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Encyclopedia > Ecological footprint

Ecological footprint (EF) analysis is a measure of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems and natural resources. It compares human consumption of natural resources with planet Earth's ecological capacity to regenerate them. It is an estimate of the amount of biologically productive land and sea area needed to regenerate (if possible) the resources a human population consumes and to absorb and render harmless the corresponding waste, given prevailing technology and current understanding. Using this assessment, it is possible to estimate how many planet Earths it would take to support humanity if everybody lived a given lifestyle. While the ecological footprint term is widely used,[1] methods of measurement vary quantitatively, but calculation standards are now emerging.[2] In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... Natural resources are commodities that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...

Contents

Ecological footprint analysis

Ecological footprint for different nations compared to their HDI. Recent evidence[citation needed] suggests that improvements in the Human Development Index in most cases generally results in an increase in its ecological footprint.

The first academic publication about the ecological footprint was by William Rees in 1992.[3] The ecological footprint concept and calculation method was developed as the PhD dissertation of Mathis Wackernagel, supervised by Rees at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, from 1990-1994.[4] Originally, they called the concept "appropriated carrying capacity".[5] To make the idea more accessible, Rees came up with the term "ecological footprint," inspired by a computer technician who praised his new computer's "small footprint on the desk."[6][citation needed] In early 1996, Wackernagel and Rees published the book Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth.[7] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (960 × 720 pixels, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Redrawn from by me from the publicly available State of the Environment Report 2007, produced by the Western Australian Government I, the copyright holder of this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (960 × 720 pixels, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Redrawn from by me from the publicly available State of the Environment Report 2007, produced by the Western Australian Government I, the copyright holder of this... William Rees (born December 18, 1943), is a professor at the University of British Columbia and former director of the School of Community and Regional Planning (SCARP) at UBC. Rees has taught at the University of British Columbia since 1969-70. ... Mathis Wackernagel (born November 10, 1962) is a Swiss-born sustainability advocate. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna. ...


Ecological footprint analysis compares human demand on nature with the biosphere's ability to regenerate resources and provide services. It does this by assessing the biologically productive land and marine area required to produce the resources a population consumes and absorb the corresponding waste, using prevailing technology. This approach can also be applied to an activity such as the manufacturing of a product or driving of a car. This resource accounting is similar to life cycle analysis wherein the consumption of energy, biomass (food, fiber), building material, water and other resources are converted into a normalized measure of land area called 'global hectares' (gha). In the context of the energy industry, life cycle analysis refers to the holistic approach of including all tangible and perhaps some intangible costs of energy production from the initial project conception to the final step of returning the land to its original or next use state. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Concrete and metal rebar used to build a floor Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ...


Per capita ecological footprint (EF) is a means of comparing consumption and lifestyles, and checking this against nature's ability to provide for this consumption. The tool can inform policy by examining to what extent a nation uses more (or less) than is available within its territory, or to what extent the nation's lifestyle would be replicable worldwide. The footprint can also be a useful tool to educate people about carrying capacity and over-consumption, with the aim of altering personal behavior. Ecological footprints may be used to argue that many current lifestyles are not sustainable. Such a global comparison also clearly shows the inequalities of resource use on this planet at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The supportable population of an organism, given the food, habitat, water and other necessities available within an ecosystem is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ... Over-consumption is a concept coined in developing nations to counter the rhetoric of over-population by which developed nations judge them as consuming more than their economy can support. ... Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ...


In 2003, the average biologically productive area per person worldwide was approximately 1.8 global hectares (gha) per capita. The U.S. footprint per capita was 9.6 gha, and that of Switzerland was 5.1 gha per person, while China's was 1.6 gha per person.[8] [9] The WWF claims that the human footprint has exceeded the biocapacity (the available supply of natural resources) of the planet by 20%.[10] Wackernagel and Rees originally estimated that the available biological capacity for the 6 billion people on Earth at that time was about 1.3 hectares per person, which is smaller than the 1.8 global hectares because it did not include bioproductive marine areas.[7] For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ...


A number of NGO websites allow estimation of one's ecological footprint (see Footprint Calculator, below). Ecological footprint (EF) analysis is a measure of human demand on the Earths ecosystems and natural resources. ...


