Thirty Glorious Years (Les Trente Glorieuses). Alternating policies of "interventionist" and "free market" ideas enabled the French to build a society in which both industrial and technological advances could be made but also worker security and privileges established and protected. By the end of the 20th century, France once again was among the leading economic powers of the world, although by the year 2000 there already was some fraying around the edges: people in France and elsewhere were asking whether France alone, without becoming even more an integral part of a pan-European economy, would have sufficient market presence to maintain its position, and that worker security and those privileges, in an increasingly "Globalized" and "transnational" economic world. The Trente Glorieuses (Thirty Glorious Years) were the years between 1945 (end of the Second World War) and 1974 (following the 1973 energy crisis) as seen from a French perspective. ... The International Monetary Fund defines Globalization (or globalisation) as “the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, free international capital flows, and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology”. Meanwhile, The International Forum on Globalization defines it as... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with transnationalism. ...


For information on France's current economy, see Economy of France. With a GDP of 1. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Kendall, Paul Murray. Louis XI: The Universal Spider (New York : Norton, 1971) ISBN 0-393-05380-6, p. 12.
  2. ^ DeJean, Joan. The Essence of Style: How the French Invented Fashion, Fine Food, Chic Cafés, Style, Sophistication, and Glamour (New York: Free Press, 2005) ISBN 0-7432-6413-4, ISBN 0-473-26413-7, p. 15.
  3. ^ Viala, Alain. Naissance de l'écrivain (Paris: Eds. de Minuit, 1985) ISBN 2-7073-1025-5, p.113, Collection: Le sens commun.
  4. ^ Jouanna, Arlette and Jacqueline Boucher, Dominique Biloghi, Guy Thiec. Histoire et dictionnaire des Guerres de religion. (Paris: Laffont, 1998) ISBN 2-221-07425-4, pp. 421-422, Collection: Bouquins.
  5. ^ Dejean, cit. supra.
  6. ^ Pillorget, René and Suzanne Pillorget. France Baroque, France Classique 1589-1715 (Paris: Laffont, 1995) ISBN 2-221-04868-7 (v. 1), ISBN 2-221-08110-2 (v. 2), p. 996, pp. 1155-7, Collection: Bouquins.
  7. ^ Tuchman, Barbara W.. The Guns of August (New York : Ballantine, 1994) ISBN 0-345-38623-X
  8. ^ Keynes, John Maynard. The Economic Consequences of the Peace (London : Macmillan, 1919)

Selected Bibliography

(English language only ; in order by era, then by date, most recent first)


General

  • Braudel, Fernand. Civilization and captialism, 15th-18th century (Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme) (Berkeley : University of California Press, 1992) ISBN 0-520-08114-5 (v. 1), ISBN 0-520-08115-3 (v. 2), ISBN 0-520-08116-1 (v. 3).
  • Braudel, Fernand. The wheels of commerce (Jeux de l'Echange) translation from the French by Siân Reynolds (London : Fontana Press, 1985) ISBN 0-00-686078-8.
  • Pirenne, Henri. Economic and social history of medieval Europe (New York : Harcourt, Brace & World, [1966]).

Medieval

  • Farmer, Sharon A.. Surviving poverty in medieval Paris : gender, ideology, and the daily lives of the poor (Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 2002) ISBN 0-8014-3836-5.
  • Bouchard, Constance Brittain. Holy entrepreneurs : Cistercians, knights, and economic exchange in twelfth-century Burgundy (Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 1991) ISBN 0-8014-2527-1.
  • Shatzmiller, Joseph. Shylock reconsidered : Jews, moneylending, and medieval society (Berkeley : University of California Press, c1990) ISBN 0-520-06635-9.
  • Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel. The peasants of Languedoc (Paysans de Languedoc) translated with an introd. by John Day (Urbana : University of Illinois Press, [1974]) ISBN 0-252-00411-6.
  • Bloch, Marc Léopold Benjamin. Feudal society (Société féodale) translated from the French by L. A. Manyon ; with a new foreward by T. S. Brown (London ; New York : Routledge, 1989, c1961) ISBN 0-415-03917-7 (hbk.), ISBN 0-415-03916-9 (pbk. v.1), ISBN 0-415-03918-5 (pbk. v.2).