Ecological footprinting is now widely used around the globe as an indicator of environmental sustainability.[citation needed] It can be used to measure and manage the use of resources throughout the economy. It can be used to explore the sustainability of individual lifestyles, goods and services, organizations, industry sectors, neighborhoods, cities, regions and nations.[11] Since 2006, a first set of ecological footprint standards exist that detail both communication and calculation procedures. They are available at www.footprintstandards.org and were developed in a public process facilitated by Global Footprint Network and its partner organizations. The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ...


Methodology

The ecological footprint accounting method at the national level is described in the Living Planet Report or in more detail in Global Footprint Network's method paper. The national accounts committee of Global Footprint Network has also published a research agenda on how the method will be improved. [12]


There have been differences in the methodology used by various ecological footprint studies. Examples include how sea area should be counted, how to account for fossil fuels, how to account for nuclear power (many studies simply consider it to have the same ecological footprint as fossil fuels), which data sources used, when average global numbers or local numbers should be used when looking at a specific area, how space for biodiversity should be included, and how imports/exports should be accounted for.[6].[7] However, with the new footprint standards, the methods are converging.[citation needed]


Ecological footprint studies in the United Kingdom

The UK's average ecological footprint is 5.45 global hectares per capita (gha) with variations between regions ranging from 4.80 gha (Wales) to 5.56 gha (East England).[9] Two recent studies have examined relatively low-impact small communities. BedZED, a 96-home mixed-income housing development in South London, was designed by Bill Dunster Architects and sustainability consultants BioRegional for the Peabody Trust. Despite being populated by relatively "mainstream" home-buyers, BedZED was found to have a footprint of 3.20 gha due to on-site renewable energy production, energy-efficient architecture, and an extensive green lifestyles program that included on-site London's first carsharing club. The report did not measure the added footprint of the 15,000 visitors who have toured BedZED since its completion in 2002. Findhorn Ecovillage, a rural intentional community in Moray, Scotland, had a total footprint of 2.56 gha, including both the many guests and visitors who travel to the community to undertake residential courses there and the nearby campus of Cluny Hill College. However, the residents alone have a footprint of 2.71 gha, a little over half the UK national average and one of the lowest ecological footprints of any community measured so far in the industrialised world.[13] Keveral Farm, an organic farming community in Cornwall, was found to have a footprint of 2.4 gha, though with substantial differences in footprints among community members.[14] A global hectare is a measurement defining an area of global average productivity. ... BedZED BedZED or the Beddington Zero Energy Development, is an environmentally-friendly housing development near Beddington, England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Peabody Trust is one of Londons largest and oldest housing associations. ... Carsharing is a system where a fleet of cars (or other vehicles) is owned and operated/overseen by a company, public agency, cooperative, ad hoc grouping, or even a single individual, and made available for use by members of the carshare group in a wide variety of ways. ... Findhorn Ecovillage is based at The Park, in Moray, Scotland near the village of Findhorn[1]. The projects main aim is to demonstrate a sustainable development in environmental, social, and economic terms. ... An intentional community is a planned residential community designed to promote a much higher degree of social interaction than other communities. ... Moray (pronounced Murray, spelled A Moireibh in Gaelic) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... Cluny Hill is a hill on south side of Forres, Scotland. ...


Criticisms and limitations

The approach has been criticized on various grounds. Much cited, early criticisms were published by van den Bergh and Verbruggen in 1999.[15] A more complete review commissioned by the Directorate-General for the Environment (European Commission) and published in June 2008 provides the most updated independent assessment of the method so far.[16]


Grazi et al. (2007) have performed a systematic comparison of the ecological footprint method with spatial welfare analysis that includes environmental externalities, agglomeration effects and trade advantages. [17] They find that the two methods can lead to very distinct, and even opposite, rankings of different spatial patterns of economic activity. However, this should not be surprising, since both methods are answering different research questions.


Calculating the ecological footprint for densely populated areas, such as a city or small country with a comparatively large population — e.g. New York and Singapore respectively — may lead to the perception of these populations as "parasitic". This is because these communities have little intrinsic biocapacity, and instead must rely upon large hinterlands. Critics argue that this is a dubious characterization since mechanized rural farmers in developed nations may easily consume more resources than urban inhabitants, due to transportation requirements and the unavailability of economies of scale. Furthermore, such moral conclusions seem to be an argument for autarky. Some even take this train of thought a step further, claiming that the Fooptrint denies the benefits of trade. Therefore, the critics argue that that the Footprint can only be applied globally.[18] The meaning of hinterland and its history. ... The increase in output from Q to Q2 causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit from C to C1. ... An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ...


The method seems to reward the replacement of original ecosystems with high-productivity agricultural monocultures by assigning a higher biocapacity to such regions. For example, replacing ancient woodlands or tropical forests with monoculture forests or plantations may improve the ecological footprint. Similarly, if organic farming yields were lower than those of conventional methods, this could result in the former being "penalized" with a larger ecological footprint.[19] Of course, this insight, while valid, stems from the idea of using the footprint as one's only metric. If the use of ecological footprints are complemented with other indicators, such as one for biodiversity, the problem could maybe be solved. Indeed, WWF's Living Planet Report complements the biennial Footprint calculations with the Living Planet Index of biodiversity.[20] Manfred Lenzen and Shauna Murray have created a modified Ecological Footprint that takes biodiversity into account for use in Australia [21]. Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... The Living Planet Index (LPI) is an indicator of the state of global biological diversity, based on trends in vertebrate [1] populations of species from around the world. ...


Although the ecological footprint model treats nuclear power the same as it treats coal power, [22] the actual real world effects of the two are radically different. A life cycle analysis centered around the Swedish Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant estimated carbon dioxide emissions at 3.10 g/kWh[23] and 5.05 g/kWh in 2002 for the Torness Nuclear Power Station.[24] This compares to 11 g/kWh for hydroelectric power, 950 g/kWh for installed coal, 900 g/kWh for oil and 600 g/kWh for natural gas generation in the United States in 1999.[25] This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant in Sweden, and also the site of the Swedish Final repository for radioactive operational waste. ... Torness nuclear power station was the last of the United Kingdoms second generation nuclear power plants to be commissioned. ...

The Vattenfall study found Nuclear, Hydro, and Wind to have far less greenhouse emissions than other sources represented.

The Swedish utility Vattenfall did a study of full life cycle emissions of Nuclear, Hydro, Coal, Gas, Solar Cell, Peat and Wind which the utility uses to produce electricity. The net result of the study was that nuclear power produced 3.3 grams of carbon dioxide per KW-Hr of produced power. This compares to 400 for natural gas and 700 for coal (according to this study). The study also concluded that nuclear power produced the smallest amount of CO2 of any of their electricity sources. [26] Vattenfall AB, literally Waterfall, is a Swedish energy company and one of the leading energy producers in Northern Europe. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


Claims exist that the problems of nuclear waste do not come anywhere close to approaching the problems of fossil fuel waste.[27][28] A 2004 article from the BBC states: "The World Health Organization (WHO) says 3 million people are killed worldwide by outdoor air pollution annually from vehicles and industrial emissions, and 1.6 million indoors through using solid fuel."[29] In the U.S. alone, fossil fuel waste kills 20,000 people each year.[30] A coal power plant releases 100 times as much radiation as a nuclear power plant of the same wattage.[31] It is estimated that during 1982, US coal burning released 155 times as much radioactivity into the atmosphere as the Three Mile Island incident.[32] In addition, fossil fuel waste causes global warming, which leads to increased deaths from hurricanes, flooding, and other weather events. The World Nuclear Association provides a comparison of deaths due to accidents among different forms of energy production. In their comparison, deaths per TW-yr of electricity produced from 1970 to 1992 are quoted as 885 for hydropower, 342 for coal, 85 for natural gas, and 8 for nuclear.[33] WHO redirects here. ... Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station consists of two nuclear reactors, each with its own containment building and cooling towers. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... The World Nuclear Association (formerly the Uranium Institute) is a pro-nuclear power organisation which monitors and promotes the use of nuclear power. ...


Although the ecological footprint model treats water as a very scarce resource[34], there are other sources that disagree. A January 17, 2008, article in the Wall Street Journal states, "World-wide, 13,080 desalination plants produce more than 12 billion U.S. gallons (45,000,000 m³) of water a day, according to the International Desalination Association." [35] A March 21, 2008 article in the Las Vegas Sun states that the cost of desalinizing 1,000 gallons of water is only US$3.06. [36] Even people who live far away from the ocean are benefitting from desalination. For example, after being desalinized at Jubail, Saudi Arabia, water is pumped 200 miles inland though a pipeline to the capital city of Riyadh. [37] is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Las Vegas Sun was one of Las Vegas, Nevadas two daily newspapers. ... Location of Jubail, Saudi Arabia. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ...