Early Modern

  • Lewis, Gwynne. France, 1715-1804 : power and the people (Harlow, England ; New York : Pearson/Longman, 2005) ISBN 0-582-23925-7.
  • Winks, Robin W., and Thomas E. Kaiser. Europe, 1648-1815 : from the old regime to the age of revolution (New York : Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0-19-515445-2, ISBN 0-19-515446-0.
  • Ellis, Geoffrey James. The Napoleonic empire 2nd. ed. (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) ISBN 0-333-99005-6.
  • Heller, Henry. Labour, science and technology in France, 1500-1620 (Cambridge, [UK] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1996) ISBN 0-521-55031-9.
  • Hoffman, Philip T.. Growth in a traditional society : the French countryside, 1450-1815 (Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1996) ISBN 0-691-02983-0.
  • Szostak, Rick. The role of transportation in the Industrial Revolution : a comparison of England and France (Montreal : McGill-Queen's University Press, c1991) ISBN 0-7735-0840-6.
  • Aftalion, Florin. The French Revolution, an economic interpretation (Economie de la Révolution française) translated by Martin Thom (Cambridge [UK] ; New York : Cambridge University Press ; Paris : Editions de la Maison des sciences de l'homme, 1990) ISBN 0-521-36241-5, ISBN 0-521-36810-3.

Modern

  • Lebovics, Herman. Bringing the Empire back home : France in the global age (Durham : Duke University Press, 2004) ISBN 0-8223-3260-4.
  • Hancké, Bob. Large firms and institutional change : industrial renewal and economic restructuring in France (Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2002) ISBN 0-19-925205-X.
  • Johnson, H. Clark. Gold, France, and the Great Depression, 1919-1932 (New Haven [Conn.] ; London : Yale University Press, c1997) ISBN 0-300-06986-3.
  • Price, Roger. An economic history of modern France, 1730-1914 (London : Macmillan, 1981) ISBN 0-333-30545-0, ISBN 0-333-29321-5 ; revised edition of Price, Roger. The economic modernisation of France, 1730-1880 (New York : Wiley, 1975) ISBN 0-470-69722-9.
Economic Histories by country
AfricaAustraliaBrazilBritainCanadaChileChinaFranceGermanyIndiaIrelandRepublic of IrelandJapanMexicoNicaraguaNigeriaPortugalSpainTurkeyUnited States

Former Modern Economies: CzechoslovakiaEast GermanyPeople's Republic of MongoliaSerbia and MontenegroSoviet UnionYugoslavia Economic history is the application of economic theories to historical study. ... It is today believed that humanity originated in Africa and as soon as human societies formed so did economic activity. ... The Irish pound served as the countrys currency from 1928 until 2002 The state known today as the Republic of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom in 1922. ... The economic history of the United States has its roots in the quest of European settlers for economic gain in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. ... Like other East European communist states, East Germany had a centrally planned economy (CPE), similar to the one in the former Soviet Union, in contrast to the more familiar market economies or mixed economies of most Western states. ... On the eve of the 1921 revolution, Mongolia had an underdeveloped, stagnant economy based on nomadic animal husbandry. ... The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership and administrative planning. ... Despite common origins, the economy of socialist Yugoslavia was much different from economies of the Soviet Union and other Eastern European socialist countries, especially after the Yugoslav-Soviet break-up of 1948. ...


Historical Economies: Confederate States of AmericaOttoman EmpireScotland in the High Middle Ages The Confederate States of America had an agrarian-based economy that relied heavily on slavery plantations for the production of cotton for export to Europe and the northern US states. ... 19th century While the industrial revolution had swept through western Europe, the Ottoman Empire was still relying mainly on medieval technologies. ... The Economy of Scotland in the High Middle Ages for the purposes of this article pertains to the economic situation in Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Economic history - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (328 words)
Economic history is the study of economic change, and of economic phenomena in the past.
Economic history is undertaken using both historical methods and the application of economic theory.
In France, economic theory and demographics was early integrated into mainstream historiography due to the large inpact of the Annales School of history from the 1920s and onwards.
History of France (1990 words)
France was one of the earliest countries to progress from feudalism to the nation-state.
Feudalism was the seething-pot, and the imperial edifice was crumbling to dust.
Piety had been for the kings of France, set on their thrones, set on their thrones by the Church of God, as it were a duty belonging to their charge or office; but in the piety of St. Louis there was a note all his own, the note of sanctity.
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