See also

Sustainable development Portal

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Per capita greenhouse gas emissions A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide.[1] It is meant to be useful for individuals and organizations to conceptualize their personal... Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers humankind as an integral part of its environment. ... Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Dependency theory is a body of social science theories, both from developed and developing nations, that create a worldview which suggests that poor underdeveloped states of the periphery are exploited by wealthy developed nations of the centre, in order to sustain economic... Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that addresses the dynamic and spatial interdependence between human economies and natural ecosystems. ... All text and figures relate to mainland China only, unless stated. ... The economy of India, measured in USD exchange-rate terms, is the twelfth largest in the world, with a GDP of US $1. ... Ecosystem valuation is the pricing or assessment of economic capital asset value to a living ecosystem. ... Nuclear power processes involving the environment; mining, enrichment, waste heat, and geological disposal. ... An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is an assessment of the likely influence a project may have on the environment. ... Henry George Georgism, named after Henry George (1839-1897), is a philosophy and economic ideology that follows from the belief that everyone owns what they create, but everything supplied by nature, most importantly land, belongs equally to all humanity. ... A life cycle assessment (also known as life cycle analysis, life cycle inventory, ecobalance, cradle-to-grave-analysis, well-to-wheel analysis, and dust-to-dust energy cost) is the assessment of the environmental impact of a given product or service throughout its lifespan. ... Limits to Growth was a 1972 book modeling the consequences of a rapidly growing world population and finite resource supplies, commissioned by the Club of Rome. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... The balance of trade encompasses the activity of exports and imports, like the work of this cargo ship going through the Panama Canal. ... Julian L. Simon and Paul Ehrlich entered in a famous wager in 1980, betting on a mutually agreed upon measure of resource scarcity over the decade leading up to 1990. ... The Natural Step is a nonprofit organization founded in Sweden in 1989 by Swedish scientist, Karl-Henrik Robèrt. ... The Population Bomb (1968) is a book written by Paul R. Ehrlich. ... Thomas Robert Malthus FRS (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834),[1] was a political economist and British demographer. ... Broadly, Urban Economics is the economic study of urban areas. ... Natural capital, as described in the book Natural Capitalism, is a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earths biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other ecosystem services. ...

Notes

  1. ^ United Nations Environment Programme UNEP reports. [1]
  2. ^ http://www.footprintstandards.org [2]
  3. ^ Rees, William E. (October 1992). "Ecological footprints and appropriated carrying capacity: what urban economics leaves out". Environment and Urbanisation 4 (2): 121–130. doi:10.1177/095624789200400212. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  4. ^ Wackernagel, M. (1994), Ecological Footprint and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: A Tool for Planning Toward Sustainability. Ph.D. Thesis, School of Community and Regional Planning. The University of British Columbia. Vancouver, Canada.
  5. ^ Wackernagel, Mathis, 1991. "Land Use: Measuring a Community's Appropriated Carrying Capacity as an Indicator for Sustainability;" and "Using Appropriated Carrying Capacity as an Indicator, Measuring the Sustainability of a Community." Report I & II to the UBC Task Force on Healthy and Sustainable Communities, Vancouver.
  6. ^ kamal, firas. (2008). a history
  7. ^ a b Wackernagel, Mathis & Rees, William (1996)"Our Ecological Footprint" (New Society Press)
  8. ^ Living Planet Report 2006 outlines scenarios for humanity's future. Global Footprint Network. Retrieved: 2007-08-15
  9. ^ a b Chambers, N. et al (2004) Scotland’s Footprint. Best Foot Forward. ISBN 0-9546042-0-2.
  10. ^ Global ecosystems 'face collapse' BBC News. Retrieved: 2007-05-18.
  11. ^ Global Footprint Network "Ecological Footprint: Overview." Retrieved on August 1, 2007.
  12. ^ [http://www.brass.cf.ac.uk/uploads/fullpapers/Kitzes_et_al_M65.pdf Justin Kitzes, Alessandro Galli, Marco Bagliani, John Barrett, Gorm Dige, Sharon Ede, Karlheinz Erb, Stefan Giljum, Helmut Haberl, Chris Hails, Sally Jungwirth, Manfred Lenzen, Kevin Lewis, Jonathan Loh, Nadia Marchettini, Hans Messinger, Krista Milne, Richard Moles, Chad Monfreda, Dan Moran, Katsura Nakano, Aili Pyhälä, William Rees, Craig Simmons, Mathis Wackernagel, Yoshihiko Wada, Connor Walsh and Tommy Wiedmann. A Research Agenda for Improving National Ecological Footprint Accounts] Retrieved: 2007-11-11
  13. ^ Tinsley, S. and George, H. (2006) Ecological Footprint of the Findhorn Foundation and Community. Moray. Sustainable Development Research Centre, UHI Millennium Institute.
  14. ^ Radical Routes (2006) How to work out your Ecological Footprint. Leeds. Radical Routes Ltd. Available to order or download on the Radical Routes web site
  15. ^ J.C.J.M. van den Bergh and H. Verbruggen (1999), Spatial sustainability, trade and indicators: an evaluation of the ‘ecological footprint’, Ecological Economics, Vol. 29(1): 63-74.[3][4][5]
  16. ^ Potential of the Ecological Footprint for monitoring environmental impact from natural resource use. Analysis of the potential of the Ecological Footprint and related assessment tools for use in the EU’s Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/natres/studies.htm
  17. ^ F. Grazi, J.C.J.M. van den Bergh and P. Rietveld (2007). Welfare economics versus ecological footprint: modeling agglomeration, externalities and trade. Environmental and Resource Economics 38(1): 135-153.
  18. ^ Planning and Markets: Peter Gordon and Harry W. Richardson
  19. ^ Lenzen, M., C. Borgstrom Hansson and S. Bond (2006) On the bioproductivity and land-disturbance metrics of the Ecological Footprint. University of Sydney, ISA Research Paper, June, 06, in collaboration with WWF. Retrieved: 2007-06-04.
  20. ^ Loh, J., R. Green, T. Ricketts, J. Lamoreux, M. Jenkins, V. Kapos and J. Randers (2005) The Living Planet Index: using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 360, 289–295. Online edition published February, 2005. Retrieved on: August 4, 2007.
  21. ^ Lenzen, Manfred & Murray Shauna A. (2001), "A modified ecological footprint method and its application to Australia" (Ecological Economics 37 (2001) 229–255)
  22. ^ Questions and Answers, Global Footprint Network
  23. ^ Vattenfall 2004, Forsmark EPD for 2002 and SwedPower LCA data 2005.
  24. ^ Energy Analysis of Power Systems accessed 20 October 2007
  25. ^ Electric Power Industry CO2 Emissions accessed 20 October 2007
  26. ^ nuclearinfo.net. Greenhouse Emissions of Nuclear Power
  27. ^ David Bodansky. The Environmental Paradox of Nuclear Power. American Physical Society. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. “(reprinted from Environmental Practice, vol. 3, no. 2 (June 2001), pp.86–88 {Oxford University Press))”
  28. ^ Some Amazing Facts about Nuclear Power (August 2002). Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
  29. ^ Alex Kirby (13 December, 2004,). "Pollution: A life and death issue". BBC News. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
  30. ^ Don Hopey (June 29, 2005). "State sues utility for U.S. pollution violations". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
  31. ^ Alex Gabbard. Coal Combustion: Nuclear Resource or Danger. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
  32. ^ Nuclear proliferation through coal burning — Gordon J. Aubrecht, II, Ohio State University
  33. ^ Safety of Nuclear Power Reactors.
  34. ^ Questions and Answers, Global Footprint Network
  35. ^ [http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120053698876396483.html?mod=googlenews_wsj Wall Street Journal - Water, Water, Everywhere...]
  36. ^ Desalination gets a serious look, Las Vegas Sun, March 21, 2008
  37. ^ Desalination is the Solution to Water Shortages, redOrbit, May 2, 2008

Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ... William Rees (born December 18, 1943), is a professor at the University of British Columbia and former director of the School of Community and Regional Planning (SCARP) at UBC. Rees has taught at the University of British Columbia since 1969-70. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Radical Routes is a United Kingdom based co-operative of co-operatives. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The American Physical Society was founded in 1899 and is the worlds second largest organization of physicists. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, also known simply as the PG, is the largest daily newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. // The paper began publication on July 29, 1786, with the encouragement of Hugh Henry Brackenridge as a four-page weekly, initially called The Gazette. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Rees, W. E. (1992) "Ecological footprints and appropriated carrying capacity: what urban economics leaves out," Environment and Urbanisation. 4(2), Oct. 1992. Available at Sage Journals Online [8]
  • Wackernagel, M. and W. Rees. 1996. Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers. ISBN 0-86571-312-X.
  • Wackernagel, M. (1994), Ecological Footprint and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: A Tool for Planning Toward Sustainability. Ph.D. Thesis. School of Community and Regional Planning. The University of British Columbia.
  • WWF, Global Footprint Network, Zoological Society of London (2006) Living Planet Report 2006. WWF Gland, Switzerland. (downloadable in 11 languages via http://www.footprintnetwork.org/newsletters/gfn_blast_0610.html)
  • Lenzen, M. and Murray, S. A. 2003. 'The Ecological Footprint - Issues and Trends.' ISA Research Paper 01-03
  • Chambers, N., Simmons, C. and Wackernagel, M. (2000), Sharing Nature's Interest: Ecological Footprints as an Indicator of Sustainability. Earthscan, London ISBN 1-85383-739-3 (see also http://www.ecologicalfootprint.com)
  • J.C.J.M. van den Bergh and H. Verbruggen (1999), 'Spatial sustainability, trade and indicators: an evaluation of the ‘ecological footprint’,' Ecological Economics, Vol. 29(1): 63-74.
  • F. Grazi, J.C.J.M. van den Bergh and P. Rietveld (2007). Welfare economics versus ecological footprint: modeling agglomeration, externalities and trade. Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol. 38(1): 135-153.

Further reading

  • Rees, W. E. and M. Wackernagel (1994) Ecological footprints and appropriated carrying capacity: Measuring the natural capital requirements of the human economy, in Jansson, A. et al. Investing in Natural Capital: The Ecological Economics Approach to Sustainability. Washington D.C.:Island Press. ISBN 1559633166

External links

General

  • Global Footprint Network Ecological Footprint : Overview
  • World Overshoot Day Day on which humanity starts consuming more than nature can regenerate in that year.
  • Footprintcalculator.org: an interactive, flash-animated, Footprint calculator for individuals
  • WWF "Living Planet Report", a biannual calculation of national and global footprints
  • Answers to common Footprint questions
  • Big Picture TV Free video clip of Mathis Wackernagel, co-creator of ecological footprint analysis
  • Life Cycle Assessment, introduction
  • Indepdendent directory of service providers, databases, tools for LCA/Carbon footprint and related
  • Best Foot Forward Ecological Footprint experts
  • Ecological Footprint 2.0
  • Ecological Footprint Cartogram
  • UK charity specifically dedicated to sustainable development linked to ecological footprinting.
  • EIME, LCA software, assessment of products environmental footprints(English)

Industrial ecology is the shifting of industrial process from open loop systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes become inputs for new processes. ... Cost-benefit analysis is the process of weighing the total expected costs vs. ... Ecolabel is a labelling system for consumer products (including foods) that are made in fashion to avoid detrimental effects on the environment. ... An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is an assessment of the likely influence a project may have on the environment. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Full cost accounting (FCA) generally refers to the process of collecting and presenting information (costs as well as advantages) for each proposed alternative when a decision is necessary. ... This article is about the economic model, for the computer interface see Input/output An input-output model is widely used in economic forecasting to predict flows between sectors. ... The ISO 14000 environmental management standards exist to help organizations minimize how their operations negatively affect the environment (cause adverse changes to air, water, or land), comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements, and continually improve on the above. ... In the context of the energy industry, life cycle analysis refers to the holistic approach of including all tangible and perhaps some intangible costs of energy production from the initial project conception to the final step of returning the land to its original or next use state. ... A life cycle cost analysis calculates the cost of a system or product over its entire life span. ... It has been suggested that NMVOC be merged into this article or section. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things ( ISBN 0865475873 ) is a 2002 book by German chemist Michael Braungart and architect William McDonough. ... Joyous (talk) July 6, 2005 17:45 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The term eco-efficiency was coined by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) in its 1992 publication Changing Course. It is based on the concept of creating more goods and services while using fewer resources and creating less waste and pollution. ... An eco-industrial park is a type of industrial park in which businesses cooperate with each other and with the local community in an attempt to reduce waste, efficiently share resources (such as information, materials, water, energy, infrastructure, and natural resources), and produce sustainable development, with the intention of increasing... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. ... Exergy is defined differently in different fields of study. ... Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of environmental costs associated with products throughout their life cycles into the market price of the products (OECD 1999). ... Pollution prevention (P2) is a term used to describe a series of techniques that are used to reduce the amount of pollution generated. ... It has been suggested that Polluter Pays be merged into this article or section. ... The precautionary principle is a moral and political principle which states that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public, in the absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the... The waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the 3 Rs reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... Design for Environment is a concept trying to avoid environmental burdens of products, processes and services already in an early stage of the product development. ... Earth systems engineering and management (ESEM) is a discipline used to analyze, design, engineer and manage complex environmental systems. ... Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that addresses the dynamic and spatial interdependence between human economies and natural ecosystems. ... Environmental economics is a subfield of economics concerned with environmental issues (other usages of the term are not uncommon). ... Green chemistry is a chemical philosophy encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. ... Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Oral contraceptives. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Over-consumption is a concept coined in developing nations to counter the rhetoric of over-population by which developed nations judge them as consuming more than their economy can support. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to... Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ... Population biology is a study of biological populations of organisms, especially in terms of biodiversity, evolution, and environmental biology. ... Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ... The phrase one-child policy is commonly used in English to refer to the population control policy (or Planned Birth policy) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Population decline is the reduction over time in a regions census. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – AD 2000. ... Population ecology is a major subfield of ecology—one that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment. ... The supportable population of an organism, given the food, habitat, water and other necessities available within an ecosystem is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ... I=PAT Impact (I) on the natural environment equals the product of population (P), affluence (A) (or per capita income) and technology (T). ... The Malthusian growth model, sometimes called the simple exponential growth model, is essentially exponential growth based on a constant rate of compound interest. ... The World3 model was a computer simulation of interactions between population, industrial growth, food production and limits in the ecosystems of the Earth. ... Subsistence farmers with a Treadle Pump. ... World power usage in terawatts (TW), 1965-2005. ... A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a satirical pamphlet written and published by Jonathan Swift in 1729. ... An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798. ... Operating Manual For Spaceship Earth ( ISBN 0525474331 ) is a short book by R. Buckminster Fuller, first published in 1963. ... How Much Land Does a Man Need? is an 1886 short story by Leo Tolstoy about a man who, in his lust for land, forfeits everything, including his own life. ... Limits to Growth was a 1972 book modeling the consequences of a rapidly growing world population and finite resource supplies, commissioned by the Club of Rome. ... The Population Bomb (1968) is a book written by Paul R. Ehrlich. ... The Ultimate Resource is a 1981 book written by Julian Lincoln Simon challenging the notion that humanity was running out of natural resources. ... The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World (Danish: Verdens Sande Tilstand, literal translation: The Real State of the World) is a controversial book by political scientist Bjørn Lomborg, which argues that claims made about global warming, overpopulation, declining energy resources, deforestation, species loss, water shortages, and... 27 metropolitan areas of at least 10 million people. ... The United Nations coordinated an International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt from 5-13 September 1994. ... The United Nations Fund for Population Activities was started in 1969 and renamed the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 1987. ... The World Population Foundation (WPF) was founded in 1987 in the Netherlands by a British couple Diana and Roy W Brown. ... World Population Day is an annual event, observed on July 11, which seeks to raise awareness of global population issues. ... The United Nations Population Fund designated October 12, 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached six billion. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ecological Footprint (1564 words)
Ecological Footprint looks at the total amount of global hectares that are required to support a particular population, regardless of whether those hectares are within the national borders where that population lives.
Footprint analysis provides a means of assessing the impact of population, affluence (consumption) and technology identified in the The IPAT Equation.
Footprint was used extensivly in last update of the Limits to Growth to give a summary report of human demand on nature.
Ecological footprint - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (774 words)
The phrase "ecological footprint" is a metaphor used to depict the amount of land and water area a human population would hypothetically need to provide the resources required to support itself and to absorb its wastes, given prevailing technology.
Ecological footprint analysis approximates the amount of ecologically productive land and sea area required to sustain a population, manufacture a product, or undertake certain activities, by accounting the use of energy, food, water, building material and other consumables.
Ecological footprints have been used to argue that current lifestyles are not sustainable.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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